||This article has an unclear citation style. Learn how and when to remove this template message) (October 2015) (|
|Region||Central northern New South Wales|
|Extinct||"recently extinct" as of 2007|
|Revival||37 speak mixed Gamilaraay–English (2006 census)|
Wirray Wirray (Wiriwiri)
A map of the tribes of New South Wales, published in 1892. Gamilaraay is marked I.
The Gamilaraay or Kamilaroi (see below for other spellings) language is a Pama–Nyungan language of the Wiradhuric subgroup found mostly in south-east Australia. It was the traditional language of the Kamilaroi people, but is now moribund—according to Ethnologue, there were only 35 speakers left in 2006, all mixing Gamilaraay and English. However, there are thousands of people of mixed descent both within the native populations as well as immigrant populations, who identify themselves as Kamilaroi. Kamilaroi is also taught in some Australian schools.
The name Gamilaraay means gamil-having, gamil being the word for "no". Other dialects and languages are similarly named after their respective words for "no". (Compare the division between Langue d'oïl and Langue d'oc in France, distinguished by their respective words for "yes".) "yaama" means "hello".
|This section requires expansion. (June 2008)|
- Yuwaaliyaay (Euahlayi)
- Wirray Wirray (Wiriwiri)
Southern Aboriginal guides led the surveyor John Howe to the upper Hunter River above present-day Singleton in 1819. They told him that the country there was "Coomery Roy [=Gamilaraay] and more further a great way", meaning to the north-west, over the Liverpool Range (see O'Rourke 1997: 29). This is probably the first record of the name.
A basic wordlist collected by Major Thomas Mitchell in February, 1832 is the earliest written record of Gamilaraay.
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|High||i [i], ii [iː]||u [u], uu [uː]|
|Low||a [a], aa [aː]|
/wa/ is realized as [wo].
|Stop||b||ɡ||dy [ɟ]||dh [d̪]||d|
|Nasal||m||ng [ŋ]||ny [ɲ]||nh [n̪]||n|
|Rhotic||rr [r]||r [ɻ]|
Initially, /wu/ and /ji/ may be simplified to [u] and [i].
All long vowels in a word get equal stress. If there are no long vowels, stress falls on the first syllable.
Secondary stress falls on short vowels which are two syllables to the right or to the left of a stressed syllable.
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Gamilaraay words in English
|bindi-eye, bindii, bindies||bindayaa||The burrs of several plant species that stick in one's feet.|
|brolga||burralga||A bird species, Grus rubicunda.|
|possibly budgerigar||gidjirrigaa||A bird species, Melopsittacus undulatus.|
|galah||gilaa||A bird species, Eolophus roseicapilla|
|Kamilaroi||gamilaraay||The Gamilaraay people or language.|
|Boggabilla||bagaaybila||full of creeks|
|Collarenebri||galariinbaraay||having acacia blossoms|
- Gamilaraay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- There is quite some confusion over the names Wirray Wirray, Wiriyarray, and Wirraayarray. See AIATSIS:Wirray Wirray
- Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge University Press. p. xxxiv.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Gamilaraay". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Gamilaraay at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
- "Gamilaraay". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Austin, Peter (1993). A Reference Dictionary of Gamilaraay, northern New South Wales. La Trobe University.
- Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47378-0. ISBN 978-0-521-47378-1.
- Mathews, R. H. (Jul–Dec 1903). "Languages of the Kamilaroi and Other Aboriginal Tribes of New South Wales". The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 33. 33: 259–283. doi:10.2307/2842812. JSTOR 2842812.
- O'Rourke, Michael. "The Kamilaroi Lands. Canberra, 1997".
- Ridley, William (1856). "On the Kamilaroi Tribe of Australians and Their Dialect". Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1848-1856), Vol. 4. 4: 285–293. doi:10.2307/3014109. JSTOR 3014109.
- Ash, Anna et al. Gamilaraay, Yuwaaaraay and Yuwaalayaay Dictionary. Alice Springs: IAD Press 2003.
- Parker, K. Langloh (1905). The Euahlayi Tribe: A Study of Aboriginal Life in Australia. London: Archibald Constable and Company.
- http://yuwaalaraay.org/ has information about recent Gamilaraay and Yuwaalaraay language development and links to numerous language resources.
- The Gamilaraay (Kamilaroi) Language, northern New South Wales — A Brief History of Research (PDF)
- Gutenberg Project Browse By Language: Gamilaraay
- Online dictionary
- Gamilaraay Online dictionary by Peter Austin and David Nathan
- A Reference Grammar of Gamilaraay
- Bibliographies of published, rare or special materials on Gamilaraay language and people, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
- Bibliographies of published, rare or special materials on Yuwaalaraay language and people, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies