Gammaretrovirus

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Gammaretrovirus
Virus classification
Group: Group VI (ssRNA-RT)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Retroviridae
Subfamily: Orthoretrovirinae
Genus: Gammaretrovirus
Type species
Murine leukemia virus
species[2]

Mammalian virus group

Feline leukemia virus
Gibbon ape leukemia virus
Guinea pig type-C oncovirus
Porcine type-C oncovirus
Murine leukemia virus
Woolly monkey sarcoma virus

Reptilian virus group

Viper retrovirus

Avian (Reticuloendotheliosis) virus group

Chick syncytial virus
Reticuloendotheliosis virus
Spleen necrosis virus

(Human) recombinant virus group

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus[1]

A gammaretrovirus is a genus of the retroviridae family. Example species are the murine leukemia virus and the feline leukemia virus. They cause various sarcomas, leukemias and immune deficiencies in mammals, reptiles and birds.[3]

Many endogenous retroviruses, closely related to exogenous gammaretroviruses, are present in the DNA of mammals (including humans), birds, reptiles and amphibians.[4][citation needed]

Many of the Gammaretroviruses share a conserved RNA structural element called a core encapsidation signal.[5]

One gammaretrovirus, Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), is a recombinant virus created in a laboratory accident in the mid-1990s. It is known to infect human tissue, but no known disease is associated with the infection.[6][7][8]

The avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses (REVs) are not strictly avian viruses - it now appears that REVs are mammalian viruses that were accidentally introduced into birds in the 1930s during research on malaria.[9]

As a potential vector for gene therapy, gammaretrovirus has some advantages over HIV as a lentiviral vector. Specifically the gammaretroviral packaging system does not require the incorporation of any sequences overlapping with coding sequences of gag, pol or accessory gene.[10]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Urisman, A.; Molinaro, R.J.; Fischer, N.; Plummer, S.J.; Casey, G.; Klein, E.A.; Malathi, K.; Magi-Galluzzi, C.; Tubbs, R. R.; Ganem, D. (2006). "Identification of a novel Gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant". PLoS Pathog. 2 (3). 
  2. ^ http://ictvonline.org/virusTaxonomy.asp Genus gammaretrovirus
  3. ^ Murphy, Frederick A.; Gibbs, E.; Horzinek, Marian; Studdert, Michael (1999). Veterinary virology (3rd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. p. 364. ISBN 9780080552033. 
  4. ^ Hu, L (June 2006). "Expression of human endogenous gammaretroviral sequences in endometriosis and ovarian cancer". AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 22 (6): 551–7. PMID 16796530. 
  5. ^ D'Souza V, Dey A, Habib D, Summers MF (2004). "NMR structure of the 101-nucleotide core encapsidation signal of the Moloney murine leukemia virus.". J Mol Biol. 337 (2): 427–42. PMID 15003457. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.01.037. 
  6. ^ "Origins of XMRV deciphered, undermining claims for a role in human disease", National Cancer Institute (NCI), 31 May 2011, retrieved 16 November 2015 
  7. ^ "NCI's Vinay K. Pathak on the "De-Discovery" of a Retrovirus-Disease Link", Science Watch, Fast Breaking Papers, 2012, retrieved 16 November 2015 
  8. ^ Paprotka, Tobias; Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista A.; Cingöz, Oya; Martinez, Anthony; Hsing-Jien, Kung; Tepper,, Clifford G.; Wei-Shau, Hu; Fivash Jr., Matthew J.; Coffin,, John M.; Pathak,, Vinay K. (1 July 2011). "Recombinant origin of the retrovirus XMRV". Science. 333 (6038): 97–101. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.1205292. Retrieved 16 November 2015.  via EBSCO login
  9. ^ Niewiadomska, AM; Gifford, RJ (2013). "The extraordinary evolutionary history of the reticuloendotheliosis viruses.". PLOS Biology. 11 (8): e1001642. PMC 3754887Freely accessible. PMID 24013706. 
  10. ^ Maetzig T, Galla M, Baum C, Schambach A (2011). "Gammaretroviral vectors: biology, technology and application". Viruses. 3 (6): 677–713. PMC 3185771Freely accessible. PMID 21994751. doi:10.3390/v3060677.