Gamma Doradus variable

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Gamma Doradus variables are variable stars which display variations in luminosity due to non-radial pulsations of their surface. The stars are typically young, early F or late A type main sequence stars, and typical brightness fluctuations are 0.1 magnitudes with periods on the order of one day. This class of variable stars is relatively new, having been first characterized in the second half of the 1990s, and details on the underlying physical cause of the variations remains under investigation.

The star 9 Aurigae was first noticed to be variable in 1990. However, none of the currently-accepted explanations were adequate: it pulsated too slowly and was outside of the Delta Scuti instability strip, and there was no evidence for any eclipsing material, although Gamma Doradus and HD 96008 were noted to be similar.[1] These three stars, as well as HD 224638, were soon hypothesized to belong to a new class of variable stars in which variability was produced by g-mode pulsations rather than the p-mode pulsations of Delta Scuti variables.[2] HD 224945 and HD 164615 were noticed to be similar as well, while HD 96008 was ruled out on the basis of its more regular period.[3] Eclipses and starspots were soon ruled out as the cause of the Gamma Doradus' variability,[4] and the variability of 9 Aurigae was confirmed to be caused by g-mode pulsations a year later, thus confirming the stars as the prototypes of a new class of variable stars.[5] Over ten more candidates were quickly found,[6] and the discovers dubbed the group the Gamma Doradus stars, after the brightest member and the first member found to be variable.[7]

List[edit]

Designation (name)[8] Constellation Discovery Maximum Apparent magnitude (mV)[9] Minimum Apparent magnitude (mV)[9] Period (days)[8] Spectral class Comment
HD 8801 A
(V529 And)
Andromeda Henry & Fekel (2005)[10] 6m.48
(Hipparcos)
6m.51
(Hipparcos)
0.40331 A7Vm First discovered hybrid Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti variable[10]
V872 Ara[11] Ara Aerts et al (1998)[11] 6m.37
(Hipparcos)
6m.39
(Hipparcos)
0.4266 A9V
9 Aur A Auriga Krisciunas (1993)[2] 4m.93 5m.50 1.2582 F2V One of the original stars classified[5]
17 CVn Canes Venatici Henry et al (2011)[8] 5m.91 0.8862 F0:V Spectroscopic binary; unclear which component is variable
HD 108100
(DD CVn)
Canes Venatici Breger et al (1996)[12] 7m.15 0.7541 F2V
V350 CMa A Canis Major Eyer & Aerts (2000)[13] 6m.18 6m.27 0.7750
10.959
F2V Has two distinct periods
V1026 Cen[11] Centaurus Aerts et al (1998)[11] 9m.33
(Hipparcos)
9m.38
(Hipparcos)
1.1857 A3:m
HD 17163 Cetus Henry et al (2011)[8] 6m.04 0.42351 F1V
HD 14940[11]
(EP Cet)
Cetus Aerts et al (1998)[11] 6m.74 6m.77 0.5004 F0IV/V
43 Cyg Cygnus Henry et al (2005)[14] 5m.75
(Hipparcos)
5m.84
(Hipparcos)
0.79955 F0V
γ Dor Dorado Krisciunas (1993)[2] 4m.23 4m.27 0.7570 F1V One of the original stars classified[5]
8 Dra Draco Aerts et al (1998)[11] 5m.26
(Hipparcos)
5m.34
(Hipparcos)
0.42450 F1VmA7(n)
DI Gru[11] Grus Aerts et al (1998)[11] 8m.68 8m.76 0.8668 F3IV
V1325 Her Hercules Kaye et al (1998)[15] 6m.38 0.4210 F0V
80 Leo Leo Henry & Fekel (2002)[16] 6m.34 6m.37 0.45286 F3IV
HD 40745
(AC Lep)
Lepus Aerts et al (1998)[11] 6m.28
(Hipparcos)
6m.30
(Hipparcos)
0.82427 F2IV
HD 69682 Lynx Henry et al (2011)[8] 6m.50 0.53189 A9V
DO Lyn Lynx Kaye et al (1999)[17] 7m.17 0.62447 F0V
HD 50747[18] Monoceros Dolez et al (2009)[18] 5m.45 4.865
0.956
A4IV Triple star; unknown which component is variable
HD 49434 Monoceros Bruntt et al (2002)[19] 5m.75 0.57644 F1V Hybrid Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti variable[20]
HD 41547 A Monoceros Henry et al (2007)[21] 5m.87 0.81123 F4V
α Oph[22]
(Rasalhague)
Ophiuchus Monnier et al (2010)[22] 2m.08 0.5850 A5IV Hybrid Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti variable
73 Oph A Ophiuchus Fekel & Henry (2003)[23] 6m.11 (B) 0.61439 F0V+G1V
HD 164615
(V2118 Oph)
Ophiuchus Mantegazza et al (1994)[3] 7m.02 7m.09 0.8117 F2IV One of the original stars classified
V2502 Oph Ophiuchus Aerts et al (1998)[11] 6m.57 6m.67 1.307 F2V
HD 38309 Aa Orion Henry et al (2011)[8] 6m.09 0.37703 F0III:n
NZ Peg Pegasus Henry et al (2001)[24] 5m.83
(Hipparcos)
5m.86
(Hipparcos)
0.41113 F2V
HR 8799
(V342 Peg)
Pegasus Rodriguez & Zerbi (1995)[25] 6m.00
(Hipparcos)
6m.06
(Hipparcos)
0.5053 A5V Lambda Boötis star and Vega-like star[26]
V372 Peg Pegasus Kaye et al (1998)[15] 6m.53 (B) 2.594821 F3V
39 Peg Pegasus Henry et al (2005)[14] 6m.43 6m.53 0.75574 F1V
HD 224638
(BT Psc)
Pisces Krisciunas (1993)[2] 7m.8 (B) 1.2323 F0V One of the original stars classified[5]
HD 224945
(BU Psc)
Pisces Mantegazza et al (1994)[3] 6m.93 0.5432 A9V One of the original stars classified[5]
QW Pup Puppis Poretti et al (1997)[27] 4m.47 4m.50 0.9584 F0IV/V
ι TrA A Triangulum Australe Aerts et al (1998)[11] 5m.30
(Hipparcos)
5m.42
(Hipparcos)
1.4556 F4IV
EE Tuc[11] Tucana Aerts et al (1998)[11] 6m.72
(Hipparcos)
6m.82
(Hipparcos)
0.6935 F2IV
V349 Tel[11] Telescopium Aerts et al (1998)[11] 7m.60
(Hipparcos)
7m.73
(Hipparcos)
0.6953 F0V
KO UMa Ursa Major Kaye et al (1999)[17] 7m.18 0.7691 F2V
UY UMi[11] Ursa Minor Aerts et al (1998)[11] 6m.30
(Hipparcos)
6m.38
(Hipparcos)
0.7237 F2V
VX UMi Ursa Minor Henry et al (2001)[24] 6m.48 (B) 0.34510 A9V

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Krisciunas, K.; Aspin, C.; Geballe, T. R.; Akazawa, H.; Claver, C. F.; Guinan, E. F.; Landis, H. J.; Luedeke, K. D.; Ohkura, N.; Ohshima, O.; Skillman, D. R. (1993). "The 9-AURIGAE System". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 263 (3): 781. arXiv:astro-ph/9304008. Bibcode:1993MNRAS.263..781K. doi:10.1093/mnras/263.3.781. 
  2. ^ a b c d Krisciunas, K. (1993). "A new class of pulsating stars". American Astronomical Society 183: #84.02. Bibcode:1993AAS...183.8402K. 
  3. ^ a b c Mantegazza, L.; Poretti, E.; Zerbi, F. M. (1994). "Unusual Variability among Early F-Type Stars - HD224638 and HD224945". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 270 (2): 439. Bibcode:1994MNRAS.270..439M. doi:10.1093/mnras/270.2.439. 
  4. ^ Balona, L. A.; Krisciunas, K.; Cousins, A. W. J. (1994). "Gamma-Doradus - Evidence for a New Class of Pulsating Star". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 270 (4): 905. Bibcode:1994MNRAS.270..905B. doi:10.1093/mnras/270.4.905. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Krisciunas, K.; Griffin, R. F.; Guinan, E. F.; Luedeke, K. D.; McCook, G. P. (1995). "9 Aurigae: Strong evidence for non-radial pulsations". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 273: 662. arXiv:astro-ph/9407094. Bibcode:1995MNRAS.273..662K. doi:10.1093/mnras/273.3.662 (inactive 2016-01-20). 
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  9. ^ a b Samus, N. N.; Durlevich, O. V.; et al. (2009). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: General Catalogue of Variable Stars (Samus+ 2007-2013)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog: B/gcvs. Originally published in: 2009yCat....102025S 1: 02025. Bibcode:2009yCat....102025S. 
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  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Aerts, C.; Eyer, L.; Kestens, E. (1998). "The discovery of new gamma Doradus stars from the HIPPARCOS mission". Astronomy and Astrophysics 337: 790. Bibcode:1998A&A...337..790A. 
  12. ^ Breger, M.; Handler, G.; Garrido, R.; Audard, N.; Beichbuchner, F.; Zima, W.; Paparo, M.; Li, Z.; Jiang, S.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, A.; Pikall, H.; Stankov, A.; Guzik, J. A.; Sperl, M.; Krzesinski, J.; Ogloza, W.; Pajdosz, G.; Zola, S.; Serkowitsch, E.; Reegen, P.; Rumpf, T.; Schmalwieser, A. (1996). "A new Gamma Doradus star, HD 108100". Delta Scuti Star Newsletter 10: 24. Bibcode:1996DSSN...10...24B. 
  13. ^ Eyer, L.; Aerts, C. (2000). "A search for new gamma Doradus stars in the Geneva photometric database". Astronomy and Astrophysics 361: 201. arXiv:astro-ph/0011061. Bibcode:2000A&A...361..201E. 
  14. ^ a b Henry, Gregory W.; Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Stephen M. (2005). "Eleven New γ Doradus Stars". The Astronomical Journal 129 (6): 2815–2830. Bibcode:2005AJ....129.2815H. doi:10.1086/429876. 
  15. ^ a b Kaye, A. B.; Bagnuolo, W. G.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W. (1998). "Recent Periodic Variations in Three Gamma Doradus Variables". A Half Century of Stellar Pulsation Interpretation: A Tribute to Arthur N. Cox 135: 497. Bibcode:1998ASPC..135..497K. 
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  23. ^ Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W. (2003). "The Orbit and Pulsation Periods of the γ Doradus Variable HR 6844 (V2502 Ophiuchi)". The Astronomical Journal 125 (4): 2156–2162. Bibcode:2003AJ....125.2156F. doi:10.1086/368121. 
  24. ^ a b Henry, Gregory W.; Fekel, Francis C.; Kaye, Anthony B.; Kaul, Ann (2001). "10 New γ Doradus and δ Scuti Stars". The Astronomical Journal 122 (6): 3383–3395. Bibcode:2001AJ....122.3383H. doi:10.1086/324228. 
  25. ^ Rodriguez, E.; Zerbi, F. M. (1995). "A long period early F-type variable: HR8799". Information Bulletin on Variable Stars 4170: 1. Bibcode:1995IBVS.4170....1R. 
  26. ^ Gray, Richard O.; Kaye, Anthony B. (1999). "HR 8799: A Link between γ Doradus Variables and λ Bootis Stars". The Astronomical Journal 118 (6): 2993–2996. Bibcode:1999AJ....118.2993G. doi:10.1086/301134. 
  27. ^ Poretti, E.; Koen, C.; Martinez, P.; Breuer, F.; Haupt, H.; De Alwis, D. (1997). "Discovery and analysis of Gamma Doradus type pulsations in the F0 IV star HR 2740=QW PUP". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 292 (3): 621. Bibcode:1997MNRAS.292..621P. doi:10.1093/mnras/292.3.621.