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Coordinates: 16°16′N 0°03′W / 16.267°N 0.050°W / 16.267; -0.050
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Urban commune and town
Gao in September 2006
Gao in September 2006
Gao is located in Mali
Location within Mali
Coordinates: 16°16′N 0°03′W / 16.267°N 0.050°W / 16.267; -0.050
Country Mali
CercleGao Cercle
226 m (744 ft)
 • Total86,633
Time zoneUTC+0 (GMT)

Gao /ɡ/, or Gawgaw/Kawkaw,[2] is a city in Mali and the capital of the Gao Region. The city is located on the River Niger, 320 km (200 mi) east-southeast of Timbuktu on the left bank at the junction with the Tilemsi valley.

For much of its history Gao was an important commercial centre involved in the trans-Saharan trade. In the 9th century external Arabic writers described Gao as an important regional power,[3] and by the end of the 10th century, the local ruler was said to be a Muslim. Towards the end of the 13th century, Gao became part of the Mali Empire.

In the first half of the 15th century the town regained its independence. With the conquests of Sunni Ali (ruled 1464–1492) it became the capital of the Songhai Empire. The Empire collapsed after the Moroccan invasion in 1591 and the invaders chose to make Timbuktu their capital.

By the time of Heinrich Barth's visit in 1854, Gao had declined to become an impoverished village with 300 huts constructed from matting. In 2009, the urban commune had a population of 86,633.

In 2012, Gao was captured from Malian government forces by National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) and Ansar Dine rebels. After additional captures of Kidal and Timbuktu, the MNLA declared the region independent of Mali as the nation of Azawad[4] and named Gao its capital.[5] The MNLA lost control to Islamist militias after the Battle of Gao in June 2012, with the city being recaptured by French military forces as part of Opération Serval in early 2013.[6]



Gao is located on the eastern bank of the Niger River at the junction with the Tilemsi Valley. The sprawling town is the largest in eastern Mali. It is connected to the capital, Bamako at the western end of Mali, by 1200 km (750 mi) of paved road. In 2006, the Wabaria bridge was opened to replace the ferry service across the Niger.[7] The bridge was constructed by the China State Construction Engineering Corporation and financed by the Islamic Development Bank and the Malian government.

The town is located with road links (unpaved) to the desert Kidal Region to the north and to Niamey, the capital of Niger, to the south. The road to the south runs along the left bank of the river. The town of Ansongo is 103 km (65 mi) from Gao. The border with Niger is just south of the village of Labbézanga, a distance of 204 km (127 mi). The prime meridian marker runs right through Gao, Mali.

There are also seasonal ferry services on the Niger River. A service between Gao and Koulikoro, a distance of 1380 km (860 mi), is managed by the Compagnie Malienne de Navigation (COMANAV). It usually operates from the end of July, after the annual rains when there is sufficient water in the river, until mid November.[8] Smaller boats are able to operate for a longer season between Bourem and Ansongo.

In the 1998 census, the population of the urban commune was 52,201. By the census in 2009 this had increased to 86,633, a 4.7% annual growth rate.[1] For administrative purposes, the commune is divided into nine quartiers: Gadeye, Farandjiré, Aljanabanbia, Djoulabougou, Saneye, Sosso Koïra, Boulgoundjé, Château, and Djidara.[9] The urban commune is bounded to the north by the commune of Soni Ali Ber, to the east by the commune of Anchawadi and to the south and west by the commune of Gounzoureye.


Climate data for Gao, Mali (1950–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30.8
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 14.8
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 1.3 3.9 7.9 8.4 5.2 0.9 0.0 0.1 28.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 269.8 257.9 269.6 254.2 274.9 227.1 249.7 251.5 253.5 279.8 280.8 261.9 3,130.7
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[10]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[11]

Gao features an arid climate under Köppen's climate classification. Gao's climate is hot and dry, with the only rainfall occurring between June and September. August is normally the wettest month. The average annual rainfall is only 220 mm, but there are large year-to-year variations. May is the hottest month, with an average daily high temperature of 43 °C. December and January are the coolest months, with daily low temperatures of 15 °C. From October to March during the dry period, the north-easterly Harmattan wind blows from the Sahara.

With the low rainfall, the vegetation further away from the river is sparse and consists mainly of various species of Acacia (Acacia raddiana, Acacia nilotica, Acacia ehrenbergiana) and Balanites aegyptiaca. The herbaceous plants are dominated by Cenchrus biflorus and Panicum laetum.[12]

Annual flood of the Niger River[edit]

Almost all the local agriculture depends on river water for irrigation. The annual flood of the Niger River is a result of the heavy rainfall in the headwaters of the Niger and Bani rivers in Guinea and the northern Ivory Coast. The rainfall in the headwater areas peaks in August but the flood water takes time to pass down the river system, through the Inner Niger Delta region and arrive at Gao. At Koulikoro the flood peaks in September,[13] while in Gao the flood lasts longer and reaches a maximum in December.[14] There is a large year-to-year variation in the extent of the flooding. The existing and proposed dams upstream of Gao reduce the overall flow of the river and could potentially have a large effect on the local agriculture.[15] When in flood the river is 4 km wide at Gao but during the dry season a number of islands appear in the river. There is very little flow, only 5% of the maximum, in June and July.



The history of the Gao Empire precedes that of the Songhai Empire in the region of the Middle Niger. Both empires had the town of Gao as their capital. Apart from some Arabic epitaphs on tombstones discovered in 1939 at the cemetery of Gao-Saney (6 km to the east of the city)[16] there are no surviving indigenous written records that date from before the middle of the 17th century.[17] Our knowledge of the early history of the town relies on the writings of Arabic geographers living in Morocco, Egypt and Andalusia, most of whom never visited the region. These authors referred to the town as Kawkaw or Kuku. The two key 17th century chronicles, the Tarikh al-Sudan and the Tarikh al-fattash, provide information on the town at the time of the Songhai Empire but they contain relatively little on the social and economic history.[18] The chronicles do not, in general, acknowledge their sources.[19] Their accounts for the earlier periods are almost certainly based on oral tradition and for events before the second half of the 15th century they are likely to be less reliable. For these earlier periods, the two chronicles sometimes provide conflicting information.

Gao Empire[edit]

There is clear archaeological evidence that Gao was firmly rooted in both its local hinterland and interregional economic networks. Pottery recovered from all levels in both mounds is generally quite similar to examples from sites throughout the region, indicating that Gao was part of a regional market sphere, if not a broader cultural substrate.[20]

Gao thus represents a form of urbanism driven largely by local urban-rural dynamics, but in a way in which local elites capitalized on and, in fact, co-opted the opportunities offered by long-distance trade.[20]

Midden deposits produced large quantities of household debris (animal bones, pottery shards, glass, glass beads, and a variety of copper and iron objects). Collectively, the local character of the ceramic, faunal, and botanical remains suggests that, culturally, Gao-Saney was part of a broader Niger River indigenous cultural complex. Additionally, fragments of North African enamel ware, Andalusian chandelier ware, and fragments of Islamic glass vessels were recovered throughout the excavations at Gao.[20]

Archaeological digs in Gao-Saney show that the site was occupied by roughly 700CE, and was a center of manufacturing, iron smelting, and trade with areas as far away as Mesopotamia.[21] It was the southern terminus of a trade route powered by chariots that linked it to the Mediterranean.[22] At some point no later than the early 10th century the Songhay king based in Kukiya moved to the site of Gao Ancien, just north of the modern city on the bank of the Niger river and a few kilometers from Gao Saney further inland.[23] The kings of this period were of a lineage known as Qanda.[24]

The earliest written mention of Gao is by al-Khwārizmī, who wrote in the first half of the 9th century, when Gao was already an important regional power.[25] Al-Yaqubi wrote in his Tarikh in around 872:

There is the kingdom of the Kawkaw, which is the greatest of the realms of the Sūdān, the most important and most powerful. All the kingdoms obey its king. Al-Kawkaw is the name of the town. Besides this there are a number of kingdoms of which the rulers pay allegiance to him and acknowledge his sovereignty, although they are kings in their own lands.[26]

Ibn al-Faqih (writing c. 903) mentions a caravan route from Egypt to ancient Ghana via Kawkaw,[27] but Ibn Hawqal (writing c. 988) states that the old route from Egypt to the Sudan was abandoned in the reign of the Egyptian ruler Ibn Tulun (ruled 868–884) as some of the caravans were attacked by bandits while others were overwhelmed by the wind-blown sand.[28] The more direct route was replaced by one that went to Sijilmasa before heading south across the Sahara. In the 10th century, Gao was already Muslim and was described as consisting of two separate towns. Al-Muhallabi, who died in 990, wrote in a lost work quoted in the biographical dictionary compiled by Yaqut:

Their king pretends before his subject to be a Muslim and most of them pretend to be Muslims too. He has a town on the Nile [Niger], on the eastern bank, which is called Sarnāh, where there are markets and trading houses and to which there is continuous traffic from all parts. He has another town to the west of the Nile [Niger] where he and his men and those who have his confidence live. There is a mosque there where he prays but the communal prayer ground is between the two towns.[29]

Tomb of Askia
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Gao, the Tomb of Askia
CriteriaCultural: (ii)(iii)(iv)
Inscription2004 (28th Session)
Coordinates16°17′23.28″N 0°2′40.416″E / 16.2898000°N 0.04456000°E / 16.2898000; 0.04456000

The archaeological evidence suggests that there were two settlements on the eastern bank of the Niger:[30] Gao Ancien situated within the modern town, to the east of the Tomb of Askia, and the archaeological site of Gao-Saney (Sané in French) situated around 4 km to the east. The bed of the Wadi Gangaber passes to the south of the Gao-Saney occupation mound (tell) but to the north of Gao Ancien. The imported pottery and glass recovered from Gao-Saney suggest that the site was occupied between the 8th and 11th centuries.[2] Gao-Saney corresponds to Sarnāh of al-Muhallabi.[31] Al-Bakri writing in 1068 also records the existence of two towns,[32] Both al-Muhallabi (see quote above) and al-Bakri[33] situate Gao on the west (or right bank) of the Niger. The 17th century Tarikh al-fattash also states that in the 10th century Gao was situated on the Gourma side (i.e. the west bank) of the river.[34] A large sand dune, La Dune Rose, lies on the west bank opposite Gao, but at Koima, on the edge of the dune at a site 4 km north of Gao, surface deposits indicate a pre 9th century settlement. This could be the west bank Gao mentioned by 10th and 11th-century authors. The site has not been excavated.[35]

al-Idrisi, writing in around 1154, does not mention a second town, and archaeological excavations in Gao-Saney indicate the site may have beena abandoned by this time.[36][37]

Al-Sadi in his Tarikh al-Sudan gives lists 32 rulers of the Zuwa dynasty and states that in 1009–1010 A.D. the 15th ruler, Zuwa Kusoy, was the first to convert to Islam.[38] He does not actually specify where they lived except for the legendary founder of the dynasty, Zuwa Alayman who he claims came from the Yemen to Kukiya.[39][40]

John Hunwick, among others, speculates that the first version of Islam was Ibadism. In c.1079-1082, a Sanhaja Berber group, inspired by the Sunni Almoravids, took control of the area, leaving behind royal epitaphs at a cemetery in Gao-Saney.[41] Whether or not these kings feature on the kings lists of the Za dynasty recorded in the Tarikhs is debated. Dierk Lange posits that these upstarts, whether they were longstanding residents or newcomers, represent the founding of the Sonni dynasty.[42]

Malian empire[edit]

Towards the end of the 13th century Gao lost its independence and became part of the expanding Mali Empire.[43] What happened to the Zuwa rulers is not recorded,[44] though royal epitaphs have been found in Kukiya which may indicate they took shelter there.[45] Lange, again going against more long-established opinions, argues that the Za were in fact Malian vassals and the Sonni were the ones who took refuge in Kukiya.[46]

Ibn Battuta visited Suleyman (mansa) in Gao in 1352–53, when the town formed part of the Mali Empire.[47] He arrived by boat from Timbuktu on his return journey from visiting the capital of the Empire:

Then I travelled to the town of Kawkaw, which is a great town on the Nīl [Niger], one of the finest, biggest, and most fertile cities of the Sūdān. There is much rice there, and milk, and chickens, and fish, and the cucumber, which has no like. Its people conduct their buying and selling with cowries, like the people of Mālī.[48]

People at Gao in the early 1930s
Gao in the early 1930s

After staying a month in the town, Ibn Battuta left with a caravan for Takedda and from there headed north back across the Sahara to an oasis in Tuat with a large caravan that included 600 slave girls.

Songhai empire[edit]

Sometime in the 14th century, Ali Kulun, the first ruler of the Sunni dynasty, rebelled against the Malian hegemony but the Malians were able to regain control.[49][50] It was not until the first half of the 15th century that Sunni Sulayman Dama was able to throw off the Malian yoke. His successor, Sunni Ali Ber (1464–1492), greatly expanded the territory under Songhai control and established the Songhai Empire. He made Gao his capital.

Leo Africanus visited Gao sometime between 1506 and 1510 when the town was ruled by Askiya Muhammad I, the first ruler of the Askiya dynasty. He observed that the large town lacked a surrounding wall and was full of rich merchants.

The town is very civilized compared to Timbuktu. Bread and meat are abundant, though you cannot find wine or fruits. Actually, melons, cucumbers, and excellent squash are plentiful, and there are enormous quantities of rice. There are many sweet water wells. There is a square where on market days huge numbers of slaves are sold, both male and female. A young girl of fifteen is worth about six ducats, and a young man almost as much; small children are worth about half as much as grown slaves.[51]

Towards the end of the 16th century, Gao controlled an empire that extended for over 1,400,000 km2, an area comparable in size to the modern state of Mali.[52] The Tarikh al-fattash reports that a survey conducted during the reign of Askiya Al-Hajj (1582–1586) found that there were 7,626 houses without counting the huts made of straw.[53] Assuming each house was occupied by an average of 6 people, this would imply a population of around 45,000, making Gao one of the largest cities in West Africa at the time.[54]

The Moroccan invasion of 1591 led to the collapse of the Songhai Empire. The invaders chose to make Timbuktu their capital and the importance of Gao declined. The German explorer Heinrich Barth visited Gao in 1854 on his return journey from Timbuktu. He found a village of about 300 huts constructed of matting and grouped in clusters.[55] The inhabitants were very poor and had only a few boats as they lacked wood for their construction. The site of the ancient town was overgrown with Capparis decidua bushes.[56]

21st century[edit]

French soldiers on patrol in Gao in 2013

On 31 March 2012, one day after the capture of Kidal, Malian military forces retreated from Gao's military bases, allowing it to be occupied by Tuareg rebellion member groups MNLA and Ancar Dine.[57] Timbuktu was captured the following day.[58] On 6 April, the MNLA declared the region independent of Mali as the nation of Azawad.[4] After the Battle of Gao on 26 and 27 June 2012, the MNLA lost control to Islamist militias.[59]

After the 2012 rebellion forced the Malian Army out of Gao and the state of Azawad was proclaimed, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad took control of the governor's building, flying the flag of Azawad over it and rechristening it the Palace of Azawad.[60]

On 26 June 2012, the tension came to all-out combat in Gao between the MNLA and MOJWA, with both sides firing heavy weapons. MNLA Secretary General Bilal ag Acherif was wounded in the battle. The MNLA were soon driven from the city, and from Kidal and Timbuktu shortly after. However, the MNLA stated that it continued to maintain forces and control some rural areas in the region. The following day, Ansar Dine announced that it was in control of all the cities of northern Mali.

On 19 January 2013, it was reported that Gao journalist Kader Toure was killed after being suspected of working for foreign news services. In retaliation, the local youth are reported to have lynched Islamic police commissioner Aliou Toure who was recruited by MUWA, Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa, who took control of the town in June 2012.[61]

In January 2013 French warplanes bombed parts of Gao, including the airport, in an attempt to drive out fighters from the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa.[62]

Gao was captured by French and Malian forces on 26 January 2013, as the Islamists were driven out from the city.

On 17 March 2015, a United Nations AH-64 helicopter crashed during an exercise near the town, killing both pilots. The AH-64 came from the Dutch Air Force's Defense Helicopter Command.[63]

On 18 January 2017, a suicide bomber from Al-Mourabitoun drove a vehicle filled with explosives into a military camp near Gao, killing 77 people and injuring at least 115 (see 2017 Gao bombing). The incident was the deadliest terrorist attack in Malian history.


The population of Gao mostly speak Koyraboro Senni but includes many ethnicities, including the Bozo (traditionally nomadic river dwellers), Fulfulde/Fulani cattle keepers, and Tuareg nomads, Arabs as well as Bambara peoples from western Mali.

The seventh Festival des arts et cultures songhay was celebrated in February 2007 at Gao, reflecting the city's importance as a Songhay cultural capital.[64]


Attractions in Gao include the original fourteenth century Kankou Moussa Mosque [fr], the Askia Tomb (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) built in 1495 and incorporating another mosque, a museum devoted to the Sahel, markets including a night market, and La Dune Rose, a sand dune named after its appearance at dawn and nightfall.


Regional patterns[edit]

The mosques of the Niger Bend and the pre-Saharan steppe form a group corresponding to the northern extremity of the Sahel, in direct contact with the desert.[65] The main façade of the mosques of the Niger Bend is smooth, with no vertical elements, and terraces with merlons are rare. On the external façade, the mihrab forms a low projection ending in a conical point, but is not surmounted by a tower. Inside the mosque, the pillars are massive, there are no arcades and there are few mural decorations. Only the minaret stands out among these rather low buildings. In short, this group of mosques is mainly found in northern Mali and Niger and is the prerogative of the Songhay and Tuareg populations. It is characterised by a minaret, a low and projecting conical mihrab tower, the rarity of buttresses and battlements, and massive supports in the prayer hall, as in the mosques of Sankore and Sidi Yahya in Timbuktu and Tendirma in Mali.

The mosques of Gao[edit]

Once the centre of the Songhay Empire and a bustling trading centre, Gao boasts a rich historical heritage in its three urban settlements: Gao Saney, Old Gao and Gao. Excavations in Gao Saney,[66]the oldest settlement east of the modern city, revealed a royal cemetery decorated with epitaphs and tombstones dating to 1104.[67] Old Gao, built in the eighth to tenth centuries, coexisted with Gao Saney and served as an integral part of the city's urban fabric.

In Old Gao, excavations.[68][69] uncovered two monumental buildings dating from the early tenth century. One of these structures, believed to be a mosque, has dimensions that indicate its importance within the community. The dimensions of the mosque are approximately [insert dimensions here] and include architectural elements characteristic of the period. This mosque likely played a central role in the religious and cultural life of Old Gao, serving as a place of worship and community gathering.

Furthermore, the absence of a mihrab niche in this mosque suggests its possible use by early Muslim communities, possibly Ismailis or Ibadis, reflecting the diverse religious landscape of the region at the time. Dating from the late twelfth to fourteenth centuries, the mosque is one of the oldest mosques excavated in West Africa to date, providing valuable insights into the early spread of Islam in the region.

In addition, the mosque tomb of Askia Muhammad, built between 1493 and 1538, displays unique architectural elements and extensive dimensions.[70] Covering an area of some 2500 m², this large structure consisted of seven bays parallel to the qibla wall, with arcades resting on wide piers. The courtyard of the mosque, which was larger than the covered hall, had a minaret rising 12 metres in the centre. This distinctive minaret, decorated with toron, was similar to Ibn Tulun's mosque in Cairo,[71] highlighting the architectural influences that shaped Gao's mosques during this period.


Gao School (primary school).

Notable residents[edit]

International relations[edit]

Gao is twinned with:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Resultats Provisoires RGPH 2009 (Région de Gao) (PDF), République de Mali: Institut National de la Statistique, archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011
  2. ^ a b Cissé et al. 2013.
  3. ^ Levtzion 1973, p. 3.
  4. ^ a b "Tuareg rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of Mali". Al Arabiya. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  5. ^ "Tuaregs claim 'independence' from Mali". Al Jazeera. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  6. ^ "Mali: French-led soldiers 'in control of Gao'", BBC News, 26 January 2013, retrieved 26 January 2013.
  7. ^ Chabasseur, Eglantine (12 November 2006), Le pont de Gao, "un rêve devenu réalité" (in French), Radio France internationale, archived from the original on 12 April 2009, retrieved 10 December 2010
  8. ^ Coulibaly, Baye (7 April 2010), Comanav: Les bateau de la discord (in French), L'Essor, archived from the original on 18 June 2010, retrieved 20 December 2010
  9. ^ Plan de Securite Alimentaire Commune Urbaine de Gao 2005–2009 (PDF) (in French), Commissariat à la Sécurité Alimentaire, République du Mali, USAID-Mali, 2005, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011, retrieved 30 January 2011.
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  11. ^ "Gao Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  12. ^ Schéma Directeur de Lutte Contre L'ensablement dans le Nord Du Mali (6ème Et 7ème Régions): Monographie de la Commune de Soni Ali Ber (PDF) (in French), Ministère de l'Environnement et de L'assainissement, République du Mali, 2004, archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2011
  13. ^ Composite Runoff Fields V 1.0: Koulikoro, University of New Hampshire/Global Runoff Data Center, retrieved 30 January 2011.
  14. ^ Composite Runoff Fields V 1.0: Ansongo, University of New Hampshire/Global Runoff Data Center, retrieved 30 January 2011.
  15. ^ Zwarts, Leo (2010), Will the Inner Niger Delta shrivel up due to climate change and water use upstream? A&W Report 1537. Commissioned by Wetlands International (PDF), Feanwâlden, The Netherlands: Altenburg & Wymenga, archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011, retrieved 30 January 2011.
  16. ^ Sauvaget 1950; Moraes Farias 1990; Lange 1991
  17. ^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 1.
  18. ^ Hunwick 2003, p. xxxviii.
  19. ^ Hunwick 2003, pp. lxiii–lxiv.
  20. ^ a b c Monroe, J. Cameron; et al. (2018). ""Elephants for Want of Towns": Archaeological Perspectives on West African Cities and Their Hinterlands". Journal of Archaeological Research. 26 (4): 387–446. doi:10.1007/s10814-017-9114-2.
  21. ^ Cissé et al. 2013, p. 29.
  22. ^ Takezawa & Cisse 2012, p. 813.
  23. ^ Takezawa & Cisse 2012, p. 837.
  24. ^ Lange 1991, p. 269.
  25. ^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 7.
  26. ^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 7; Levtzion 1973, p. 15
  27. ^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, pp. 27, 378 n4.
  28. ^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, pp. 45, 51, 382 n21.
  29. ^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 174.
  30. ^ Insoll 1997.
  31. ^ Insoll 1997, p. 23.
  32. ^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 87.
  33. ^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 85.
  34. ^ Kâti 1913, p. 329; Hunwick 1994, p. 265
  35. ^ Insoll 1997, pp. 4–8.
  36. ^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 113.
  37. ^ Takezawa & Cisse 2012, p. 824.
  38. ^ A similar list of rulers is given in the Tarikh al-fattash. Kâti 1913, pp. 331–332
  39. ^ Kukiya is a town mentioned in the Tarikh al-sudan and the Tarikh al-fattash (as Koûkiya in the French translation). It is believed to have been near the modern village of Bentiya on the east side of the Niger 134 km southeast of Gao near 15°20′56″N 0°45′36″E / 15.349°N 0.760°E / 15.349; 0.760. Tombstones with Arabic inscriptions dating from the 14th and 15th centuries have been found in the area. Moraes Farias 1990, p. 105
  40. ^ Hunwick 2003, pp. xxxv, 5.
  41. ^ Hunwick 1994, p. 271
  42. ^ Lange 1994, p. 297.
  43. ^ Levtzion 1973, p. 76.
  44. ^ Hunwick 2003, p. xxxvi.
  45. ^ Takezawa & Cisse 2012, p. 839.
  46. ^ Lange 1994, p. 298.
  47. ^ Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. London: Picador. pp. 286–290. ISBN 9780330418799.
  48. ^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 300.
  49. ^ Hunwick 2003, p. xxxvii.
  50. ^ Lange 1994, p. 421.
  51. ^ Hunwick 2003, p. 283.
  52. ^ Hunwick 2003, p. xlix.
  53. ^ Kâti 1913, p. 262.
  54. ^ Gomez, Michael (2018). African dominion: a new history of empire in early and medieval West Africa. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 363. ISBN 9780691177427.
  55. ^ Barth 1859, p. 481.
  56. ^ Barth 1859, p. 482.
  57. ^ "Mali Tuareg rebels seize key garrison town of Gao". BBC News. 31 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  58. ^ Rukmini Callimachi (1 April 2012). "Mali coup leader reinstates old constitution". Associated Press. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  59. ^ "Mali: Islamists seize Gao from Tuareg rebels". BBC News. 28 June 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  60. ^ "Malians protest against Azawad independence". The Telegraph. London. 6 April 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  61. ^ "Residents in northern Malian town lynch Islamist: sources", Chicago Tribune, 19 January 2013, retrieved 26 January 2013[permanent dead link].
  62. ^ "French planes bomb airport in Mali". 3 News NZ. 14 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
  63. ^ "Two die in Dutch UN helicopter crash". BBC News. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  64. ^ Festival des arts et cultures Songhay: Un facteur d’épanouissement de la région de Gao, Les Echos du 14 février 2007
  65. ^ Pradines, Stéphane. Historic Mosques of Sub-Saharan Africa: From Timbuktu to Zanzibar. Vol. 163. Brill, 2022.
  66. ^ Takezawa & Cisse 2012, p. 6-11.
  67. ^ De Moraes Farias, Arabic Medieval Inscriptions from the Republic of Mali (2003): XXXIII-XXXIV and 3-84.
  68. ^ Mauny, "Notes d'archéologie au sujet de Gao" (1951): 837-852.
  69. ^ Insoll, Islam, Archaeology and History in Gao Region (Mali) ca AD 900-1250 (1996): 16 et 55; The Archaeology of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa (2003): 235-236
  70. ^ Prussin, "The Architecture of Islam in West Africa" (1968): 32-74.
  71. ^ O'Kane, The mosques of Egypt (2016)
  72. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (17 January 2013). "Jihadist Kingpin Suspected in Hostage Seizure". The New York Times. Algeria;France;Mali. Retrieved 24 January 2013.


Further reading[edit]

  • Cornevin, R. (1991), "Gao", Encyclopaedia of Islam Volume 2 (2nd ed.), Leiden: Brill, pp. 976–978, ISBN 978-90-04-07026-4. First published in 1965.
  • Mauny, Raymond (1951), "Notes d'archéologie au sujet de Gao", Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (B) (in French), 13: 837–852.
  • Moraes Farias, P.F. de (2003), Arabic medieval inscriptions from the Republic of Mali: Epigraphy, chronicles and Songhay-Tuareg history, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-726222-1.

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