Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb

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Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb (Hindustani: गंगा जमुनी तहज़ीब, گنگا جمنی تهزیب, Ganges-Yamuna Culture) is a term used for the culture of the central plains of Northern India, especially the doab region of Ganges (Ganga) and Yamuna rivers, which is regarded as a fusion of Hindu and Muslim elements.[1][2]

The region of Awadh in the state of Uttar Pradesh is usually considered to be the center of this culture.[3][4] Allahabad, Lucknow, Kanpur,[5][6] Faizabad-Ayodhya,[4][7] Varanasi (Benares)[8][9] are few of the many centres of this culture.

Hyderabad,the capital city of Telangana in south central part of the India is also considered an example of communal harmony.[10][11]

Nawabs of Awadh were fore-runners of this culture.[12]


  1. ^ Steven Wesley Ramey, Hindu, Sufi, or Sikh: contested practices and identifications of Sindhi Hindus in India and beyond, Macmillan, 2008, ISBN 978-0-230-60832-0, ... the continuing joint Muslim and Hindu participation in public festivals, relating it to "Ganga-Jamuni Tahzeeb," the attitude of refined hospitality and harmonious relations that historically characterized this region ... 
  2. ^ Socialist Party (India), Janata, Volume 62, ... the ganga-jamuni tehzeeb (composite culture) regarded both religious communities as two eyes of a beautiful bride and their long history witnessed 'give-and-take', at many levels ... 
  3. ^ Malika Mohammada, The foundations of the composite culture in India, Aakar Books, 2007, ISBN 978-81-89833-18-3, ... developed in Awadh as a genre of composite creativity. ... of multiple Indian cultural traditions and provided glimpses of the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb of north India with Lucknow as its centre ... 
  4. ^ a b Plaint Of Ayodhya, The Financial Express, Sunday, Aug 22, 2004 at 0000 hrs IST
  5. ^ Festival has origin in city's composite culture, TNN, May 13, 2009, 06.52am IST
  6. ^ Karbala revisited, Express News Service, Saturday , February 12, 2005
  7. ^ Twin towns welcome verdict with humility, grace, Deccan Chronicle, October 1st, 2010
  8. ^ An apt reflection of Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb, Naveen Kumar, TNN, Sep 25, 2009, 10.09pm IST
  9. ^ Stories behind the masks, Shailaja Tripathi, NEW DELHI, November 4, 2010, The Hindu
  10. ^ Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb helps maintain peace
  11. ^ Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb: Temple serving Iftar Dates to 5 Mosques in Hyderabad
  12. ^ Descendants of Nawabs keep Holi traditions alive, The Indian Express, Tue Mar 10 2009, 15:35 hrs