|Galmudug State of Somalia
|Motto: "My Home State"|
|Anthem: Qolobaa Calankeed|
Territory of Galmudug (according to )
|•||President||Abdikarim Hussein Guled|
|•||Vice-President||Mohamed Hashi Abdi Arabeey|
|Autonomy within federated Somalia|
|•||Declared||14 August 2006|
17,761 sq mi
|Currency||Somali shilling (SOS)|
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
|•||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+3)|
|Drives on the||right|
|Calling code||+252 (Somalia)|
Galmudug, officially Galmudug State, is an autonomous region in central Somalia. It is bordered to the north by the Puntland region, to the west by Ethiopia, and to the south by other regions of Somalia.
Galmudug's name is derived from a conflation of the names of the Galguduud and Mudug provinces. Unlike the secessionist Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia, Galmudug is not trying to obtain international recognition as a separate nation. It considers itself an autonomous state within the larger Federal Republic of Somalia, as defined by the provisional constitution of Somalia.
Galmudug is the most centrally located area in Somalia. It is situated about 750 km from Mogadishu, Hargeisa, Bosaso and Harar in Ethiopia. The region is bordered to the east by the Indian Ocean, to the west by Ethiopia, to the north by the Nugaal region of Puntland, and to the south by the Hiran region.
On August 14, 2006, the autonomous Galmudug region was established. Mohamed Warsame Ali 'Kiimiko' was elected as the new administration's President, and the southern portion of Galkayo was declared the new polity's capital.
The appellation Galmudug is a conflation of Galguduud and Mudug, although Galmudug only includes the southern part of the Mudug province.
Relations between Galmudug and the Puntland region to its immediate north have historically been tense. However, the two regions gradually made strides toward strengthening inter-regional relations. To this end, representatives of the two autonomous administrations signed an accord on February 2011 in Garowe, the capital of Puntland, wherein both governments officially agreed to cooperate on security, economic and social matters.
On 1 August 2012, Galmudug's 25-seat parliament elected General Abdi Hasan Awale (Qaybdiid) as the region's new president. He replaced former president Mohamed Ahmed Aalin, who was receiving medical treatment abroad. Qaybdiid had obtained 22 votes versus 1 vote for the other candidate, Abdisamad Nur Guled. Qaybdiid was subsequently sworn in as Galmudug President in a ceremony in Galkayo marking the 6th anniversary since the establishment of the Galmudug administration. During his inauguration speech, Qaybdiid reiterated his pre-election promises to firm up on regional security, expand his administration's control to areas that had not been covered by the regional authority, and foster relations with neighbouring regional states and national bodies.
As of 2013, Galmudug's official status as a federal state is in the process of being finalized. Qaybdiid's administration has asserted that Galmudug meets the requirements for official state status, as outlined in the federal constitution. As of April 2013[update], the federal authorities have not accepted this claim. Article 49 of the Provisional Federal Constitution, which oversees the establishment of the Federal Republic of Somalia's constituent states, stipulates that "based on a voluntary decision, two or more regions may merge to form a Federal Member State". Since Galmudug only includes part of the official Mudug region, the federal Interior Minister Abdikarim Guled has urged the local Galmudug authorities to merge with other would be states, including Himan and Heeb, to form one unitary state consisting of two or more regions, in accordance with the constitution.
On 30 July 2014, the Federal Government of Somalia officially endorsed a new Central Regions State, following a signed agreement in Mogadishu between representatives from Galmudug, Himan and Heeb, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a. The formalization ceremony for the new federal state was held at the Villa Somalia presidential compound and was presided over by President of Somalia Hassan Sheikh Mohamud and Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, with UN, EU, AU, IGAD and AMISOM envoys also in attendance. According to the Prime Minister's office, the Federal Government appointed a ministerial committee to guide the formation of the new state. It also organized a number of consultative meetings with the regional representatives, with each party eventually agreeing to establish a new administration in the Mudug and Galguduud regions. Additionally, the Central Regions State will be subject to the Provisional Federal Constitution.
On 31 July 2014, the autonomous Puntland regional administration in northeastern Somalia issued a statement rejecting the Central Regions State agreement on the grounds that it contravened certain clauses and articles in the Provisional Federal Constitution and breached Puntland's jurisdiction over the northern part of the Mudug province. The Puntland Council of Ministers led by Puntland President Abdiweli Mohamed Ali further expressed dismay over sponsorship of and attendance during the agreement by representatives of the central government and the international community, respectively. It also suspended relations with the Mogadishu authorities, and recalled Puntland's representatives serving in the Federal Parliament, Federal Cabinet and Federal Constitutional Review Committee to the Puntland state capital of Garowe for consultations.
On 9 August 2014, the UN, EU and IGAD envoys for Somalia issued a joint statement assuring the Puntland administration that the new central state of Somalia would not include any territory under Puntland jurisdiction. According to the officials, federal government representatives and signatories had indicated prior to the signing of the central state agreement that the pact would only apply to Galguduud and Galmudug, while North Mudug would remain an integral part of Puntland state. On 24 August 2014, Federal Parliament Speaker Mohamed Osman Jawari announced that Federal MPs hailing from Puntland had begun brokering negotiations between the federal government and the Puntland regional administration.
On 14 October 2014, a three-day conference in Garowe concluded with a 12-point agreement between the Federal Government and Puntland authorities, which stipulates that the earlier Central Regions State pact between the Galmudug and Himan and Heeb regional administrations only applies to the Galguduud and south Mudug provinces.
On 25 December 2014, ahead of a state formation conference in Adado, the Federal Government appointed six committees to oversee the establishment of the prospective Central Somalia regional state. The steering bodies include a technical committee facilitating the creation of Central State, which is chaired by Halimo Ismail Ibrahim; a constitution committee, which is chaired by Abdinoor Moalim Mohamud; a reconciliation committee tasked with solving of differences and selection of delegates, which is chaired by Sheikh Omar Mohamud Mahad; a security, protocol and supervision committee, which is chaired by Uke Haji Abdirahman; a mobilization committee, which is chaired by Abdullahi Abdi Abdille; and a committee of accommodation of delegates and guests of honour, which is chaired by Dahir Hassan Guutaale.
In late March 2015, President Mohamud and Dhusamareb traditional elders began talks over a possible relocation of the Adado conference to Dhusamareb. Mohamud preferred holding the summit in Adado, whereas the traditional elders favored Dhusamareb for security-related reasons and because the town had already recently hosted smaller reconciliation meetings.
In April 2015, during consultative talks with local politicians and traditional elders, President Mohamud officially announced that Dhusamareb was slated to be the administrative capital of the Central State. On 16 April, President Mohamud officially launched the Central State formation conference in Adado. The summit was attended by Federal Cabinet ministers and MPs, state formation technical committee Chairperson Halima Ismael, UN Special Envoy to Somalia Ambassador Nicholas Kay, IGAD Special Ambassador Mohamed Abdi Afey, Ambassador of Turkey Olgen Bakar and Uganda Special Envoy Nathan Mugisha. According to Mohamud, traditional leaders are now tasked with selecting 510 delegates, who will then elect a new regional president within two weeks.
As of 2014, the autonomous Galmudug region's government is led by a President, Abdi Hasan Awale (Qaybdiid). He in turn has the power to appoint and dismiss Cabinet members. In April 2014, President Awale named a new twelve-member Cabinet.
Additionally, the Galmudug administration appoints Governors for each of its constituent provinces. The Governor for the southern, Galmudug-administered portion of the Mudug province is Awes Ali Said.
In November 2014, the Galmudug regional administration in conjunction with the federal Ministry of Interior and the U.S. Tess Agency laid down the foundation for a new government center within its jurisdiction in southern Galkayo. The fourth such local project, the initiative follows the establishment of a new presidential office, social services center and football stadium.
In April 2015, the Galmudug administration launched a campaign to dig sewages and drainages in the suburbs of southern Galkayo under its jurisdiction. Galmudug municipal and police officials in the process also began clearing illicit structures and buildings to make way for the new collection and disposal systems.
Educational institutions in the Galmudug region are largely in the private sector. In March 2015, the Galmudug administration announced that it is slated to open free schools in the regional state. According to the Galmudug Minister for Education Mohamed Haashi Dhalo-Dhalo, the local government will finance the appointment of teachers to the new institutions. The federal Ministry of Education is also scheduled to launch a number of additional educational projects in the region.
Universities and colleges in Galmudug include Mudug University in South Galkayo.
Galmudug State occupies the following Districts of Somalia (by region):
- Gawaan Dheere
- Raas Cabaad
- Baraag Ciise
- Cel Dhanaane
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