Gammaproteobacteria

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Gammaproteobacteria
Vibrio cholerae.jpg
Vibrio cholerae
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Orders

Gammaproteobacteria are a class of several medically, ecologically, and scientifically important groups of bacteria. An exceeding number of important pathogens belong to this class. Like all Proteobacteria, the Gammaproteobacteria are Gram-negative.

Significance[edit]

The Gammaproteobacteria comprise several medically and scientifically important groups of bacteria, such as the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae. A number of important pathogens belong to this class, e.g. Salmonella spp. (enteritis and typhoid fever), Yersinia pestis (plague), Vibrio cholerae (cholera), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (lung infections in hospitalized or cystic fibrosis patients), and Escherichia coli (food poisoning). Important plant pathogens such as Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (citrus canker) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (kiwifruit Psa outbreak) are also Gammaproteobacteria. Members of Chromatium are photosynthetic and oxidize hydrogen sulfide instead of water, producing sulfur as a waste product. Some Gammaproteobacteria are methane oxidizers, and many are symbiotic with geothermic ocean vent-dwelling animals.[1]

Phylogeny[edit]

Due to a single genus, Acidithiobacillus, the Gammaproteobacteria class is paraphyletic to Betaproteobacteria (reviewed in Proteobacteria#Taxonomy).

Phylogeny of Gammaproteobacteria

Acidithiobacillus




Betaproteobacteria




Xanthomonadales




Chromatiales



Methylococcus



Beggiatoa




Legionellales



RuthiaVesicomyosociusThiomicrospiraDichelobacterFrancisella





MoraxellaceaeAlcalinovorax




Saccharophagus, Reinekea




Oceanospirillaceae




Marinobacter



Pseudomonadaceae








PseudoalteromonadaceaeAlteromonasIdiomarinaceae




Shewanellaceae




Psychromonadaceae




Aeromonas




Vibrionales




Pasteurellales



Enterobacteriales













Phylogeny of Gammaproteobacteria after[2] Not all orders are monophyletic, consequently families or genera are shown for Pseudomonadales, Oceanospirillales, and Alteromonadales. In the case of singleton orders, the genus is shown. (In bacterial taxonomy, orders have the suffix -ales, while families have -aceae.)

A number of bacteria have been described as members of Gammaproteobacteria, but have not yet been assigned an order or family. These include bacteria of the genera Alkalimarinus, Alkalimonas, Arenicella, Gallaecimonas, Ignatzschineria, Litorivivens, Marinicella, Methylohalomonas, Methylonatrum, Plasticicumulans, Pseudohongiella, Sedimenticola, Thiohalobacter, Thiohalomonas, Thiohalorhabdus, Thiolapillus, and Wohlfahrtiimonas.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://comenius.susqu.edu/biol/202/EUBACTERIA/PROTEOBACTERIAE/gammaproteobacteria-frame.htm
  2. ^ Williams, K. P.; Gillespie, J. J.; Sobral, B. W. S.; Nordberg, E. K.; Snyder, E. E.; Shallom, J. M.; Dickerman, A. W. (2010). "Phylogeny of Gammaproteobacteria". Journal of Bacteriology. 192 (9): 2305–2314. doi:10.1128/JB.01480-09. PMC 2863478Freely accessible. PMID 20207755. 
  3. ^ "Classification of domains and phyla - Hierarchical classification of prokaryotes (bacteria) - Gammaproteobacteria". List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 

External links[edit]