A game farm is a place where game animals are raised to stock wildlife areas for hunting. The term also includes places where such animals are raised to be sold as food or for photography. Their existence has been exemplified within the South African countryside where they have become prevalent. The wildlife that is hunted is used for consumption as well for ecotourism.  Local laws in South Africa during the 20th century have allowed the private ownership of wildlife, which has enabled the expansion and economic feasibility of game farms over typical livestock farming.
Wildlife conservation is a costly endeavor for most African countries. One of the more common forms of generating income to establish a sustainable economy to provide for wildlife conservation is known as wildlife viewing tourism. However, this attraction still does not generate enough to establish wildlife conservation. For regions that suffer political and economic instability; sustainable trophy hunting may be the only feasible source of income in order to generate the appropriate income. Once established, another aspect to consider is the management of the land being used for hunting. Naturally, wildlife decreases with the increase of human presence which puts a strain on the quality of hunting. Generally, leases for hunting concessions are set up to last for multiple years all at once in order to encourage hunting operators to continue to manage the land for hunting. However, as the quality of hunting decreases, leases are shortened and this creates an overall negative impact to the economy.
Using game hunting as a conservation tool has negative perceptions that impose harsh restrictions across several different countries in Africa. Some of the activities that promote hunting bans include canned hunting, shooting young or uncommon animals, shooting from vehicles, use of bait, spotlights and hounds are all hunting practices that bring into question many ethical problems.
Furthermore, on an international level, there are ethical issues such as the hunting and killing of Cecil the Lion. An American doctor by the name of Walter James Palmer, of Eden Prairie, Minnesota, killed Cecil the Lion during a hunting trip in Zimbabwe. This news made international headlines as Cecil the Lion was a participant in a study that was being conducted by Oxford University in Britain, Cecil had also been outfitted with a GPS collar for this study. Eventually, Palmer was not charged in the slaying of Cecil due to his hunting permit and has been allowed back in the country exclusively as a visitor.
- Ingersoll 1920.
- Cheng, Selina (30 April 2017). "Love wildlife photos? There's a good chance they weren't shot in the wild". Quartz (publication). Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- Pitman, Ross T; Fattebert, Julien; Williams, Samual T; Williams, Kathryn S; Hill, Russell A; Hunter, Luke T B; Slotow, Rob; Balme, Guy A (July 2016). "The Conservation Costs of Game Ranching". Conservation Letters. doi:10.1111/conl.12276.
- Hart, Adam. "Conservation versus profit: South Africa's 'unique' game offer a sobering lesson". The Conversation. Retrieved 2019-03-10.
- Ngubane, Mnqobi; Brooks, Shirley (July 2013). "Land beneficiaries as game farmers: conservation, land reform and the invention of the 'community game farm' in KwaZulu-Natal". Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 31 (3): 399–420. doi:10.1080/02589001.2013.811790. ISSN 0258-9001.
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