Gangwon Province, South Korea

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Coordinates: 37°30′N 128°15′E / 37.500°N 128.250°E / 37.500; 128.250

Gangwon
강원도
Province
Korean transcription(s)
 • Hangul
 • Hanja
 • McCune‑Reischauer Kangwŏndo
 • Revised Romanization Gangwon-do
Flag of Gangwon
Flag
Official logo of Gangwon
Logo
Location of Gangwon
Country South Korea
Region Gwandong
(Yeongseo: western Gangwon; Yeongdong: eastern Gangwon)
Capital Chuncheon
Subdivisions 7 cities; 11 counties
Government
 • Governor Choi Moon-soon (Democratic)
Area
 • Total 16,875 km2 (6,515 sq mi)
Population (April, 2016[2])
 • Total 1,564,615[1]
 • Density 90/km2 (200/sq mi)
Metropolitan Symbols
 • Flower Royal azalea
 • Tree Korean pine
 • Bird Red-crowned crane
ISO 3166 code KR-42
Dialect Gangwon
(Yeongseo: western Gangwon dialect; Yeongdong: eastern Gangwon dialect)
Website gwd.go.kr

Gangwon-do (Korean pronunciation: [kaŋ.wʌn.do]) is a province of South Korea, with its capital at Chuncheon. It is bounded on the east part by the East Sea, and borders Gyeonggi Province to its west, and North Gyeongsang Province and North Chungcheong Province to its south. Its northern boundary is the Military Demarcation Line, separating it from North Korea's Kangwŏn Province. Before the division of Korea in 1945 Gangwon and Kangwŏn formed a single province. Pyeongchang County hosted the 2018 Winter Olympics and 2018 Winter Paralympics.

History[edit]

Gangwon-do was one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. The province was formed in 1395, and derived its name from the names of the principal cities of Gangneung (강릉; 江陵) and the provincial capital Wonju (원주; 原州).

In 1895 Gangwon-do was replaced by the Districts of Chuncheon (Chuncheon-bu; 춘천부; 春川府) in the west and Gangneung (Gangneung-bu; 강릉부; 江陵府) in the east. (Wonju became part of Chungju District.)

In 1896 Korea was redivided into thirteen provinces, and the two districts were merged to re-form Gangwon-do Province. Although Wonju rejoined Gangwon-do province, the provincial capital was moved to Chuncheon, where it remains today.

In 1945 Gangwon-do (along with the rest of Korea) was divided by the 38th parallel north in 1945 into American and Soviet zones of occupation in the south and north respectively, which led to Wonsan joining the province's northern half in 1946 to serve as its administrative center. In 1948, the southern half of the province became part of the new Republic of Korea. As a result of the Korean War Armistice Agreement of 1953, the boundary between the South and North Korean portions of the province was shifted northward to the Military Demarcation Line.

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Gangwon-do is bounded on the west by Gyeonggi-do province, on the south by the provinces of Chungcheongbuk-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do. To the north lies the province's North Korean counterpart, Kangwŏn province. The province's landscape is dominated by the Taebaek Mountains (called Taebaek Sanmaek) which almost reach the sea. As a consequence the coast is very steep.

Regions[edit]

Gangwon-do and its North Korean counterpart Kangwŏn are together referred to as the Gwandong region. The region west of the Taebaek Mountains is called Yeongseo, while the region east of the mountains is called Yeongdong. The term "Yeongdong" is frequently used in reference to transportation services from Seoul, the national capital. Thus, one might catch a bus or train on the "Yeongdong Line," or drive to Gangneung on the Yeongdong Expressway.

Climate[edit]

Gangwon-do's Köppen climate classification's climate class is Hot-summer humid continental climate – Dfa. Taebaek Mountains causes different climate in Yeongdong and Yeongseo.[2]

The climate of Gangwon-do is influenced by the latitude. In summer along with the higher temperature and there is high humidity, but in winter the weather can be very cold owing to high pressure from the east of the Asian continent. According to Korea Meteorological Administration's data, average temperature are very different. In Yongdong, average temperature is 11.0°C, and Yeongseo is 10.8°C. All province's average temperatures range from 6.6 to 13.1°C. and the yearly amount of rainfall is 1300-1900 mm, and it's concentrated on mountain area. It is one of the snowiest areas in South Korea.[3]

Resources[edit]

The area of Full of Gangwon-do(included North Korea's Province + South Korea's Province) is 20,569 km2 (7,941.74 sq mi),[2] But in South Korea's province have gain 16,874.59 km2 (6,515.32 sq mi). The province is renowned for its agricultural produces, especially potatoes and fishes (cuttlefish and pollock). Mineral resources from the province include iron, coal, fluorite, limestone and tungsten. There are some hydroelectric, thermoelectric power plants in the region.

Culture and Heritages[edit]

Seoraksan, one of the best-known mountains of Gangwon-do.

Heritages[edit]

It's not known of when the first person of Gangwon began to live, but Paleolithic sites were excavated.[4]

Many historical heritages are in this region, like the Later Silla era's Bell of Sangwonsa, North–South States Period era's Iron Seated Vairocana Buddha of Dopiansa Temple, Goryeo era's Main Gate of Imyeonggwan Guesthouse, and Joseon era's Documents of Sangwonsa Temple. Other popular heritages, like Ojukheon are located.

Because of Gangwon Province's landscape, old and famous Buddhist temples have survived, like Woljeongsa and Oseam.

Museums[edit]

Established in 2002, Chuncheon National Museum is operated by the central government for the purpose of classifying and reserving.[5] The local government also has some of mueseums, including Park Su-geun Art Museum,[6] and Taebaek Coal Museum. Purpose-built private museums, such as ChamSori Gramophone Edison Museum[7] are being operated.

Festivals[edit]

In Gangwon Province, almost of the regions hold festivals. Gangneung Danoje is very famous and it was listed in UNESCO's Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity[8]

Geographically, Gangwon Province has several national parks as well as some natural monuments.

Food[edit]

Because of its geographical environment, Gangwon Province is composed of mountains or basins. For the reason, locals mainly make food with potatoes or buckwheat.[9] All regions of the province have seasoned vegetable rice. For example, Jeongseon County is famous with Jeongseon thistle rice; Yeongwol County is famous with Yeongwol buckwheat rolls; Hwacheon County is famous with Hwacheon trout rice in a stone bowl and Hwacheon goatsbeard rice; and Yanggu County is famous with Yanggu dried green radish cuisine.[10][11] In coastal regions, they mainly eat fishes and salted seafood. For example, Donghae City is famous with Donghae steamed fish; Sokcho is famous with Sokcho Squid Sausages; and Samcheok is famous with blowfish soup. These are normally very simple and easy to cook, like the province's traditional food.[9]

Tourism[edit]

National Parks & Nature Monuments[edit]

Thanks to the blessing of Taebaek Mountains, Gangwon Province has 4 national parks & several natural monuments.

Seoraksan National Park has beautiful rocky terrain around the peak, Daecheong-bong. It was also listed in Man and the Biosphere Programme.[12]
Odaesan is located in the center of Baekdudaegan, and it was assigned as a national park in 1975. Odaesan is one of the holy places of Korean Buddhist cultures.[13]
Chiaksan is derived from the southwest side of Odaesan, and it's close to Wonju. In 2014, Wonju city & Korea National Park Service collaborated to make walk routes.[14]
Taebaeksan is a traditional and historical "holy mountain," and it was assigned as a national park on October 22, 2016.[15]

Hantaan River penetrates Cheorwon County's volcanic terrain having several natural monuments. This area was a place of a fierce battle during the Korean War and it is a popular Rafting route nowadays. Around this river, the first Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus, Hantaan River virus was found. This virus was named after the river.[16] Hantavirus Genus is referred this virus's name.

And, Civilian Control Zone is near to Military Demarcation Line, naturally providing areas to stay for migratory birds, especially red-crowned cranes.[17]

In the township of Haean, Yanggu, specially Haean Basin is nicknamed Punchbowl, which was initially called by a war correspondent for the Korea War.[18]

Tourist Attractions[edit]

Gangwon Province has many tourist attractions, as well as natural monuments, e.g., Namiseom, Tong-il Observatory (similar of Dora Observatory), Soyang Dam and Jeongdongjin. A memorial center of a famous novelist, Lee Hyo-seok is in Pyeongchang County. Along the coast of the East Sea, many seaside resorts are located, including Gyongpo Seaside Resort.

And the only domestic casino called Kangwon Land is located in Jeongseon County.

Transportation[edit]

Railway[edit]

Gangwon Province's railways were originally built to transport mining resources to harbors.[19][20]

Jungang Line Northern Direction with Jungang Expressway Wonju Bridge

In Gangwon-Province, some main lines are being operated. First of all, Jungang Line is connected to Seoul Metropolitan Subway System. Yeongdong Line and Taebaek Line are derived from the Jungang Line. Gyeonggang Line was constructed, but currently it's not perfectly connected to the Seoul Metropolitan Subway System. KTX trains launched from Seoul to Gangneung on 22 December, 2017 via Gyeonggang Line, but they still run a part of the Jungang Line.[21] In 2016, a plan was passed to extend the KTX line from Gangneung to Sokcho.[22]

Gyeongwon Line and North Dong-hae Line of the main lines are blocked by the Military Demarcation Line.

Air[edit]

Gangwon Province has several military airbases, while civil passengers can use only two airports, Wonju Airport and Yangyang International Airport. Wonju Airport is shared with the Republic of Korea Air Force, like Daegu International Airport and Gimhae International Airport,[23]

Currently Wonju and Yangyang Airport are now operated as a domestic airport.[24][25]

Road[edit]

Total Gangwon Province's road length is 9800km, and the pavement was completed 75.1%.[26] Some historical and traditional ridges have survived, like Daegwallyeong. It has many routes, like a Route 7 which is included in AH6.

It also has Controlled-access highways. Yeongdong Expressway is the first express way in the region, and Gwangju–Wonju Expressway, Jungang Expressway, Donghae Expressway, Seoul–Yangyang Expressway were built, afterwards. Seoul–Yangyang Expressway has the longest road tunnel in South Korea.

Buses[edit]

Like the railways, Gangwon Province is connected by intercity bus networks in South Korea. All cities and counties have intercity terminals, which connect other cities or counties in the region or connect outer cities, districts, and Inchon International Airport.

Sea[edit]

Gangwon Province has many harbor. Some harbors are a fishing port, but other harbors are used for special purposes. For example, Mukpo Harbor functions as an exporting hub for cement & coal from Taebaek Mountains.[27] Sokcho Harbor functions as a fishing port, a passenger harbor and an exporting hub for iron ore.[27] Also recently, Korea Gas Corporation built the LNG Platform Center in Hosan Harbor.[28]

Gangwon province also has ferry lines. Sokcho Harbor has a pier for cruise ships,[29] but until now 2018, no cruise route exists.

Sports[edit]

Sport team[edit]

Soccer[edit]

Gangwon FC bases itself in the region, owned by the Gangwon Province. Jin-seon Kim, the Governor of Gangwon Province announced to establish it on April 28, 2008[33] and it was established on December 18, 2008.[34]

Ice Hockey[edit]

High1 is Kangwon Land's Ice Hockey team, established in September, 2009. South Korea has only 3 professional ice hockey clubs, including High1.[35]

Also Daeyung Killer Whales was established in 2016, originally based in the region.[36]

Basketball[edit]

Wonju DB Promy is a professional basketball team, based in Wonju, Gangwon Province. It was established 1996. Currently, it donated coals in the collaboration with a local government-owned company, Korea Coal Corporation[37]

List of All Gangwon Province's sport clubs[edit]

Gangneung Stadium, the home ground of Gangwon FC
Leagues Team Name Est.
K League 1 Gangwon FC 2008
Korea National League Gangneung City FC 1999
K3 League Advance Chuncheon FC 2010
K3 League Basic Pyeongchang FC 2008
WK League Hwacheon KSPO WFC 2011
KBL Wonju DB Promy 1996
Asia League Ice Hockey High1 2004
Asia League Ice Hockey Daemyung Killer Whales 2016

Significant Sport Events[edit]

1999 Asian Winter Games[edit]

In Gangwon Province, the 1999 Asian Winter Games were held from 30 January until 6 February, 1999. In these Games, South Korea was ranked in 2nd.

2018 Winter Olympics & 2018 Winter Paralympics[edit]

In Pyoengchang, Gangwon Province, the 2018 Winter Olympics is being held from 9 to 25 February 2018 and the 2018 Winter Paralympics will be held from 9 to 18 March 2018. Almost all of the events will be held in Pyeongchang County. Alpine skiing events will be held in Jeongseon County, while some of indoor events will be held in Gangneung.

Municipalities[edit]

The main cities of the province are Chuncheon (the provincial capital), Gangneung, Sokcho, Wonju, and Donghae. Currently Gangwon Province, has 7 cities, and 11 counties[38]

Map # Name Hangul Hanja Population (2016)[39] Subdivisions
Gangwon Municipal.svg
City
1 Wonju 원주시 原州市 341,130 1 eup, 8 myeon, 16 haengjeong-dong
2 Chuncheon (Capital city) 춘천시 春川市 283,951 1 eup, 9 myeon, 15 haengjeong-dong
3 Gangneung 강릉시 江陵市 215,721 1 eup, 7 myeon, 13 haengjeong-dong
4 Donghae 동해시 東海市 93,958 10 haengjeong-dong
5 Sokcho 속초시 束草市 82,670 8 haengjeong-dong
6 Samcheok 삼척시 三陟市 70,371 2 eup, 6 myeon, 4 haengjeong-dong
7 Taebaek 태백시 太白市 47,333 8 haengjeong-dong
County
8 Hongcheon County 홍천군 洪川郡 70,961 1 eup, 9 myeon
9 Cheorwon County 철원군 鐵原郡 48,699 4 eup, 7 myeon
10 Hoengseong County 횡성군 橫城郡 46,662 1 eup, 8 myeon
11 Pyeongchang County 평창군 平昌郡 43,782 1 eup, 7 myeon
12 Jeongseon County 정선군 旌善郡 38,993 4 eup, 5 myeon
13 Yeongwol County 영월군 寧越郡 40,330 2 eup, 7 myeon
14 Inje County 인제군 麟蹄郡 33,061 1 eup, 5 myeon
15 Goseong County 고성군 高城郡 30,749 2 eup, 4 myeon
16 Yangyang County 양양군 襄陽郡 27,515 1 eup, 5 myeon
17 Hwacheon County 화천군 華川郡 26,489 1 eup, 4 myeon
18 Yanggu County 양구군 楊口郡 24,264 1 eup, 4 myeon

Claimed[edit]

Friendship partners[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c Gangwon Province (2016-04-27). 자연환경 . Gangwon Province (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
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  4. ^ 노형석 (2016-08-12). "구석기・신석기 선조들 먹고살던 동굴 정선서 발견" (in Korean). 한겨례. Retrieved 2018-02-10. 
  5. ^ 김경석 (2017-10-30). "춘천박물관, 개관 15주년 기념 전시관 재개관 개막" (in Korean). 뉴스1. Retrieved 2018-02-10. 
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External links[edit]