Gamification is the application of game-design elements and game principles in non-game contexts. Gamification is based off an idea called flow, that is mental state of operation in which the person performing the activity is completely immersed in a feeling of energized focus and enjoyment, in the process of doing that activity. Gamification commonly employs game design elements which are used in non-game contexts to improve user engagement, organizational productivity, flow, learning, crowdsourcing, employee recruitment and evaluation, ease of use, usefulness of systems, physical exercise, traffic violations, voter apathy, and more. A collection of research on gamification shows that a majority of studies on gamification find it has positive effects on individuals. However, individual and contextual differences exist. Gamification can also improve an individual's ability to comprehend digital content and understand a certain area of study such as music.
|Gamification: Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivators, Enterprise Gamification educational video|
The gamification techniques are intended to leverage people's natural desires for socializing, learning, mastery, competition, achievement, status, self-expression, altruism, or closure, or simply their response to the framing of a situation as game or play. Early gamification strategies use rewards for players who accomplish desired tasks or competition to engage players. Types of rewards include points, achievement badges or levels, the filling of a progress bar, or providing the user with virtual currency. Making the rewards for accomplishing tasks visible to other players or providing leader boards are ways of encouraging players to compete. Potential consequences of competition can result from unethical behavior, low cooperation and collaboration, or from disadvantaging certain player demographics such as women. For this reason, some gamification designs try to refrain from using this element.
Another approach to gamification is to make existing tasks feel more like games. Some techniques used in this approach include adding meaningful choice, onboarding with a tutorial, increasing challenge, and adding narrative.
Gamification has been widely applied in marketing. Over 70% of Forbes Global 2000 companies surveyed in 2013 said they planned to use gamification for the purposes of marketing and customer retention. For example, in November 2011 Australian broadcast and online media partnership Yahoo!7 launched its Fango mobile app/SAP, which TV viewers use to interact with shows via techniques like check-ins and badges. As of February 2012, the app had been downloaded more than 200,000 times since its launch. Gamification has also been used in customer loyalty programmes. In 2010, Starbucks gave custom Foursquare badges to people who checked in at multiple locations and offered discounts to people who checked in most frequently at an individual store.
Gamification has also been used as a tool for customer engagement, and for encouraging desirable website usage behavior. Additionally, gamification is applicable to increasing engagement on sites built on social network services. For example, in August 2010, one site, DevHub, announced that they have increased the number of users who completed their online tasks from 10% to 80% after adding gamification elements. On the programming question-and-answer site Stack Overflow users receive points and/or badges for performing a variety of actions, including spreading links to questions and answers via Facebook and Twitter. A large number of different badges are available, and when a user's reputation points exceed various thresholds, he or she gains additional privileges, eventually including moderator privileges.
Gamification can be used for ideation (structured brainstorming to produce new ideas). A study at MIT Sloan found that ideation games helped participants generate more and better ideas, and compared it to gauging the influence of academic papers by the numbers of citations received in subsequent research.
Applications like Fitocracy and QUENTIQ use gamification to encourage their users to exercise more effectively and improve their overall health. Users are awarded varying numbers of points for activities they perform in their workouts and gain levels based on points collected. Users can also complete quests (sets of related activities) and gain achievement badges for fitness milestones. Health Month adds aspects of social gaming by allowing successful users to restore points to users who have failed to meet certain goals. Public health researchers have studied the use of gamification in self-management of chronic diseases and common mental disorders, STD prevention, and infection prevention and control.
In a review of health apps in the 2014 Apple App Store, over 100 apps showed a positive correlation between gamification elements used and high user ratings. myfitnesspal was named as the app that used the highest amount of gamification elements.
Reviewers of the popular location-based game Pokémon Go praised the game enabling the promotion of physical exercise. Terri Schwartz (IGN) said it was "secretly the best exercise app out there" and that it changed her daily walking routine. Patrick Allen (Lifehacker) wrote an article with tips about how to work out using Pokémon Go. Julia Belluz (Vox) said it could be the "greatest unintentional health fad ever" and wrote that one of the results of the game that the developers may not have realized was that "it seems to be getting people moving". According to a study users took an extra 194 steps per day once they started using the app, which approximated to 26% more than usual. Ingress is a similar game that also requires a player to be physically active. Zombies, Run! is a game in which the player is trying to survive a zombie apocalypse through a series of missions during which they have to (physically) run, collect items to help the town survive and listen to various audio narrations to uncover mysteries. Mobile, context-sensitive serious games for sports and health have been called exergames.
Gamification has been used in an attempt to improve employee productivity, health care, financial services, transportation, government, and others. In general, enterprise gamification refers to work situations where "game thinking and game-based tools are used in a strategic manner to integrate with existing business processes or information systems. And these techniques are used to help drive positive employee and organizational outcomes."
Crowdsourcing has been gamified in games like Foldit, a game designed by the University of Washington, in which players compete to manipulate proteins into more efficient structures. A 2010 paper in science journal Nature credited Foldit's 57,000 players with providing useful results that matched or outperformed algorithmically computed solutions. The ESP Game is a game that is used to generate image metadata. Google Image Labeler is a version of the ESP Game that Google has licensed to generate its own image metadata. Research from the University of Bonn used gamification to increase wiki contributions by 62%.
|Gamification by Kevin Werbach, University of Pennsylvania with Coursera, online course preview|
Education and training are areas where there has been interest in gamification. Microsoft released the game Ribbon Hero 2 as an add-on to their Office productivity suite to help train people to use it effectively, which was described by Microsoft as one of the most popular projects its Office Labs division ever released. The New York City Department of Education with funding from the MacArthur Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has set up a school called Quest to Learn centred around game-based learning, with the intent to make education more engaging and relevant to modern kids. SAP has used games to educate their employees on sustainability. The US military and Unilever have also used gamification in their training. The Khan Academy is an example of the use of gamification techniques in online education. In August 2009, Gbanga launched the educational location-based game Gbanga Zooh for Zurich Zoo that asked participants to actively save endangered animals and physically bring them back to a zoo. Players maintained virtual habitats across the Canton of Zurich to attract and collect endangered species of animals. There is some indication that gamification can be particularly motivational for students with dyslexia in educational situations.
Politics and terrorist groups
Alix Levine, an American security consultant, described gamification as some techniques that a number of extremist websites such as Stormfront and various terrorism-related sites used to build loyalty and participation. As an example, Levine mentioned reputation scores.
The Chinese government is planning to use gamification to rate their citizens. By 2020, China hopes to implement a "social credit" system, in which citizens will be given points that represent their trustworthiness. Details of this project are still quite vague, yet it is understood that citizens will receive points for good behavior, such as making payments on time.
Traditionally, researchers thought of motivations to use computer systems to be primarily driven by extrinsic purposes; however, many modern systems have their use driven primarily by intrinsic motivations. Examples of such systems used primarily to fulfill users' intrinsic motivations, include online gaming, virtual worlds, online shopping, learning/education, online dating, digital music repositories, social networking, online pornography, and so on. Such systems are excellent candidates for further 'gamification' in their design. Moreover, even traditional management information systems (e.g., ERP, CRM) are being 'gamified' such that both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations must increasingly be considered.
As illustration, Microsoft has announced plans to use gamification techniques for its Windows Phone 7 operating system design. While businesses face the challenges of creating motivating gameplay strategies, what makes for effective gamification is a key question.
One important type of technological design in gamification is the player centered design. Based on the design methodology user-centered design, its main goal is to promote greater connectivity and positive behavior change between technological consumers. It has five steps that help computer users connect with other people online to help them accomplish goals and other tasks they need to complete. The 5 steps are: an individual or company has to know their player (their target audience), identify their mission (their goal), understand human motivation (the personality, desires, and triggers of the target audience), apply mechanics (points, badges, leaderboards, etc.), and to manage, monitor, and measure the way they are using their mechanics to ensure it is helping them achieve the desired outcome of their goal and that their goal is specific and realistic.
Gamification has also been applied to authentication. For example, the possibilities of using a game like Guitar Hero can help someone learn a password implicitly. Furthermore, games have been explored as a way to learn new and complicated passwords. It is suggested that these games could be used to "level up" a password, thereby improving its strength over time. Gamification has also been proposed as a way to select and manage archives. Recently, an Australian technology company called Wynbox has recorded success in the application of its gamification engine to the hotel booking process.
Though the term "gamification" was coined in 2002 by Nick Pelling, a British-born computer programmer and inventor, it did not gain popularity until 2010. Even prior to the term coming into use, other fields borrowing elements from videogames was common; for example, some work in learning disabilities and scientific visualization adapted elements from videogames.
The term "gamification" first gained widespread usage in 2010, in a more specific sense referring to incorporation of social/reward aspects of games into software. The technique captured the attention of venture capitalists, one of whom said he considered gamification the most promising area in gaming. Another observed that half of all companies seeking funding for consumer software applications mentioned game design in their presentations.
Several researchers consider gamification closely related to earlier work on adapting game-design elements and techniques to non-game contexts. Deterding et al. survey research in human–computer interaction that uses game-derived elements for motivation and interface design, and Nelson argues for a connection to both the Soviet concept of socialist competition, and the American management trend of "fun at work". Fuchs points out that gamification might be driven by new forms of ludic interfaces. Gamification conferences have also retroactively incorporated simulation; e.g. Will Wright, designer of the 1989 video game SimCity, was the keynote speaker at the gamification conference Gsummit 2013.
In addition to companies that use the technique, a number of businesses created gamification platforms. In October 2007, Bunchball, backed by Adobe Systems Incorporated, was the first company to provide game mechanics as a service, on Dunder Mifflin Infinity, the community site for the NBC TV show The Office. Bunchball customers have included Playboy, Chiquita, Bravo, and The USA Network. In June 2009 a Seattle-based startup called BigDoor was founded, providing gamification technology to non-gaming websites. Badgeville, which offers gamification services, launched in late 2010, and raised $15 million in venture-capital funding in its first year of operation. In 2011, Playlyfe was launched which started offering gamification as a service to individual developers and enterprises.
Through gamification's growing adoption and its nature as a data aggregator, multiple legal restrictions may apply to gamification. Some refer to the use of virtual currencies and virtual assets, data privacy laws and data protection, or labour laws.
The use of virtual currencies, in contrast to traditional payment systems, is not regulated. The legal uncertainty surrounding the virtual currency schemes might constitute a challenge for public authorities, as these schemes can be used by criminals, fraudsters and money launderers to perform their illegal activities.
University of Hamburg researcher Sebastian Deterding has characterized the initial popular strategies for gamification as not being fun and creating an artificial sense of achievement. He also says that gamification can encourage unintended behaviours.
In a review of 132 of the top health and fitness apps in the Apple app store, in 2014, using gamification as a method to modify behavior, the authors concluded that "Despite the inclusion of at least some components of gamification, the mean scores of integration of gamification components were still below 50 percent. This was also true for the inclusion of game elements and the use of health behavior theory constructs, thus showing a lack of following any clear industry standard of effective gaming, gamification, or behavioral theory in health and fitness apps."
Concern was also expressed in a 2016 study analyzing outcome data from 1298 users who competed in gamified and incentivized exercise challenges while wearing wearable devices. In that study the authors conjectured that data may be highly skewed by cohorts of already healthy users, rather than the intended audiences of participants requiring behavioral intervention.
Game designers like Jon Radoff and Margaret Robertson have also criticized gamification as excluding elements like storytelling and experiences and using simple reward systems in place of true game mechanics.
Gamification practitioners have pointed out that while the initial popular designs were in fact mostly relying on simplistic reward approach, even those led to significant improvements in short-term engagement. This was supported by the first comprehensive study in 2014, which concluded that an increase in gamification elements correlated with an increase in motivation score, but not with capacity or opportunity/trigger scores.
The same study called for standardization across the app industry on gamification principles to improve the effectiveness of health apps on the health outcomes of users.
MIT Professor Kevin Slavin has described business research into gamification as flawed and misleading for those unfamiliar with gaming. Heather Chaplin, writing in Slate, describes gamification as "an allegedly populist idea that actually benefits corporate interests over those of ordinary people". Jane McGonigal has distanced her work from the label "gamification", listing rewards outside of gameplay as the central idea of gamification and distinguishing game applications where the gameplay itself is the reward under the term "gameful design".
"Gamification" as a term has also been criticized. Ian Bogost has referred to the term as a marketing fad and suggested "exploitation-ware" as a more suitable name for the games used in marketing. Other opinions on the terminology criticism have made the case why the term gamification makes sense.
Fuchs et al. investigated historical predecessors to today's gamification that go back to the 18th century.
- Huotari, K., & Hamari, J. (2012). "Defining Gamification – A Service Marketing Perspective" (PDF). Proceedings of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference 2012, Tampere, Finland, October 3–5.
- Sebastian Deterding; Dan Dixon; Rilla Khaled; Lennart Nacke (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining "gamification". Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference. pp. 9–15. doi:10.1145/2181037.2181040.
- Hamari, Juho; Koivisto, Jonna; Sarsa, Harri (2014). "Does Gamification Work? – A Literature Review of Empirical Studies on Gamification". Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA, January 6–9: 3025. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2014.377. ISBN 978-1-4799-2504-9.
- "Gamification Design Elements". Enterprise-Gamification.com. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I. & Pitt, L. (2015). "Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification". Business Horizons. 58 (4): 411–420. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2015.03.006.
- Hamari, Juho (2013). "Transforming Homo Economicus into Homo Ludens: A Field Experiment on Gamification in a Utilitarian Peer-To-Peer Trading Service". Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. 12 (4): 236–245. doi:10.1016/j.elerap.2013.01.004.
- Hamari, Juho (2015). "Do badges increase user activity? A field experiment on the effects of gamification". Computers in Human Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.036.
- Ruhi, Umar (2015-01-01). "Level Up Your Strategy: Towards a Descriptive Framework for Meaningful Enterprise Gamification". Technology Innovation Management Review. 5 (8). ISSN 1927-0321.
- Zichermann, Gabe; Cunningham, Christopher (August 2011). "Introduction". Gamification by Design: Implementing Game Mechanics in Web and Mobile Apps (1st ed.). Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly Media. p. xiv. ISBN 1-4493-1539-9. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2014). "Measuring Flow in Gamification: Dispositional Flow Scale-2". Computers in Human Behavior. 40: 133–134. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.07.048.
- Philipp Herzig; Susanne Strahringer; Michael Ameling (2012). Gamification of ERP Systems-Exploring Gamification Effects on User Acceptance Constructs (PDF). Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik 2012 (MKWI'12). pp. 793–804.
- Hamari, J., Shernoff, D. J., Rowe, E., Coller. B., Asbell-Clarke, J., & Edwards, T. (2014). "Challenging games help students learn: An empirical study on engagement, flow and immersion in game-based learning". Computers in Human Behavior. 54: 133–134. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.045.
- Scott, Michael; Ghinea, Gheorghita (6 March 2013). Integrating Fantasy Role-Play into the Programming Lab: Exploring the 'Projective Identity' Hypothesis (pdf). Proceedings of the 44th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education. ACM. pp. 119–122. doi:10.1145/2445196.2445237. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- Scott, Michael; Ghinea, Gheorghita; Arachchilage, Nalin (7 July 2014). Assessing the Role of Conceptual Knowledge in an Anti-Phishing Educational Game (pdf). Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. IEEE. p. 218. doi:10.1109/ICALT.2014.70. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- Herger, Mario (July 17, 2014). "Gamification Facts & Figures". Enterprise-Gamification.com.
- Morschheuser, Benedikt; Hamari, Juho; Koivisto, Jonna (2016). "Gamification in crowdsourcing: A review". Proceedings of the 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA, January 5–8: 4375. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2016.543. ISBN 978-0-7695-5670-3.
- Hamari, Juho; Koivisto, Jonna (2015). "Why do people use gamification services?". International Journal of Information Management. 35 (4): 419–431. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.04.006.
- Philipp Herzig (2014). Gamification as a Service (Ph.D.).
- Hamari, Juho; Koivisto, Jonna (2015). ""Working out for likes": An empirical study on social influence in exercise gamification". Computers in Human Behavior. 50: 333–347. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.04.018.
- "The Speed Camera Lottery". TheFunTheory. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
- "Rethinking Elections With Gamification". HuffingtonPost. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
- Koivisto, Jonna; Hamari, Juho (2015). "Demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification". Computers in Human Behavior. 35: 179–188. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.03.007.
- Horachek, David (March 2014). Creating eLearning Games with Unity. Packt Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84969-343-1.
- "Gamification: Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivators". Enterprise Gamification. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Lieberoth, A. (2015) Shallow Gamification, Testing Psychological Effects of Framing an Activity as a Game, Games and Culture Vol 10, Issue 3, pp. 229 - 248 DOI: 10.1177/1555412014559978
- Sutter, John D. (September 30, 2010). "Browse the Web, earn points and prizes". CNN.
- Hamari, Juho; Eranti, Veikko (2011). "Framework for Designing and Evaluating Game Achievements" (PDF). Proceedings of Digra 2011 Conference: Think Design Play, Hilversum, Netherlands, September: 14–17.
- O'Brien, Chris (October 24, 2010). "Get ready for the decade of gamification". San Jose Mercury News.
- Byron Reeves; J. Leighton Read (2009). Total Engagement: Using Games and Virtual Worlds to Change the Way People Work and Businesses Compete. Harvard Business Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-4221-4657-6.
- diverse. "Competition". Enterprise Gamification Wiki.
- Deterding, Sebastian (28 September 2010). "Just Add Points? What UX Can (and Cannot) Learn From Games". UX Camp Europe. Retrieved 12 February 2013.Joel Falconer. "UserInfuser: open source gamification platform". The Next Web.
- Jane McGonigal Read (2011). Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change The World. Penguin Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-59420-285-8.
- Van Grove, Jennifer (28 July 2011). "Gamification: How Competition Is Reinventing Business, Marketing & Everyday Life". Mashable. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "FANGO delivers on Social TV". Impulse Gamer. 11 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- Kleinberg, Adam (18 July 2011). "HOW TO: Gamify Your Marketing". Mashable. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Daniels, Matt (September 23, 2010). "Businesses need to get in the game". Marketing Week.
- Takahashi, Dean (August 25, 2010). "Website builder DevHub gets users hooked by "gamifying" its service". VentureBeat.
- Toubia, Olivier (October 2006). "Idea Generation, Creativity, and Incentives" (PDF). Marketing Science.
- Jeffries, Adrianne (16 September 2011). "The Fitocrats: How Two Nerds Turned an Addiction to Videogames Into an Addiction to Fitness". The New York Observer. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- AlMarshedi, Alaa; Wills, Gary; Ranchhod, Ashok (2016-09-09). "Gamifying Self-Management of Chronic Illnesses: A Mixed-Methods Study". JMIR serious games. 4 (2): e14. doi:10.2196/games.5943. PMC . PMID 27612632.
- Brown, Menna; O'Neill, Noelle; van Woerden, Hugo; Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Jones, Matt; John, Ann (2016-08-24). "Gamification and Adherence to Web-Based Mental Health Interventions: A Systematic Review". JMIR mental health. 3 (3): e39. doi:10.2196/mental.5710. PMC . PMID 27558893.
- Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Musumari, Patou; El-Saaidi, Christina; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S. Pilar; Ono Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro (2016-11-22). "Efficacy of Mobile Serious Games in Increasing HIV Risk Perception in Swaziland: A Randomized Control Trial (SGprev Trial) Research Protocol". JMIR research protocols. 5 (4): e224. doi:10.2196/resprot.6543. PMC . PMID 27876685.
- Gabarron, Elia; Schopf, Thomas; Serrano, J. Artur; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Dorronzoro, Enrique (2013-01-01). "Gamification strategy on prevention of STDs for youth". Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 192: 1066. ISSN 0926-9630. PMID 23920840.
- Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Kyratsis, Yiannis; Iwami, Michiyo; Rawson, Timothy M.; Holmes, Alison H. (2016-01-01). "Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions". Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. 5: 34. doi:10.1186/s13756-016-0137-0. PMC . PMID 27777755.
- Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Cannon, Ben; Sax, Tyler; Brodegard, David (2014-08-04). "Just a Fad? Gamification in Health and Fitness Apps". JMIR Serious Games. 2 (2): e9. doi:10.2196/games.3413. PMC . PMID 25654660.
- Schwartz, Terri (July 8, 2016). "Pokemon Go is Secretly the Best Exercise App out there". IGN. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Allen, Patrick (July 12, 2016). "The Pokémon Go Interval Training Workout". Lifehacker. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on July 14, 2016. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
- Belluz, Julia. "Pokémon Go may be the greatest unintentional health fad ever". Vox. Archived from the original on 2016-07-14.
- McFarland, Matt (October 12, 2016). "Pokemon Go could add 2.83 million years to users' lives". CNN Money. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- "Urban Exergames: How Architects and Serious Gaming Researchers Collaborate on the Design of Digital Games that Make You Move" (PDF). Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Thomas, Owen (October 5, 2010). "Should you run your business like a game?". Venture Beat.
- Huling, Ray (March 25, 2010). "Gamification: Turning Work Into Play". H Plus Magazine.
- Mangalindan, JP (September 3, 2010). "Play to win: The game-based economy". Fortune.
- John Markoff (10 August 2010). "In a Video Game, Tackling the Complexities of Protein Folding". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Saini, Angela (2008-05-14). "Solving the web's image problem". bbc. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- Dencheva, Silviya; Prause, Christian R.; Prinz, Wolfgang (2011). "Dynamic Self-moderation in a Corporate Wiki to Improve Participation and Contribution Quality". ECSCW 2011: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 24-28 September 2011, Aarhus Denmark (PDF). Springer. p. 1. doi:10.1007/978-0-85729-913-0_1. ISBN 978-0-85729-912-3.
- "Gamification by Kevin Werbach". University of Pennsylvania/Coursera. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "The Gamification of Education". Knewton.
- Simone de Sousa Borges; Vinicius H. S. Durelli; Helena Macedo Reis; Seiji Isotani (2014). A systematic mapping on gamification applied to education. Proceedings of the 29th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC '14). pp. 216–222. doi:10.1145/2554850.2554956.
- Fallows, James (28 April 2011). "The Return of Clippy". The Atlantic. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Office Labs: Ribbon Hero 2". Microsoft. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Sara Corbett (15 September 2010). "Learning by Playing: Video Games in the Classroom". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Herger, Mario (Oct 28, 2011). "Enterprise Gamification — Sustainability examples". Enterprise-Gamification.com.
- Shantanu Sinha (February 14, 2012). "Motivating Students and the Gamification of Learning". Huffington Post.
- Lüssi, M: Elefanten und Tiger per Handy retten, 20 Minuten AG, 2009.
- Gooch, Daniel; Vasalou, Asimina; Benton, Laura; Khaled, Rilla (2016-01-01). "Using Gamification to Motivate Students with Dyslexia". Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. CHI '16. New York, NY, USA: ACM: 969–980. doi:10.1145/2858036.2858231. ISBN 978-1-4503-3362-7.
- Jarret Brachman; Alix Levine (April 13, 2010). "The World of Holy Warcraft:How al Qaeda is using online game theory to recruit the masses.". Foreign Policy.
- Ungerleider, Neal (April 22, 2011). "Welcome To JihadVille". Fast Company.
- Hatton, Celia (26 October 2015). "China 'social credit': Beijing sets up huge system" – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- Benjamin Lowry, Paul; Gaskin, James; Twyman, Nathan W.; Hammer, Bryan; Roberts, Tom L. (2013). "Taking 'fun and games' seriously: Proposing the hedonic-motivation system adoption model (HMSAM)". Journal of the Association for Information Systems. 14 (11): 617–671.
- Dignan, Larry (September 30, 2010). "Will the gamification of Windows Phone 7 set it apart?". ZDnet.
- Dennis L. Kappen; Lennart E. Nacke (2013). The Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification: Deconstructing Gamification in Business Applications. Proceedings of Gamification '13. pp. 119–122. doi:10.1145/2583008.2583029.
- "Five Steps to Enterprise Gamification | UX Magazine". uxmag.com. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
- Jim Giles (19 July 2012). "The password you can use without knowing it?". New Scientist.
- Christien Kroeze (16 August 2012). "Gamifying authentication". IEEE Conference Proceedings.
- Grace, Lindsay. "Gamifying Archives, A Study of Docugames as a Preservation Medium". Computer Games (CGAMES), 2011 16th International Conference on. IEEE Press. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Hurley, Ben (May 16, 2013). "Everyone loves winning: how Rydges used gamification to double sales". afr.com. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
- Marczewski, Andrzej (April 2012). Gamification: A Simple Introduction (1st ed.). p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4717-9866-5. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "Gamification at Google Trends". Google Trends. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Zichermann, Gabe; Cunningham, Christopher (August 2011). "Preface". Gamification by Design: Implementing Game Mechanics in Web and Mobile Apps (1st ed.). Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly Media. pp. ix, 208. ISBN 1-4493-1539-9. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
Gamification may be a new term
- Adelman; Lauber; Nelson; Smith (April 1989). "Toward a Procedure for Minimizing and Detecting False Positive Diagnoses of Learning Disability". The Journal of Learning Disabilities. 22 (4): 234–244. doi:10.1177/002221948902200407.
- Theresa-Marie Rhyne (October 2000). The impact of computer games on scientific & information visualization (panel session): "if you can't beat them, join them". IEEE Visualization 2000. IEEE Computer Society. pp. 519–521. ISBN 1-58113-309-X. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- JP Mangalindan (2010-09-03). "Play to win: The game-based economy". Fortune (magazine). Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Sinanian, Michael (April 12, 2010). "The ultimate healthcare reform could be fun and games". Venture Beat.
- Mark J. Nelson (2012). Soviet and American precursors to the gamification of work (PDF). Proceedings of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference. pp. 23–26.
- Fuchs, Mathias (2012). "Ludic interfaces. Driver and product of gamification". GAME, vol. 1, 2012 – ALL OF US, PLAYERS. Bologna, Italy: The Italian Journal of Game Studies, Ass.ne Culturale Ludica, Bologna, Via V.Veneto. ISSN 2280-7705.
- "gsummit 2013 Why Atten". Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "Bunchball.com". Bunchball.
- Taylor, Colleen (May 2, 2011). "For Startups, Timing Is Everything — Just Ask Bunchball". The New York Times.
- Carless, Simon (September 17, 2008). "AGDC: Paharia, Andrade On Making Dunder Mifflin Infinity". Gamasutra.
- "Bunchball Sees Huge Growth in Gamification and Doubles Customer Base in a Year". Bunchball.
- Woodward, Curt (August 8, 2011). "Gamification Startup BigDoor Media Levels Up to Bigger Digs". Xconomy.
- Feld, Brad (October 14, 2010). "Unknown". MIT Technology Review.
- Cook, John (October 14, 2010). "BigDoor brings badges, points and more to Web sites". Puget Sound Business Journal.
- "Badgeville Raises $12 Million, Celebrates With An Infographic". TechCrunch. July 12, 2011.
- Krishnamurthy, Krithika (5 June 2015). "Playlyfe: the invisible platform that powers gamification in enterprises". newspaper. ET Tech. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "For the game of life, gamification is the new mantra – The Economic Times". Retrieved 2015-06-09.
- Herger, Mario (July 27, 2011). "OINK OINK! Welcome to the SAP Gamification Cup!". Enterprise-Gamification.com.
- Herger, Mario (November 2, 2011). "Gamified Manufacturing". Enterprise-Gamification.com.
- Silverman, Rachel (Nov 2, 2011). "Latest Game Theory: Mixing Work and Play — Companies Adopt gaming Techniques to Motivate Employees". Wallstreet Journal.
- Beitz, Mike (July 12, 2013). "'UW Stratford campus to host international gamification conference', by Mike Betz". thebeaconherald.com.
- Herger, Mario (Jan 4, 2012). "Gamification and Law or How to stay out of Prison despite Gamification". Enterprise-Gamification.com.
- "Virtual Currency Schemes" (PDF). European Central Bank. Oct 2012.
- John Pavlus (November 4, 2010). "Reasons Why "Gamification" is Played Out". Fast Company.
- "Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity". JMIR Serious Games. 4: e1. doi:10.2196/games.5358.
- Jon Radoff (February 16, 2011). "Gamification". Radoff.com.
- Margaret Robertson. "Can't Play Won't Play". Hideandseek.net.
- Zichermann, Gabe. "Lies, Damned Lies and Academics". Gamification.co.
- Herger, Mario. "Gamification is Bullshit? The academic tea-party-blog of gamification". Enterprise-Gamification.com.
- Herger, Mario. "Gamification facts & Figures". Enterprise-Gamification.com.
- Michie, Susan; Stralen, Maartje M van; West, Robert (2011-04-23). "The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions". Implementation Science. 6 (1): 42. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-6-42. PMC . PMID 21513547.
- Slavin, Kevin (June 9, 2011). "In a World Filled With Sloppy Thinking".
- Chaplin, Heather (March 29, 2011). "I Don't Want To Be a Superhero".
- McGonigal, Jane. "How To Reinvent Reality Without Gamification". GDC.
- Bogost, Ian. "Persuasive Games: Exploitationware". Gamasutra.
- Herger, Mario. "About the Term Gamification: Why I Hate It AND Why I Love It". Enterprise-Gamification.com.
- Fuchs, Mathias; Fizek, Sonia; Ruffino, Paolo; Schrape, Niklas, eds. (2014). Rethinking Gamification. meson-press. ISBN 978-3-95796-000-9.
Further reading (books)
- Shiralkar, Shreekant W (2016). IT Through Experiential Learning. ISBN 978-1-4842-2420-5.
- Gabe Zichermann; Christopher Cunningham (2011). Gamification by Design: Implementing Game Mechanics in Web and Mobile Apps. Auflage: O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-1-4493-9767-8.
- Mario Herger (2014). Enterprise Gamification – Engaging people by letting them have fun (Vol. 01). EGC Media. ISBN 978-1-4700-0064-6.
- Adam L. Pennenberg (2013). Play At Work – How games Inspire Breakthrough Thinking. Portfolio Penguin. ISBN 978-1-59184-479-2.
- Janaki Kumar; Mario Herger (2013). Gamification At Work. Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN 978-87-92964-07-6.
- Kevin Werbach; Dan Hunter (2012). For The Win – How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize Your Business. Wharton Digital Press. ISBN 978-1-61363-023-5.
- Gabe Zichermann; Joselin Linder (2013). The Gamification Revolution – How Leaders Leverage Game Mechanics to Crush the Competition. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-180831-6.
- Mario Herger (2015). Gamification in Healthcare & Fitness (Vol. 07). EGC Media. ISBN 978-1-5028-5609-8.
- Michael Hugos (2012). Enterprise Games – Using Game Mechanics to Build a Better Business. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 978-1-4493-1956-4.
- Brian Burke (2014). Gamify: How Gamification Motivates People to Do Extraordinary Things. Bibliomotion. ISBN 978-1-937134-85-3.
- Karl M. Kapp; Lucas Blair; Rich Mesch (2013). The Gamification of Learning and Instruction Fieldbook: Ideas into Practice. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-67724-7.
- Mathias Fuchs; Sonia Fizek; Paolo Ruffino; Niklas Schrape, eds. (2014). Rethinking Gamification. Lüneburg: meson press. ISBN 978-3-95796-000-9.
- Steffen P. Walz; Sebastian Deterding, eds. (2015). The Gameful World: Approaches, Issues, Applications. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-02800-4.
- Jane McGonigal (2015). SuperBetter: A Revolutionary Approach to Getting Stronger, Happier, Braver and More Resilient. Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0-670-06954-5.
- Yu-kai Chou (2015). Actionable Gamification: Beyond Points, Badges, and Leaderboards. Octalysis Media. ISBN 978-1-5117-4404-1.
- Andrzej Marczewski (2015). Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play: Gamification, Game Thinking and Motivational Design. CreateSpace Independent Publishing. ISBN 978-1-5147-4566-3.
- Sehr, H. Cecilia. Evaluation and Credentialing in Digital Music Communities: Benefits and Challenges for Learning and Assessment. ISBN 978-0-262-52714-9.
- Boulton, Jima. 100 Ideas that Changed the Web. ISBN 978-1-78067-370-7.
- Horachek, David (2014). Creating eLearning Games with Unity. Packt Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84969-343-1.
- Sebastian Deterding (January 24, 2011). "Meaningful Play: Getting Gamification Right". YouTube video of a Google Tech Talk.
- Hall, Macie (May 13, 2014). "What is Gamification and Why Use It in Teaching?" - Johns Hopkins University
- Sara Wykes (2013). "Stanford-designed game teaches surgical decision-making".