From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Manga volume 1 cover, featuring Kei Kurono, Masaru Kato and the rest of the group
Written byHiroya Oku
Published byShueisha
English publisher
ImprintYoung Jump Comics
MagazineWeekly Young Jump
Original runJune 29, 2000June 20, 2013
Volumes37 (List of volumes)
Anime television series
Directed byIchiro Itano
Produced by
  • Toshiharu Namiki
  • Futoshi Nishimura
  • Yasushi Uchida
  • Hironori Terashima
Written byMasashi Sogo
Music byNatsuki Sogawa
Licensed by
Original network
English network
Original run April 12, 2004 November 18, 2004
Episodes26 (List of episodes)
Wikipe-tan face.svg Anime and manga portal

Gantz (stylized as GANTZ) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Hiroya Oku. It tells the story of Kei Kurono and Masaru Kato, both of whom died in a train accident and become part of a semi-posthumous "game" in which they and several other recently deceased people are forced to hunt down and kill aliens armed with a handful of futuristic items, equipment, and weaponry. It was serialized in Shueisha's seinen manga magazine Weekly Young Jump from June 2000 to June 2013, with its chapters collected in 37 tankōbon volumes.

A anime television series adaptation, directed by Ichiro Itano and animated by Gonzo, was broadcast for 26 episodes, divided into two seasons, in 2004. A series of two live-action films based on the manga were produced and released in January and April 2011.[4] A CGI anime film, Gantz: O, was released in 2016.


A pair of high school students, Kei Kurono and Masaru Kato, are hit by a subway train in an attempt to save the life of a drunk homeless man who had fallen onto the tracks. Following their deaths, Kurono and Kato find themselves transported to the interior of an unfurnished Tokyo apartment, where they meet Joichiro Nishi, a Gantz veteran, and other clueless participants. The pair soon realizes that they are not allowed to leave the apartment. At one end of the room there is a large black sphere known as "Gantz".

After some time in the room, the Gantz sphere opens up, revealing a bald naked man with a breathing mask and wires attached to his head, and various weapons for them to use. These include the custom fitting black suits which give them super-human strength, speed, stamina and damage resistance, a controller which acts as a radar and stealth unit, X-gun, X-Shotgun, Y-Gun. Later on the series the Gantz sword, Gantz Bike are made available as well as much more powerful weapons are awarded in the 100 point menu.

When the Gantz sphere opens, green text appears on its surface, informing those present that their "lives have ended and now belong to him". A picture and brief information is shown of some of the Gantz' targets; Gantz orders them to go and kill them. Except for a single mission, all the targets are aliens living on Earth, which take on a wide variety of forms. During the mission, normal people cannot see the players or the aliens. Gantz transports them to the area of the mission, and they cannot leave or return until all the enemies have been killed, or the time limit has run out. If they survive a successful mission, each individual is awarded points for the aliens they have killed. Once a participant has scored 100 points, a "100 point menu" will appear. The menu offers three options:

  • Option 1: The participant can return to their normal life, never having to be summoned by Gantz again. As a price, their memories of Gantz and the missions will be erased.
  • Option 2: The participant obtains a unique and extremely-powerful weapon.
  • Option 3: The participant can revive someone who has died during a mission from Gantz' memory. This option appeared halfway through the series.

After a mission has been completed, points are tallied up, the participants are allowed to leave and do as they see fit until their next mission, with the exception of talking about Gantz which would lead to their heads exploding. During Kurono and Kato's third mission, all the participants including Kato are killed, however Kato kills the last boss giving Kurono a chance to survive. Kurono survives the third mission bleeding on the floor with his limbs cut apart. After the third mission Kurono starts to change inside adopting a hero, leader complex similar to Kato. As the series continues, Kurono participates with the objective of reviving his deceased friends with the 100 point reward option. A new team of Gantz players is assembled, which Kurono leads, as the most experienced veteran and one of the best fighters. In the Oni mission it is shown that with Kurono's "will to live" he becomes the most ferocious Gantz hunter in the team. Through his interactions with the other members of the team and his life or death battles, Kurono gradually grows into a responsible leader. After the Oni mission Kato is revived by Kurono, and soon after Kurono meets his demise against the vampires. As the series goes on, the rules of the missions change; they can now be seen by regular people, the aliens they encounter are increasingly more powerful and dangerous, and they participate in a mission with another Gantz team from Osaka. Kato becomes the center of attention in the manga and his quest to revive Kurono. In a desperate attempt to revive his best friend, Kato fights the one hundred point alien Nurarihyon which obliterates both Osaka and Kurono's team. At the end of the mission, similar to the first time Kato died, he defeats arguably the strongest alien in the series and is laid bleeding on the floor. The series depicts both the missions and Kurono's regular life, as well as the daily lives of other Gantz players (to a lesser extent).

After several missions, an old participant named Nishi, who knows more than the others about how Gantz works, shows them a "catastrophe countdown" on the Gantz sphere which the other players were unaware of. The countdown reveals that there is one week left until some unknown "catastrophe." At the end of that week, a massive alien force invades the Earth and begins exterminating the human race, while Kurono and his companions try their best to make use of Gantz' advanced technology and weaponry in defense. At the end, Nishi and Kurono are depicted to be similar, both of whom were despised by their family and were sinister; however, unlike Nishi, Kurono has a reason to live. Nishi, in the chapter "The Great Escape", is left for dead by Kurono, vowing vengeance against him and crying out for Gantz and mother for help. It is hinted that Nishi died, but his death seems to be unclear. The Japanese also learn of the existence of Gantz teams all around the world. After a long battle, the humans manage to stop the alien invasion and soon after, it is revealed that it was another, highly advanced alien species that provided mankind with the means to defend itself against the invaders, for reasons they refuse to reveal and calls it a whim. In a desperate last effort, the leader of the alien forces, Eeva, challenges the whole human race, promising to exterminate every inhabitant by himself by crashing their mother ship, killing both races if Kurono does not come to their mother ship to fight him. Prior to this announcement Eeva completely dominates all Gantz teams in his vicinity by killing all the hunters, giving the human race a sense of their mortality. The world calls on Kurono, which is broadcast to the entire world, and, with a revived Kato's help, Kurono bets all his chance of winning and saving the human race on himself. Kurono manages to defeat Eeva, thus preventing the alien mothership from destroying Earth. The series ends with Kurono and Kato returning safely to Earth and being greeted as heroes.


Hiroya Oku first thought of Gantz's story when he was in high school. He was inspired by the Jidaigeki program Hissatsu, and the Robert Sheckley novel Time Murderer. However, he did not decide to make Gantz until after writing the manga Zero One; Zero One had a similar setting, but Oku ended the series, noting it was not very entertaining and that it was too expensive to develop.[5]

When creating the chapters for the manga, Oku starts with a thumbnail of the pages. He then creates 3D models of the characters and backgrounds on his computer. Once done, Oku prints the characters and backgrounds he made in 3D, adds tone and color to the pages, and finishes with sound effects and dialogue.[6] He had already used this style in Zero One, but for that title, there was little work in hand drawing; Oku decided to add more hand drawing to give Gantz a more realistic tone as well as reduce the budget. However, he still notes that such a method is time-consuming and that he has to work quickly in order to finish the chapters on time.[5]

Oku tries to incorporate realism into Gantz and adds that some of the events occurring in the story are based on his opinions regarding the world. During violent or erotic scenes, Oku makes sure to not make them very long to avoid reducing the series' realism. However, he has mentioned that he does not autocensor and that all the drawings he has ever illustrated have been published in the manga.[7] Some plot twists are meant to go against common events that happen in several manga such as the deaths of the major characters like Kei Kishimoto and Masaru Kato. Before the series started serialization, Oku told his assistants that with Kurono's exception, all the major characters from the series would die.[5]



Gantz is written and illustrated by Hiroya Oku. The series was first published in Shueisha's seinen manga magazine Weekly Young Jump on June 29, 2000.[8][9] Gantz is divided into three main story arcs referred to as "phases". After the completion of phase 1 (first 237 chapters) on July 20, 2006,[10] the author put the series on hiatus for a short time to work on phase 2 (chapters 238–303), which was serialized from November 22, 2006 to July 2, 2009.[11][12] The third and final phase (chapters 303–383) was serialized from October 1, 2009 to June 20, 2013.[12][13] Shueisha collected its chapters in thirty-seven tankōbon volumes, released from December 11, 2000 to August 19, 2013.[14][15]

In North America, publishing company Dark Horse Comics acquired the licensing rights for the release of English translations of Gantz on July 1, 2007, during the Anime Expo.[16][17] The thirty-seven volumes were published between June 25, 2008 and October 28, 2015.[18][19] The series is published by Glénat in Spain and by Panini in Germany, Italy and Brazil.[20][21][22] It is published by Tonkam in France,[23] by Editorial Vid in Mexico[24] and by Editorial Ivrea in Argentina.[25]


Gantz/Osaka, showing the stories of the Gantz Osaka team, has been published in Japan in 2010 and compiled in 3 volumes released by Shueisha between October 20 and December 17, 2010.[26][27] A special chapter Gantz no Moto that has Hiroya Oku telling the story on how he got into the manga business and what films influenced him was published in Miracle Jump on January 13, 2011.[28] A one-shot chapter Gantz/Nishi, showing the life of Nishi, was published in Weekly Young Jump on May 12, 2011.[29][30]

A spin-off, titled Gantz G, was serialized in Shueisha's Miracle Jump magazine from November 17, 2015 to March 2017 (the final chapter was published in Shonen Jump+ digital magazine).[31][32] The manga was written by Oku and illustrated by Keita Iizuka.[33][34] Dark Horse have also licensed the spin-off.[35]

An historical spin-off of Gantz titled Gantz:E, written by Oku and illustrated by Jin Kagetsu started in the combined 6th–7th issue of Weekly Young Jump on January 9, 2020. The series is being published monthly in the magazine.[36]


An anime adaptation was produced by Gonzo and directed by Ichiro Itano, with Masashi Sogo [ja] handling series composition and writing the scripts, Naoyuki Onda designing the characters and Natsuki Sogawa and Yasuharu Takanashi composing the music. The series aired in Japan on Fuji Television and AT-X.[37][38][39] The Gantz anime is divided into two seasons: "The First Stage" and "The Second Stage", which is a direct continuation of the first season. The First Stage aired in Japan with several scenes censored due to inappropriate content such as violence or nudity. However, the DVDs from the series contained the scenes uncensored.[40] The Second Stage aired on Japanese network AT-X on August 26, 2004.[41] There are a total of 12 Japanese DVDs, released from August 28, 2004 to June 29, 2005. Additionally, the DVDs were compiled into box sets.[42]

ADV Films announced and licensed the series for release in the United States. The series was released in uncut form, retaining the violence and nudity previously censored in Japan for broadcast.[43] Ten DVDs were released by ADV Films from February 8, 2005 to January 17, 2006.[44][45] They also compiled the series in two DVD box sets in 2006 and in a Perfect Score Collection packaged with a bag in the form of Gantz.[46][47][48] On June 25, 2010, anime distributor Funimation Entertainment announced on their online FuniCon 4.0 panel, that they have acquired the rights to the series, along with 3 other former ADV titles after ADV's collapse in 2009.[49]

The anime follows the plot of the manga up to the end of the temple mission. The last five episodes then branch off into an original story not present in the manga.

Gantz: O, a 3D CGI animated film based on the series, was released in 2016.[34]

Video game[edit]

On March 17, 2005, Konami published a game for the PlayStation 2 in Japan named simply as Gantz: The Game. It features the characters and plot up to the Chibi Alien mission. The game mixes third-person shooter and role-playing game (RPG) elements together. The game also includes extras including Free Play mode, a Mini Mode, Magazine Browser mode, Gantz Rankings, a special preview movie and the scenario completion statistic.[50] The game was never released overseas.

Gantz/Burst and Gantz MobileMission are cellphone games.


In July 2009, Weekly Young Jump, the seinen manga magazine, began publishing a novel from the series named Gantz/Minus. It is written by Masatoshi Kusakabe and illustrated by Yusuke Kozaki. The stories take place before the start of the manga, with the focus being on the characters Shion Izumi and Joichiro Nishi, who participate in Gantz's missions. On the cover of each Gantz/Minus issue, it describes itself as a "hyper solid action novel".

Gantz/EXA is the second Gantz novel published. It was first serialized in Jump magazine, then printed as a complete collection in January 2011.

Live-action films[edit]

On November 24, 2009, it was announced that two live-action Gantz films were in production. The films star Kazunari Ninomiya and Kenichi Matsuyama in the roles of Kurono and Kato respectively, and were directed by Shinsuke Sato. The films were released in January and April 2011.[51]

The first film, titled simply as Gantz, was released in Japan on January 29, 2011. A special North American screening took place on January 20, 2011, during which the film was simulcast in theaters across 46 states.[52] At the end of this special Los Angeles showing, which took place at the Mann's Chinese 6 theatre, there was a discussion and live interview with both the male leads,[53] as well as a teaser trailer for the second installment, Gantz: Perfect Answer, which was released in Japan on April 23, 2011. Gantz and Gantz: Perfect Answer were screened in San Diego, California as part of Comic-Con International at the Gaslamp 15 Theater on July 22 & 23.[54]

In May 2020, it was reported that Sony Pictures is adapting Gantz with writer Marc Guggenheim.[55][56]


A companion book titled Gantz/Manual was published by Shueisha on December 17, 2004. The book features episode summaries, character overviews, and additional background details on the Gantz universe.[57] A revised edition, Gantz/Manual Remix, was published in 2011 as a supplement for Gantz manga and live-action film featuring story act summaries, manga story arc summaries, character overviews, and additional background details on the Gantz universe.


Japanese sales from the Gantz manga have led several of the volumes to be featured in lists of best seller volumes from Japan.[58][59] As of November 2010, the Gantz manga had sold over ten million units in Japan,[60] while during January 2011 the sales increased to over fifteen million volumes.[61] As of June 2013, the manga had reportedly sold 20 million copies.[62]

During 2008, Dark Horse Comics announced that the Gantz series had sold 175,000 copies in America.[18] Volume 4 of the manga reached eighth place on The New York Times "Manga Best Seller List".[63]'s Deb Aoki listed Gantz as the best new seinen of 2008 along with Black Lagoon.[64]

DVD sales of Gantz have been particularly strong. According to Anime News Network, Gantz volume three surpassed DVD sales of its predecessor, volume one, by a significant margin. Owing to strong DVD sales, ADV films has continuously released successive volumes and it was one of the most successful anime franchises of 2005.[65] Christopher MacDonald of Anime News Network called it one of Japan's favorite TV anime in October 2006.[66]

The Gantz anime has been described as being extremely "violent", "gory" and "sadistic" and yet is also very "addictive", even when it was censored during broadcast.[65]


  1. ^ Green, Scott (December 27, 2011). "Young Jump Reveals Time Frame For "Gantz" Manga Ending". Crunchyroll. Archived from the original on January 23, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Yegulalp, Serdar. "Great Science Fiction Anime - The best science-fiction themed anime shows". Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2020. This show stakes out a position as close to psychological horror and thriller territory as it does science fiction.
  3. ^ Rothing, Hilary (November 30, 2010). "Japanese Sci-Fi Thriller 'Gantz' Hoping to Capture American Fans with Theatrical Release". MTV Geek News. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011.
  4. ^ "Gantz, Maria-sama, Mori no Asagao Promos Streamed". Anime News Network. October 2, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
  5. ^ a b c Oku, Hiroya (2004). Gantz Manual. Shueisha. pp. 227–47. ISBN 4-08-876735-7.
  6. ^ Oku, Hiroya (2008). Gantz. 1. Dark Horse Comics. pp. 216–19. ISBN 978-1-59307-949-9.
  7. ^ Migoya, Hernan (June 17, 2009). "Hiroya vs. Migoya" (in Spanish). Glénat. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved August 5, 2009.
  8. ^ 8月12日(月)より各電子書店にて『GANTZ』(集英社)1~6巻期間限定無料試し読み実施! さらに『GANTZ』完結37巻、8月19日(月)にデジタル版と同時発売!. Dream News (in Japanese). GlobalIndex Co.,Ltd. August 12, 2013. Archived from the original on January 23, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  9. ^ Web YoungJump - カバー コンテンツ - 2000年28号~41号. Web Young Jump (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on December 20, 2002. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  10. ^ "Gantz 2nd Phase to Begin Serialization This November". 2006-07-19. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
  11. ^ "Gantz Returns! Gantz: 2nd Phase". 2006-11-22. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
  12. ^ a b Loo, Egan (October 1, 2009). "Gantz Manga Enters Final Phase in Japan on Thursday". Anime News Network. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  13. ^ 「GANTZ」連載13年でついに完結、戦いの結末を目撃せよ. Natalie (in Japanese). June 20, 2013. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  14. ^ Gantz 1 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  15. ^ Gantz 37 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  16. ^ "Dark Horse Licenses Gantz, Blood+, More". Anime News Network. 2007-07-01. Archived from the original on 6 June 2009. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  17. ^ "Dark Horse Nabs 'Gantz' Manga". ICv2. 2007-07-05. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
  18. ^ a b "Gantz Volume 1". Dark Horse Comics. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
  19. ^ "Gantz Volume 37". Dark Horse Comics. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  20. ^ "Gantz vol 1" (in Spanish). Glénat. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
  21. ^ "Gantz 1 Ristampa In fumetteria e online Planet Manga" (in Italian). Panini Comics. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
  22. ^ "Hantz vol 3" (in German). Panini Comics. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
  23. ^ "Tous les Volumes de la Seri Gantz". Editions Tonkam (in French). Archived from the original on 30 April 2009.
  24. ^ "Resultados de Gantz". Mundo Vid (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 13 April 2009.
  25. ^ "Gantz". Editorial Ivrea (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 3 January 2010.
  26. ^ GANTZ/OSAKA 1 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  27. ^ GANTZ/OSAKA 3 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  28. ^ SF&ファンタジー描く新雑誌・ミラクルジャンプ本日創刊. Natalie (in Japanese). January 13, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  29. ^ Hodgkins, Crystalyn (May 13, 2011). "Hiroya Oku Draws Gantz Manga 1-Shot Spinoff". Anime News Network. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  30. ^ 「GANTZ」西丈一郎の知られざる放課後を描く番外編掲載. Natalie (in Japanese). May 12, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  31. ^ Hodgkins, Crystalyn (October 16, 2015). "Hiroya Oku, Keita Iizuka Launch Gantz Spinoff Manga in November". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  32. ^ "Miracle Jump Magazine Goes on Hiatus, Prepares for Renewal". Anime News Network. March 1, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  33. ^ "Hiroya Oku, Keita Iizuka Launch Gantz Spinoff Manga in November". Anime News Network. October 16, 2015. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  34. ^ a b "Gantz Manga Gets 'Full 3DCG' Anime Film in 2016". Anime News Network. November 14, 2015. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
  35. ^ Pressler, Karen (March 22, 2018). "Dark Horse to Publish Gantz G Manga". Anime News Network. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  36. ^ Sherman, Jennifer (January 9, 2020). "Hiroya Oku Writes New Gantz:E Historical Spinoff Manga". Anime News Network. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  37. ^ "Gantz Official Site". Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  38. ^ "Gantz (Fuji TV)". Fuji Television. Archived from the original on 28 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  39. ^ "Gantz Season 1 Boxset". Retrieved 2009-03-23.
  40. ^ "Gantz DVDs Unedited". Anime News Network. 2004-07-13. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 2009-04-12.
  41. ^ "Second Gantz TV series Announced". Anime News Network. 2004-07-15. Retrieved 2009-04-12.
  42. ^ "全話見るなら「GANTZ BOX 1&2」がお得です!" (in Japanese). Official Gantz website. Archived from the original on 2009-02-25. Retrieved 2009-04-14.
  43. ^ "ADV Releases Gantz Details". Anime News Network. 2004-12-14. Retrieved 2009-04-12.
  44. ^ "Gantz - Game of Death (Vol. 1)". Retrieved 2009-04-14.
  45. ^ "Gantz, Vol. 10 - Endgame (2006)". Retrieved 2009-04-14.
  46. ^ "Gantz Season 1 Box Set (2006)". Retrieved 2009-04-14.
  47. ^ "Gantz Season 2 Box Set". Retrieved 2009-04-14.
  48. ^ "Gantz: Perfect Score Collection". Retrieved 2009-04-14.
  49. ^ "Funimation Adds Chrono Crusade, Gantz, Kaleido Star, Peacemaker". Anime News Network. 2010-06-25.
  50. ^ Anoop Gantayat (2005-02-22). "New From Konami: Gantz". IGN. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
  51. ^ "Gantz Sci-Fi Manga To Be Adapted in Two Live-Action Films". Anime News Network. 2009-10-07.
  52. ^ "Info dump: list of US theaters to screen Gantz in 2011". Japanator. 2010-12-16.
  53. ^ "World Premiere of Gantz on January 20". Asia Pacific Arts. 2001-01-19.
  54. ^ New People Entertainment (July 12, 2011). "New People Announces Theatrical Comic-Con Screening of Sci-fi Thriller Gantz II: Perfect Answer" (Press release). Retrieved 28 April 2015 – via Anime News Network.
  55. ^ Mike Fleming Jr. (May 21, 2020). "Marc Guggenheim Scripting Spider-Man Universe Heroine 'Jackpot' Movie For Sony Pictures". Deadline. Retrieved 2020-05-22.
  56. ^ Hodgkins, Crystalyn (September 13, 2020). "Deadline Entertainment Website Lists Hollywood Gantz Adaptation". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  57. ^ "GANTZ/MANUAL" (in Japanese). Shueisha. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
  58. ^ "Japanese Comic Ranking, June 22–28". Anime News Network. 2009-07-01. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
  59. ^ "Japanese Comic Ranking, October 21–27". Anime News Network. 2008-10-29. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
  60. ^ "Gantz U.S. Showings to Add Live Interview with 2 Stars". Anime News Network. November 29, 2010. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
  61. ^ "Manga Movie GANTZ Brings Out the Stars at Hollywood Premiere". January 24, 2011. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
  62. ^ "GANTZ:13年にわたる壮大なストーリーに終止符 意味深メッセージも". Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). 2013-06-20. Archived from the original on 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2013-11-28.
  63. ^ "New York Times Manga Best Seller List, April 5–11". Anime News Network. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
  64. ^ Aoki, Deb. "2008 Best New Manga". Archived from the original on 2012-12-25. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
  65. ^ a b "New ADV Announces 2nd Season of GANTZ". Anime News Network. July 8, 2005. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  66. ^ Macdonald, Christopher (October 13, 2006). "Japan's Favorite TV Anime". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on April 13, 2020. Retrieved February 18, 2021.

External links[edit]