Gang rape occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim. Rape involving at least two or more violators (typically at least three) is widely reported to occur throughout the world. Systematic information on the extent of the problem, however, is scant.
One study showed that offenders and victims in gang rape incidents were younger with a higher possibility of being unemployed. Gang rapes involved more alcohol and drug use, night attacks and severe sexual assault outcomes and less victim resistance and fewer weapons than individual rapes. Another study found that group sexual assaults were more violent and had greater resistance from the victim than individual sexual assaults and that victims of group sexual assaults were more likely to seek crisis and police services, to contemplate suicide and seek therapy than those involved in individual assaults. The two groups were about the same in the amount of drug use and drinking during the assault.
Gang rape is sometimes referred to as "group rape", "party rape", or "multiple perpetrator rape" in scholarly literature.
- 1 Causes and characteristics
- 2 Specific countries
- 3 Gang rapes during wars
- 4 As punishment
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
Causes and characteristics
Gang rapes often involve three or more men as perpetrators. These rapes have characteristics beyond those found in rape by individuals; for example, gang rapists tend to be younger and serial in their crimes, the gang is more often under the influence of drugs or alcohol, of the same race or religion or place of residence thereby forming a close-knit peer pressure group, encouraged by the behavior of their fellow criminals. Gang rapes are more violent; the sexual and non-sexual injuries to the victim are often far more severe. The gang members typically dehumanize their target victim(s) before and during the rape.
Porter and Alison have analyzed 739 gang rape cases from US and UK, and found over 20% of the gang rape victims died from injuries from the gang rape. A 2013 study based on 25 year crime data from US and Europe, between 10% to 20% of all rapes were gang rapes. Less than 1 in 3 gang rapes are reported, while less than 1 in 20 attempted but failed gang rapes are reported.
A 2013 Lancet report on rape and gang rape in Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Sri Lanka found that the crime was committed for various motives, such as sexual entitlement, seeking of entertainment, and a means to inflict punishment on the victim. Associated factors in the crime included alcohol misuse, poverty, personal history of childhood victimization, need to prove heterosexual performance, dominance over women, and participation in gangs and related activities. Most cases were not reported to law enforcement, and just 23% of single or multiple perpetrator rapes that were reported by the victims ended in prison sentence.
Gang rapes during civil wars and ethnic riots take added dimension of becoming a means of revenge, sending a message to the victims' community, inducing fear in the opponent, creating a sense of solidarity among the soldiers or militants or the violent group.
Gang rape is sometimes stereotyped in media as a crime of poor, minorities or culture; however, gang rape incidence rates are high in wealthy college campuses, among non-minorities and every culture. Everywhere there is a tendency to blame the victim; however, gang rapes are almost always pre-meditated in their intent, target victim(s), social proof and psychological causes. Certain events such as civil wars, hate propaganda, and ethnic conflicts increase the incidence rate of gang rapes.
According to one study, over 70% of the victims were gang raped by rapists of same race and religion. Most covered and debated gang rapes tend to be those involving victim and rapists of different race or religion or social class.
This is an incomplete list of countries, where government and/or media have acknowledged the problem of gang rape.
A 2013 Lancet study reports 1.9% of all rural men in Bangladesh have committed multiple perpetrator rape (gang rape) of a woman who was not a partner, compared to 1.4% urban men. 35% of those who have committed gang rapes against women have also committed additional rapes where the victim was a man. The motives of rape included a combination of reasons. Two thirds of the gang rape perpetrators claimed entertainment as their motive, 30% claimed they participated in gang rape out of anger and to inflict punishment on the victim, while 11% indicated the crime followed alcohol consumption.
|This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (March 2015)|
Gang rape, or estupro coletivo, is prevalent in Brazil. In the state of Rio de Janeiro alone, over 6,000 rapes are reported every year (or about 37 per 100,000 people). Nationwide, the rape rate varied between 26 to 32 per 100,000 women in 2009. The arrest rates on rape complaints, was 4% in Rio. About 19.6% of 2011 rapes were gang rapes.
Gang rape is prevalent in Canadian Universities and are routinely reported elsewhere. Peer pressure and sexual aggression are among the cited reasons for the crime. Since 1983, Canada does not track rape or gang rape statistics separately, but tracks and reports Sexual Assault Tier 3 which includes both rape and gang rape. The average sexual violence victim rate in Canada was 34 per 1,000 women, and 15 per 1,000 men, according to a 2013 Statistics Canada article.
A Lancet study reports 2.2% of men in China admitted to having committed gang rape (multiple perpetrator rape) of a non-partner woman. About 36% of the perpetrators had raped more than one woman, 50% of those who had committed gang rape had raped both partner as single perpetrator as well as non-partner during a gang rape, while 32% had gang raped a woman and raped a man. The study also found that 90% of the rapists were in the 15-29 age group at the time they perpetrated the first rape.
In July 2013, the son of a Chinese general was charged with four other men to being part of a gang rape. This case raised significant public anger over seemingly privileged treatment of elite gang rape criminals.
Over two dozen gang rapes were reported during civil protests in Egypt from January to March 2013; however, activists claim that many more gang rapes often go unreported because most women are too ashamed to go to the police or even tell their relatives.
During July 2013 at Tahrir Square, mobs assaulted and gang raped at least 46 women in 4 days. A Dutch journalist was also gang-raped in Tahrir Square. A similar gang rape and gang beating was reported by an American journalist in 2011. In a separate survey, over 90% of Egyptian women claimed to have experienced sexual violence in their lifetime.
In banlieues organised gang-rapes are referred to as tournantes, or "pass-arounds"). One of the first people to bring public attention to the culture of gang rape was Samira Bellil, who published a book called Dans l'enfer des tournantes ("In Gang Rape Hell").
In October 2012, two girls in Fontenay-sous-Bois on the outskirts of Paris reported experiencing daily gang rapes in the high-rise tower blocks, sometimes by scores of boys. One witness described 50 boys "queuing" to rape her. 10 of the 14 defendants who were minors at the time of gang rape were acquitted, while the remaining 4 adults found guilty were given 0 to 12 months in prison. This case shocked the country. In 2014, the case of a Canadian tourist allegedly gang raped by four police officers in Paris received international attention.
India has been characterized as one of the "countries with the lowest per capita rates of rape". As with other countries, India does not collect separate data on gang rapes.
The gang rape of a 23-year-old student on a public bus, on 16 December 2012 brought international attention, and sparked large protests across the capital of India, Delhi. Other reports include gang rape of an American tourist by three Nepalese men in Himachal Pradesh, gang rape where the victim and rapists were of different castes, gang rape triggering riots in Uttar Pradesh where the victim was a Dalit and rapists were Muslims.
Reported cases of gang rape include Jakarta International School gang rape of a six-year-old, gang rape of a Malaysian student in Indonesia, and Aceh gang rape case where the victim was charged with adultery when she reported the crime.
A Lancet study of Jakarta and Jayapura city on New Guinea island, found gang rape prevalence rate to be 2% and 6.8% of all Indonesian men respectively who, at some point in their lifetime, have committed multiple perpetrator rape. About 52% of the perpetrators had raped more than one woman, 64% of those who had committed gang rape had raped both partner as single perpetrator as well as non-partner during a gang rape, while 12% had gang raped a woman and raped a man. The study also found that 90% of the rapists in Indonesia were in the 15-29 age group when they committed their first rape.
Many incidents of gang rapes have been reported in Iran. In several cases, the police officials have blamed the victim for not wearing hijab, and in one case arresting the victim and two activists, who were trying to bring attention to the gang rape.
While official statistics on reported and pending gang rapes in Iran are not published by the Iranian government, public hangings for gang rapes are routinely reported in Iranian newspapers.
A 15-year-old schoolgirl in Ketereh Kelantan, was gang raped by more than 30 men. Malaysia reported about 3,000 rape cases in 2012, a rape incidence rate of about 10.7 rapes per 100,000 people. About 52% of these victims were less than 16 years old. Like other nations, Malaysia does not segregate rape and gang rape cases.
Nigeria reports thousands of gang rapes every year. In 2011, ABSU gang rape, where the gang videotaped their crime, drew widespread attention and protests inside Nigeria. The prevalence of group rape has been proposed as a significant contributor to spread of sexual diseases and AIDS.
The 2013 National Crime Data report for Pakistan suggest a current rape rate of 8.4 women per 100,000 population, of which about 10% were gang rapes.
In some cases such as Mukhtar Mai gang rape in Muzaffargarh, village elder's council (jirga) in Pakistan have ordered that the girl in a family be gang-raped as a means of punishing her brother, and this punishment was then carried out in public with everyone watching. In 2011, Pakistan's Supreme Court freed 5 men who committed the gang-rape because their action was on orders of the village council. Other gang rape cases reported in 2013 include Bahawalpur gang rape, Lahore gang rape, Peshawar gang rape, Karachi gang rape of a polio-disabled girl, among others.
Papua New Guinea
A Lancet study reports 14.1% of all men admitted to having committed gang rape (multiple perpetrator rape) of a non-partner woman sometime in their lifetime. 44% of these perpetrators had raped more than 1 woman over their lifetime. In Papua New Guinea, 25% of the first rape was committed at a juvenile age less than 15, while in 70% of the cases the perpetrator's age was 15-29 at the time of first crime.
Gang rapes occur frequently in South Africa, and in certain parts it is called jackrolling. South Africa reported over 64,000 rapes in 2012, or about 127.5 women per 100,000 population. With one woman raped every 4 minutes, South Africa has world's highest rape incidence rate per 100,000 women. Between 10% to 33% of all rapes are gang rapes involving three or more people. About 25% of youth near Johannesburg described gang rape as recreational and fun.
Vogelman and Lewis report 44% of rapists in South Africa have engaged in gang rape. The National Institute of Crime Rehabilitation of South Africa claims only 1 out of 20 rapes are reported in South Africa, suggesting 1,300 women are raped every day. A 2010 nationwide survey reported that about 27% of all South African men above the age of 18 have raped a woman in their lifetime one or more times, while 8.9% of all adult men have participated in a gang rape. The gang rape prevalence rate varied significantly in different provinces of South Africa; for example, in Eastern Cape, 13.9% of men had gang raped a woman who was not a partner.
In February 2013, a 17-year-old girl was gang raped, mutilated and left to die in a town near Cape Town. This led to widespread protests.
United Arab Emirates
In several recent cases, the courts of the UAE have sentenced the gang raped woman to prison under its laws. For example, a British woman, after she reported being gang raped by three men, was charged with the crime of drinking alcohol in UAE; an Arab woman was sentenced to one year in prison for illicit sex after she complained of gang rape; an Australian woman was similarly sentenced to jail after she reported gang rape in the UAE, while a Norwegian woman was jailed for illicit sex when she reported rape by Arabic men. In another recent case, an 18-year Arab woman withdrew her complaint of gang rape inside a car by six men when the prosecution threatened her with a long jail term for consensual sex with multiple men.
According to ABC News, a French teenage boy was gang raped by three Dubai men. The authorities demanded that the tourist confess he is gay and that he asked for sex. The boy insisted he was raped and diplomatic pressure led to the arrest and conviction of the gang members.
A number of gang rapes have taken place in the United Kingdom, although the UK authorities had not separately collected data on gang rapes until the 2011 Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre report on localised grooming entitled "Out of Mind, Out of Sight", but which only deals with adolescent victims. However Scotland Yard earlier in 2009 stated a concern over the rise of 'gang sex attacks' in London, detailing an increase of 71 cases in 2003/2004 to 93 cases in 2008/2009.
An increased number of gang rapes have been reported in the United Kingdom since at least 1996. A 15-year-old girl in 1996, from Birmingham, was gang raped by three Asian males in their mid- to late-twenties. In the 1997 case, a 33-year-old Austrian tourist woman on visit to King's Cross, London was dumped in the Regent's Canal to drown after a gang-rape attack by eight teenagers. On 30 April 2007 at Hackney, East London, a 14-year-old girl was gang raped by six boys, who were later convicted. Two others, aged 14 and 16, did not participate but helped prevent her escape. In 2011, a 24-year-old woman was abducted and raped by three men after a night out in Preston, Lancashire. Two Kurdish men were convicted and sentenced; police are looking for the third attacker.
Media reports of gang rapes in the UK are often racially charged since late 2000. This due to a particular pattern of repeated non-white perpetrated gang rapes in the metropolitan areas. The Rochdale sex trafficking gang would later epitomise the phenomenon. The Home Office report of 2013 described these cases as '[showing] a particular model... of organised, serious exploitation and abuse that involves predominantly Pakistani-heritage men grooming and abusing predominantly white British girls.' However the report stresses that the Government does not believe 'localised grooming' is intrinsic of any culture, religion, and or race.
In March 2014, Crime Prevention Minister Norman Baker described "ground breaking work" to identify women and girls who can get drawn into gangs. "Girls associated with gangs can face sexual violence and we have provided £1.2mn for 13 Young People's Advocates to support those at risk," he said on the launch of a report by the Centre for Social Justice (CSJ), a think-tank established in 2002 by Iain Duncan Smith, another Cabinet minister. Baker said the government had set up a network of more than 70 people with experience of dealing with gangs to work with 33 of the worst affected areas of the country, including 20 in London. In one case cited by the CSJ report, a schoolgirl was abducted and sexually assaulted by nine males because she criticised a gang member. The report found that girls as young as eight were being used to carry drugs while female gang members in their teens were being pressured to have sex with boys as young as 10 to initiate males into gangs. A recent report by the Office of the Children's Commissioner suggested that almost 2,500 children had been known to be victims of child sexual exploitation by gangs and groups.
The US reports about 85,000 rapes a year, about 27.3 rapes per 100,000 population. There is a rape in the US every 6.2 minutes, with 1 in 5 women likely to be raped in her lifetime. As with other countries, the US does not collect separate data on gang rapes; Vogelman and Lewis estimate 25% of all rapes in the US are gang rapes. Another source indicates 21.8% of American rapes are gang rapes.
Hundreds of gang rape cases on college campuses have been prosecuted. A Roger Williams University study estimates from survey of crime data that 16% of all male rapists in the US participated in a gang rape crime.
Some recent examples of gang rapes reported in local media include the Cleveland gang rape, Richmond gang rape, New Orleans gang rape, St Paul gang rape, Miami gang rape/murder, Chicago gang rape Delaware park gang rape among others.
Gang rapes during wars
Major ethnic conflicts and wars within the last 50 years have witnessed a campaign of gang rapes.
The Congo war saw thousands of gang rapes every week, with each relief center reporting 10 or more daily victims of gang rape with battering of women. The Rwandan genocide of 1994 witnessed numerous gang rapes by soldiers. Bosnia war during the 1990s saw a similar campaign of gang rapes.
In the 2000s, civil war-torn in countries such as Sudan, Afghanistan and Syria reported high rates of gang rapes by government soldiers as well as Islamic militants. Similar incidents have been recorded in Libya, Mali.
Among the Mpumalanga of South Africa, there are instances of gang rape as punishment. In the countries such as Argentina, Pakistan, India, gang rape has been reported to have been ordered as punishment.
- Types of rape
- Mount Rennie rape case (Sydney, Australia)
- Ashfield gang rapes
- Sydney gang rapes
- Soviet war crimes (section Rapes)
- 1995 Okinawa rape incident (US servicemen in Japan)
- Mahmudiyah killings (US soldiers in Iraq)
- Qatif rape case
- Martinsville Seven
- Neumann, Stephani. Gang Rape: Examining Peer Support and Alcohol in Fraternities. Sex Crimes and Paraphilia. Hickey, Eric W., 397-407
- Ullman, S. E. (1999). "A Comparison of Gang and Individual Rape Incidents". Violence and Victims 14 (2): 123–133. PMID 10418766. Retrieved 2008-05-21.
- Gidycz, C. A.; Koss, M. P. (1990). "A Comparison Of Group And Individual Sexual Assault Victims". Psychology of Women Quarterly 14 (3): 325–342. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1990.tb00023.x.
- Ullman, S. E. (2013). 11 Multiple perpetrator rape victimization. Handbook on the Study of Multiple Perpetrator Rape: A Multidisciplinary Response to an International Problem, Miranda A.H Horvath, Jessica Woodhams (Editors), 4, Chapter 11; ISBN 978-0415500449
- Ullman, Sarah (1999). A comparison of gang and individual rape incidents. Violence and victims, 14(2), pp 123-133
- Porter, L. E., & Alison, L. J. (2001). A Partially Ordered Scale of Influence in Violent Group Behavior An Example From Gang Rape. Small Group Research, 32(4), pp 475-497
- Berkowitz, A. (1992). College men as perpetrators of acquaintance rape and sexual assault: A review of recent research. Journal of American College Health, 40(4), pp 175-181
- Porter, L. E., & Alison, L. J. (2006). Examining group rape: A descriptive analysis of offender and victim behaviour. European Journal of Criminology,3(3), pp 357-381
- Jewkes, Rachel; et al. (2013). "Prevalence of and factors associated with non-partner rape perpetration: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific" (PDF). The Lancet Global Health 1 (4): 208–218. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70069-X. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- Olujic, M. B. (1995). Women, rape, and war: The continued trauma of refugees and displaced persons in Croatia. Anthropology of East Europe Review, 13(1), pp 62-67
- Miller, Jody, & Glassner, Barry (1997). The ‘inside’and the ‘outside’: finding realities in interviews. Qualitative research, pp 99-112, Chapter 8
- Sanday, P. (2007). Fraternity gang rape: Sex, brotherhood, and privilege on campus. New York University Press, ISBN 978-0-8147-4038-5
- Smith, Merril (Ed.). (2004). Encyclopedia of rape. Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Ellis, Lee (Ed.). (1989). Theories of Rape: Recent Inquiries Into the Causes of Sexual Aggression. Taylor & Francis.
- Thompson, Allan (Ed.) (2007), The media and the Rwanda genocide. IDRC, ISBN 978-9970-02-595-4
- Barnes, A. (Ed.). (2005). The handbook of women, psychology, and the law. John Wiley & Sons
- Allison, Julie and Wrightsman, Lawrence (1993). Rape: The misunderstood crime. Sage, ISBN 978-0803937079
- Rape in Brazil still an invisible crime, Fabiola Ortiz, Inter Press Service (June 24 2013); Quote "The civil police reported that in the first four months of 2013 there were 1,822 rapes committed in the state, while only 70 persons were arrested for these crimes."
- Joseph Murray, Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors, Aggressive Violent Behavior, Sep 2013; 18(5): 471–483
- Pablo Lira, ÍNDICE DE VIOLÊNCIA CRIMINALIZADA (IVC), II Congresso Consad de Gestão Pública, Gestão em segurança pública, Government of Brasil (2013); pp 17-23
- De Keseredy & Kelly (1995), Sexual abuse in Canadian university and college dating relationships: The contribution of male peer support, Journal of Family Violence, 10(1), 41-53
- Horvath & Kelly (2009), Multiple perpetrator rape: Naming an offence and initial research findings, Journal of Sexual Aggression, 15(1), 83-96
- Maire Sinha, Measuring violence against women: Statistical trends Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada, Govt of Canada (February 2013)
- Sexual Violence in China, James Griffiths, Shanghaiist (May 2013)
- He Dan Gender-based violence by men 'shocking': survey China Daily, 10 May 2013
- China general's son charged over gang rape, France 24, AFP, (9 July 2013)[dead link]
- Marroushi, Nadine. "Raped Egypt Women Wish Death Over Life as Crimes Ignored". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Tadros, Mariz (2013-03-11). "Politically motivated sexual assault: the Egypt story none want to hear". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- "In the Last 4 Days, 91 Women Have Been Sexually Assaulted in Tahrir Square. Can Anything Be Done? - Sarah Goodyear". The Atlantic Cities. 2011-09-20. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
- Megan Levy (2012-04-13). "Dutch Journalist Raped In Tahrir Square". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- "Sexual Assaults Reportedly Rampant During Egypt Protests". NPR. 2013-07-07. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Gang rape, the dark side of Egypt's protests, Nina Burleigh, CNN (July 3 2013)
- Tournantes: le calvaire de Nina et Stéphanie, Caroline Politi (18 September 2012), L'Express France
- Ireland, Susan (Winter 2007). "Textualizing Trauma in Samira Bellil's Dans l'enfer des tournantes and Fabrice Génestal's La squale". Dalhousie French Studies 81: 131–141.
- Hron, Madelaine (2010). Translating Pain: Immigrant Suffering in Literature and Culture. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-9324-1.
- Gang rape trial shocks France and sparks row over justice system, Angelique Chrisafis (9 October 2012), The Guardian
- Light Gang Rape Penalities Provoke Outcry in France, Scott Sayare, New York Times (October 11 2012)
- Four elite french police officers arrested in Paris over claims they gang-raped Canadian tourist in their offices
- Schmalleger, John Humphrey, Frank (2011). Deviant Behavior (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 252. ISBN 0763797731.
- "Video: Protests grow over gang rape of Indian woman". London: Telegraph. 19 Dec 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-21.
- Outrage in India over U.S. tourist gang-rape, latest in attacks
- Three Nepalese men arrested over US tourist's rape Mail Online UK (6 June 2013)
- "India gang rape inquiry stepped up". BBC. 31 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-31.
- Mob fury in UP after woman is kidnapped and gang-raped, then burned alive for threatening to report her attackers Mail Online UK, July 15, 2014
- Ont. teacher detained in Indonesia as gang-rape witness Toronto News, July 17, 2014
- 22-Year-Old Malaysian Student Gang Raped In Indonesia Malaysia, May 2014
- Indonesian woman gang-raped, faces caning for adultery May 6, 2014
- Iranian Women call for action on gang-rapes Amnesty International (1 August 2011)
- Gang rapes in Iran cause fear and religious controversy BBC News (15 June 2011)
- Four convicted rapists hanged Parvand Iran News (12 October 2011)
- "Four sentenced to death for gang rape". Insideofiran.org. 2011-08-12. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Six men hanged for gang rape August 2013
- T Leong, Malaysian teenager gang-raped by 38 men Reuters
- thestar.com.my: "Schoolgirl raped by 30 men" 28 May 2014
- Onyejekwe, Chineze J. (2008). Nigeria: The Dominance of Rape. Journal of International Women's Studies, 10(1), pp 48-63
- Akinade, E. A., Adewuyi, T. D. O., & Sulaiman, A. (2010). Socio-legal factors that influence the perpetuation of rape in Nigeria. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, pp 1760-1764
- Du Mont, J., & White, D. (2013). Sexual violence: what does it take for the world to care about women?. Journal of public health, 35(2), 182-184.
- Dartnall, E., & Jewkes, R. (2012). Sexual violence against women: The scope of the problem. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology.
- Peters, T. O., & Olowa, O. W. (2010). Causes and Incidence of Rape among Middle Age and Young Adult in Lagos State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(10), pp 670-677
- Crime report Shakeel Anjum, The News (Pakistan)
- Pakistan: Girl gang-raped as local punishment IRIN, United Nations News Service (2 July 2002)
- Pakistan Supreme Court frees five in gang-rape case that received global attention Pamela Constable, Washington Post (April 21, 2011)
- Pakistan Supreme Court frees 5 accused of gang rape Alex Rodriguez, Los Angeles Times (April 22, 2011)
- 9-year old Pakistani girl kidnapped and gang-raped RT News (January 5, 2013)
- 13 being grilled over gang rape The Nation, Pakistan (June 22, 2013)
- Alleged Pakistan gag-rape victim to appeal acquittals Radio Free Europe (February 1, 2013)
- Polio-affected girl gang raped in Karachi CNBC (July 18, 2013)
- "Saudi Arabia: Rape Victim Punished for Speaking Out | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. 2007-11-16. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- "Clinton's 'outrage' at Saudi rape sentence - World". smh.com.au. 2007-11-22. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Pleming, Sue (2007-11-19). "U.S. offers mild criticism in Saudi rape case". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- South Africa, once called ‘the world’s rape capital,’ is running out of rape kits Caitlin Dewey, Washington Post, March 5, 2013
- "South Africa's rape shock". BBC News. 1999-01-19. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
- Crime Research and Statistics, South African Police Service (2013)[dead link]
- The gang rape that horrified South Africa (12 February 2013)
- Swart L et al. Rape surveillance through district surgeons’ offices in Johannesburg, 1996–1998: findings, evaluation and prevention implications.South African Journal of Psychology, 2000, 30:1–10.
- "Rape has become a way of life in South Africa". Health Systems Trust. 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Gang Rape and the Culture of Violence in South Africa, Vogelman & Lewis, Illusion der Stärke: Jugenbanden, vergewaltigung und kultuur der gewalt in Südafrika, in Der Überblick, No. 2
- Rachel Jewkes et al, Why, when and how men rape: understanding rape perpetration in South Africa, South African Crime Quarterly, Vol. 34, December 2010, pp. 23-31
- Spain: 70-Year-Old 'Leads Gang Rape' of British Tourist in Malaga International Business Times (2013)
- Múltiple violación infantil en Huelva La Razon, Spain
- Bakr, Amena (2013-07-21). "Woman jailed in Dubai after reporting rape hopes to warn others". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- "Emirati woman, 18, retracts claim of rape by six men". The National (Abu Dhabi). 2010-05-25. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- French Teen's Rape Case Exposes Dubai's Dark Side, ABC News
- Alison Smith-squire (2013-11-07). "Lucy was kidnapped, gang raped - and then cruelly betrayed by the British justice system | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
- Louise Jury (1997-04-12). "Schoolboy guilty of tourist gang-rape - News". The Independent. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
- ceop.police.uk: "Out of Mind, Out of Sight: Making every child matter ... everywhere. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CEOP thematic assessment. Breaking down the barriers to understanding child sexual exploitation" June 2011
- "Police concern at gang rape rise". British Broadcasting Corporation. 5 November 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "GIRL, 15, IN GANG RAPE ORDEAL.". The Independent - London. 29 October 1996. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Louise Jury (1997-04-12). "Schoolboy guilty of tourist gang-rape - News". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
- "Girl speaks of gang-rape ordeal". 12 December 2008.
- bbc.co.uk: "Girl, 14, raped by schoolboy gang" 5 Dec 2008
- Samura, Sorious (21 June 2009). "Gang rape: Is it a race issue?". The Independent. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Malone, Carole (19 May 2013). "Oxford grooming ring was race-hate gang rape". Mirror. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Gardner, Tom (21 February 2014). "Teenage girl victim of grooming gang 'raped by 30 men in just six hours including father and schoolboy son'". Mail Online. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Committee, Home Affairs (2013). Child sexual exploitation and the response to localised grooming : second report of session 2013-14. (PDF). London: Stationery Office. p. 5. ISBN 9780215058867.
- Child sexual exploitation: response to second report of the Home Affairs Committee (PDF). London: Home Office. 10 September 2013. p. 23. ISBN 9780101870528.
- telegraph.co.uk: "'Rape is a weapon against gang girls', says report" 23 Mar 2014
- A Rape a Minute, A thousand corpses a year, Rebecca Solnit (January 24 2013), The Nation
- Horvath, Miranda et al. Handbook on the Study of Multiple Perpetrator Rape. Routledge 2013, page 15.
- Rape Myths and Facts, RW University (2012)
- "Defendant in Cleveland gang rape case gets life sentence". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Gafni, Matthias. "Richmond gang-rape 'main participant' sentenced to 32 years - San Jose Mercury News". Mercurynews.com. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- St. Tammany Parish Sheriff's Office. "4 men found guilty in gang rape of 15-year-old in St. Tammany". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Gurnonegurnon, Emily (2013-07-15). "Teen in St. Paul gang rape gets more than three years". St. Paul Pioneer Press. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- "Ringleader of gang rape, murder sentenced to death". WSVN. Retrieved 2013-11-05.[dead link]
- "Cops: Girl, 14, abducted and raped by 6 men". redeyechicago.com. 2012-11-08. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- "2 women gang raped by 10-12 juveniles in Delaware park, report says". Fox News. 2013-08-31. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Card, Claudia, Rape as a Weapon of War, Hypatia 11.4 (1996), pp 5-18
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (2007-10-07). "Rape Epidemic Raises Trauma of Congo War". The New York Times.
- "Congo's shame: Rape used as tool of war". Washington Times. 2009-09-08. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Morris, M. (1996). By force of arms: Rape, war, and military culture. Duke Law Journal, 45, pp 651-699
- Stiglmayer, A. (Ed.). (1994). Mass rape: The war against women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, University of Nebraska Press
- Farr, Kathryn. "Extreme war rape in today’s civil-war-torn states: A contextual and comparative analysis." Gender Issues 26.1 (2009): pp 1-41
- Asfour, Hasibah. "Concepts of Social Justice and Islamic Perspective." American Journal of Law and Public Policy 3.1 (2013): 29-34.
- Tuesday, November 5, 2013 9:17 AM EST Facebook Twitter RSS (2013-04-06). "Syrian women who fled to Jordan tell of horrific rapes back home | Toronto Star". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- "The Syrian Refugee Crisis". The New York Times. 20 January 2013.
- AFP. "British pro-Palestinian activists raped in Libya: Deputy PM – The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Corinne Dufka, senior Africa researcher (2012-04-30). "Mali: War Crimes by Northern Rebels | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Worell, Judith (2001). Encyclopedia of Women and Gender: Sex Similarities and Differences and the Impact of Society on Gender. Academic Press. p. 299. ISBN 9780122272455.
- Kellogg, Susan (2005). Weaving the Past : A History of Latin America's Indigenous Women from the Prehispanic Period to the Present: A History of Latin America's Indigenous Women from the Prehispanic Period to the Present. Oxford University Press. p. 150. ISBN 9780198040422.
- Mynhardt (2009). South African Supplement to Social Psychology 3e. Pearson South Africa. p. 7. ISBN 9781770255241.
- "Argentinian teenager gang-raped then had her eyes gouged in brutal exorcism".
- The Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law, Volume 8. Georgetown University Law Center. 2007. p. 103.
- Dhameja, Alka. Contemporary Debates in Public administration. PHI Learning Pvt. p. 186. ISBN 9788120324039.
- Durham, Meenakshi G. (February 2013). ""Vicious assault shakes Texas town": the politics of gender violence in The New York Times' coverage of a schoolgirl's gang rape". Journalism Studies (Taylor & Francis Online) 14 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1080/1461670X.2012.657907.