Ganda Iso

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Ganda Iso
Participant in Tuareg rebellion (1990–95)
2012 insurgency in northern Mali
Active 2009–present
Leaders Seydou Cissé
Amadou Diallo
Area of operations Mali
Size 1,300 (July 2012)[1]
Originated as Ganda Koy
Allies  Mali
Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa
Opponents National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad[2]

Ganda Iso, or Ganda Izo, meaning "Sons of Land", is a paramilitary group which emerged in Northern Mali in the early 21st century and has been active during the 2012 Northern Mali Conflict.

Formation[edit]

The Ganda Koy movement was founded in May 1994, by Seydou Cissé, as a response to rising tensions between Tuaregs and sedentary black tribes of the Gao Region, in northern Mali. Ganda Koy fighters were recruited among Songhai, Bambara, Fulani, Bozo and Tuareg-Bella tribesmen.[3] [2]

Ganda Koy immediately rejected the “National Pact” for peace signed in April 1992.The movement then embraced a racist anti-Tuareg ideology, in response to what it perceived as Tuareg oppression.[3]

Ganda Koy later transformed into Ganda Iso, which is seen as its direct successor.[4][2]

Touareg Conflict[edit]

In 1994, Ganda Koy actions amounted to 60-300 deaths.[3]

In 2008, a Ganda Iso military leader, Sergeant Amadou Diallo, conducted a "broad daylight massacre" where four Tuareg civilians were killed. This resulted in a split between Diallo and the civilian leadership of the movement.[4]

Amadou Diallo was reportedly killed in Ansongo, in a battle against MNLA rebels on 25 March 2012.[4]

On 1 September 2012, the town of Douentza, in the Mopti Region, until then controlled by Ganda Iso, is taken without violence by the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mali's Self-Defense Militias Take the Reconquest of the North Into Their Own Hands Refworld.org (Jamestown Foundation), 10 August 2012
  2. ^ a b c Mahjar-Barducci, Anna (6 July 2012). "MNLA: The Fight For A Secular State Of Azawad – Part II: Fighting Terror In The Sahel". Inquiry & Analysis Series Report No.854. Middle East Media Research Institute. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "OECD Report" (PDF). 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c McGregor, Andrew (20 April 2012). ""The Sons of the Land": Tribal Challenges to the Tuareg Conquest of Northern Mali". Terrorism Monitor Volume: 10 Issue: 8. Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  5. ^ "Mali: des islamistes à la lisière Nord-Sud". Le Figaro. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013.