Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb

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Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb (Hindustani: गंगा जमुनी तहज़ीब, گنگا جمنی تھذیب‬, Ganges-Yamuna Culture) is an Urdu term[1] used for the culture of the central plains of Northern India, especially the doab region of Ganges (Ganga) and Yamuna rivers, which is regarded as a fusion of Hindu and Muslim elements.[2][3]

Kabir is one of the best examples of the philosophy of the tehzeeb;

Devanagari Nastaliq Roman Translation
कोई जपे रहीम रहीम

कोई जपे है राम

दास कबीर है प्रेम पुजारी

दोनों को परनाम

کوئی جپے رحیم رحیم

کوئی جپے ہے رام

داس کبیر ہے پریم پجاری

دونو کو پرنام

Koi jape rahim rahim

Koi jape hai ram

Das Kabir hai prem pujari

Dono ko parnaam

Some chant O Merciful [Allah]

Some chant Ram

Kabir is a worshiper of true love

And Salutes them both

The region of Awadh in the state of Uttar Pradesh is usually considered to be the center of this culture.[4][5] Allahabad, Lucknow, Kanpur,[6][7] Shri Ayodhya-Ayodhya,[5][8] and Varanasi (Benares)[9][10] are a few of the many centers of this culture.

Delhi has also historically been a primed example of the Ganga-Jamuna Tahzeeb; with its iconic Khariboli dialect and being one of the literally centers of the Urdu language, there have been numerous poets such as Amir Khusrow, Mir, Ghalib, Zauq, Daagh Dehlvi, Nida Fazli and many others. Delhi has also contributed to the music of the region, being the birthplace of Qawwali and the Delhi Gharana.

Hyderabad, the capital city of Telangana in south central part of the India, is also considered an example of communal harmony.[11][12]

Nawabs of Awadh were fore-runners of this culture.[13]


  1. ^ Shaban, Abdul (2018-01-10). Lives of Muslims in India: Politics, Exclusion and Violence. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781351227605.
  2. ^ Steven Wesley Ramey, Hindu, Sufi, or Sikh: contested practices and identifications of Sindhi Hindus in India and beyond, Macmillan, 2008, ISBN 978-0-230-60832-0, ... the continuing joint Muslim and Hindu participation in public festivals, relating it to "Ganga-Jamun Tahzeeb," the attitude of refined hospitality and harmonious relations that historically characterized this region ...
  3. ^ Socialist Party (India), Janata, Volume 62, ... the ganga-jamuni tehzeeb (composite culture) regarded both religious communities as two eyes of a beautiful bride and their long history witnessed 'give-and-take', at many levels ...
  4. ^ Malika Mohammada, The foundations of the composite culture in India, Aakar Books, 2007, ISBN 978-81-89833-18-3, ... developed in Awadh as a genre of composite creativity. ... of multiple Indian cultural traditions and provided glimpses of the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb of north India with Lucknow as its centre ...
  5. ^ a b Plaint Of Ayodhya, The Financial Express, Sunday, 22 Aug 2004 at 0000 hrs IST
  6. ^ Festival has origin in city's composite culture, TNN, 13 May 2009, 06.52am IST
  7. ^ Karbala revisited, Express News Service, Saturday , 12 February 2005
  8. ^ Twin towns welcome verdict with humility, grace, Deccan Chronicle, 1 October 2010
  9. ^ An apt reflection of Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb, Naveen Kumar, TNN, 25 Sep 2009, 10.09pm IST
  10. ^ Stories behind the masks, Shailaja Tripathi, NEW DELHI, 4 November 2010, The Hindu
  11. ^ Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb helps maintain peace
  12. ^ Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb: Temple serving Iftar Dates to 5 Mosques in Hyderabad
  13. ^ Descendants of Nawabs keep Holi traditions alive, The Indian Express, Tue 10 March 2009, 15:35 hrs