Gap Inc. headquarters building
San Francisco, California,
Number of locations
(President and CEO)
Teri List-Stoll (CFO)
|Revenue||US$16.6 billion |
|US$1.479 billion (2017)|
|US$848 million (2017)|
|Total assets||US$7.989 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||US$3.144 billion (2017)|
Number of employees
The Gap, Inc., commonly known as Gap Inc. or Gap, (stylized as GAP) is an American worldwide clothing and accessories retailer.
Gap was founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher and Doris F. Fisher and is headquartered in San Francisco, California. The company operates six primary divisions: Gap (the namesake banner), Banana Republic, Old Navy, Intermix, Hill City, and Athleta. Gap Inc. is the largest specialty retailer in the United States, and is 3rd in total international locations, behind Inditex Group and H&M. As of September 2008, the company has approximately 135,000 employees and operates 3,727 stores worldwide, of which 2,406 are located in the U.S.
The Fisher family remains deeply involved in the company, collectively owning much of its stock. Donald Fisher served as Chairman of the Board until 2004, playing a role in the ouster of then-CEO Millard Drexler in 2002, and remained on the board until his death on September 27, 2009. Fisher's wife and their son, Robert J. Fisher, also serve on Gap's board of directors. Robert succeeded his father as chairman in 2004 and also served as CEO on an interim basis following the resignation of Paul Pressler in 2007, before being succeeded by Glenn K. Murphy up until 2014. On February 1, 2015, Art Peck took over as CEO of Gap Inc.
- 1 History
- 2 Corporate identity
- 3 Labor controversies
- 4 Management
- 5 Stores
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
In 1969, Don Fisher, a California commercial real estate broker specializing in retail store location, was a social friend of Walter "Wally" Haas Jr, President of Levi Strauss & Co. Fisher was inspired by the sudden success of 'The Tower of Shoes' in an old Quonset Hut in a non-retail industrial area of Sacramento, California., that drew crowds by advertising that no matter what brand, style or size of shoes a woman could want it was at The Tower of Shoes. And knowing that even Macy's, the biggest Levi's customer, was constantly running out of the best selling Levi's sizes, and colors, Fisher asked Haas to let him copy The Tower of Shoes' business model and apply it to Levi's products. Haas referred Fisher to Bud Robinson, his Director of Advertising, for what Haas assumed would be a quick refusal; but instead Robinson and Fisher carefully worked out a legal test plan for what was to become The Gap (named by Don's wife Doris Fisher).
Fisher agreed to stock only Levi's apparel in every style and size, all grouped by size, and Levi's guaranteed The Gap to be never out of stock by overnight replenishment from Levi's San Jose, California warehouse. And finally, Robinson offered to pay 50% of The Gap's radio advertising upfront and avoided antitrust laws by offering the same marketing package to any store that agreed to sell nothing but Levi's products.
Fisher opened the first Gap store on Ocean Avenue in San Francisco on August 21, 1969; its only merchandise consisted of Levi's and LP records to attract teen customers.
In 1970, Gap opened its second store in San Jose. In 1971, Gap established its corporate headquarters in Burlingame, California with four employees. By 1973, the company had over 25 locations and had expanded into the East Coast market with a store in the Echelon Mall in Voorhees, New Jersey. In 1974, Gap began to sell private-label merchandise.
In the 1990s, Gap assumed an upscale identity and revamped its inventory under the direction of Millard Drexler. However, Drexler was removed from his position after 19 years of service in 2002 after over-expansion, a 29-month slump in sales, and tensions with the Fisher family. Drexler refused to sign a non-compete agreement and eventually became CEO of J. Crew. One month after his departure, merchandise that he had ordered was responsible for a strong rebound in sales. Robert J. Fisher recruited Paul Pressler as the new CEO; he was credited with closing under-performing locations and paying off debt. However, his focus groups failed to recover the company's leadership in its market.
In 2007, Gap announced that it would "focus [its] efforts on recruiting a chief executive officer who has deep retailing and merchandising experience ideally in apparel, understands the creative process and can effectively execute strategies in large, complex environments while maintaining strong financial discipline". That January, Pressler resigned after two disappointing holiday sales seasons and was succeeded by Robert J. Fisher on an interim basis. He began working with the company in 1980 and joined the board in 1990, and would later assume several senior executive positions, including president of Banana Republic and the Gap units. The board's search committee was led by Adrian Bellamy, chairman of The Body Shop International and included founder Donald Fisher. On February 2, Marka Hansen, the former head of the Banana Republic division, replaced Cynthia Harriss as the leader of the Gap division. The executive president for marketing and merchandising Jack Calhoun became interim president of Banana Republic. In May, Old Navy laid off approximately 300 managers in lower volume locations to help streamline costs. That July, Glenn Murphy, previously CEO of Shoppers Drug Mart in Canada, was announced as the new CEO of Gap, Inc. New lead designers were also brought on board to help define a fashionable image, including Patrick Robinson for Gap Adult, Simon Kneen for Banana Republic, and Todd Oldham for Old Navy. Robinson was hired as chief designer in 2007, but was dismissed in May 2011 after sales failed to increase. However, he enjoyed commercial success in international markets. In 2007, Ethisphere Magazine chose Gap from among thousands of companies evaluated as one of 100 "World's Most Ethical Companies".
In October 2011, Gap Inc. announced plans to close 189 US stores, nearly 21 percent, by the end of 2013; however, it also plans to expand its presence in China. The company announced it would open its first stores in Brazil in the Fall of 2013.
In January 2015, Gap Inc announced plans to close their subsidiary Piperlime in order to focus on their core brands. The first and only Piperlime store, based in SoHo, New York City, closed in April.
In September 2018, Gap Inc began publicizing Hill City, a men's athletic apparel brand that launched in October 2018.
Gap Inc. owns a trademark to its name, "Gap". The Gap's original trademark was a service mark for retail clothing store services. The application was filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office on February 29, 1972, by The Gap Stores; registration was granted on October 10, 1972. The first use of the trademark was on August 23, 1969, and expanded to commercial usage on October 17, 1969. A second application was filed by Gap Stores, Inc. on September 12, 1974, this time for a trademark filed for shirts. The first usage for shirts and clothing products was on June 25, 1974. Trademark registration was granted on December 28, 1976. Both the service mark and trademark are registered and owned by Gap (Apparel), LLC of San Francisco, California.
On October 4, 2010, in an effort to establish a contemporary presence, Gap introduced a new logo. It was designed with the Helvetica font and reduced the prominence of the brand's iconic blue box. After much public outcry, the company reverted to its previous "blue box" logo on October 12, after less than a week in use. Marka Hansen, the executive who oversaw the logo change, resigned February 1, 2011.
Banana Republic, a small safari-themed clothing retailer, was purchased by Gap in 1983 and was rebranded as an upscale clothing retailer in the late 1980s.
Old Navy was launched in 1994 as a value chain with a specialty flair. On February 28, 2019, Gap Inc., announced that Old Navy will spin-off from the company, making Old Navy independent from Gap Inc.
Forth & Towne
Forth & Towne, the company's fourth traditional retail concept, was launched on August 24, 2005, featuring apparel targeted toward women 35 years and older. On February 26, 2007, after an 18-month trial period, it was discontinued, and the 19 stores were closed.
A sixth brand, Athleta, a women's athletic wear line, was added in 2009. It is still an active brand.
Hill City, a men's athletic apparel company, was launched on October, 2018. It is still an active brand.
Janie & Jack
Gap's Sales by Division in Q1 2018
|Gap North America||$834 million|
|Banana Republic North America||$475 million|
|Old Navy North America||$1.18 billion|
|Gap Inc Direct||$267 million|
The Gap originally targeted the younger generation when it opened, with its name referring to the generation gap of the time. It originally sold everything that Levi Strauss & Co made in every style, size, and color, and organized the stock by size. The Gap was the first of many shops that carried only Levi's. In 1973, Gap started making their own jeans as a way to differentiate themselves from department stores. Gap inc is doing market segmentation. Gap's current marketing works to appeal to a broad demographic of customers, whereas Banana Republic presents a sophisticated image with a self expressing easygoing personality and Old Navy focuses "fun, fashion, and value" for families and younger customers. While the company has been criticized for blandness and uniformity in its selling environments, it maintains that it tailors its stores "to appeal to unique markets" by developing multiple formats and designs. The domain www.gap.com attracts over 18 million visitors annually, according to a 2008 Compete.com survey. The brand is being criticized in the UK because the merchandise that is offered to the UK customers cost double the prices (or even a direct $/£ swap) found in the United States. Gap also does not offer XXL or larger sizes in the UK stating the UK market does not require them in contrast to market leader NEXT who offer a variety of larger sizes in the UK.
Gap operates company-owned stores in the United States, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Ireland, Japan, China, and Taiwan as of May 2016[update]. Including both company-owned and franchised stores, there are Gap, Banana Republic, Athleta, Intermix, or Old Navy stores in 43 countries. In January 2008, Gap signed a deal with Marinopoulos Group to open Gap and Banana Republic stores in Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, and Croatia. In February 2009, Elbit Imaging, Ltd. secured a franchise to open and operate Gap and Banana Republic stores in Israel. In August 2010, the company opened its first store in Melbourne, Australia at Chadstone Shopping Centre. In September 2011, Komax opened the first Gap store in Chile, due to a franchise. In October 2011, the first GAP store opened in Warsaw, Poland, but shut it down and two other locations in Wrocław and Katowice in 2015. Gap now has a store in New Delhi, India which opened in May 2015. On February 20, 2016, Gap launched stores in Mumbai at Oberoi Mall and Infinity-2.
In May 2016, Gap Inc. announced it would shutter all Old Navy stores in Japan in response to poor Q1 performance for Old Navy and consistent losses across the organization.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
In 2006, Gap took part in the Product Red campaign with the launch of a special RED collection, including a T-shirt manufactured in Lesotho from African cotton. The expanded Gap Product Red collection was released on October 13, 2006. 50 to 100 percent of the profits went to the Global Fund, depending on the item. The company continued the products into 2007, especially in the lead up to Valentine's Day, using slogans such as "Admi(RED)" and "Desi(RED)". National Labor Committee for Worker and Human Rights activists criticized Gap's partnerships because Gap has historically been accused of sweatshop-like conditions. Product Red has contributed over $45 million to the Global Fund, more than any other private donation received to date. Other launch partners included American Express, Apple Inc., Converse, Hallmark, Emporio Armani, and Motorola.
Reports from news outlets of sweatshop workers in Saipan not being paid for overtime work, being subjected to forced abortion, and being required to work in unsafe working conditions surfaced in 1999. In 2003, a class action lawsuit against Gap and 21 other companies was started which ended when a settlement of 20 million dollars was reached.
In May 2006, adult and child employees of Western Factory, a supplier in Irbid, Jordan, were found to have worked up to 109 hours per week and to have gone six months without being paid. Some employees claimed they had been raped by managers. The government of Jordan launched an investigation into the supplier and other textile factories and announced actions to prevent future abuses. Walmart, who also sources from the supplier, confirmed "serious problems with working conditions" at Western Factory and other Jordanian suppliers. As of May 2018[update], Gap had ceased their relationship with Western Factory.
On October 28, 2007, BBC footage showed child labor in Indian Gap factories. The company denied knowledge of the happenings; it subsequently removed and destroyed the single piece of clothing in question, a smock blouse, from a British store. Gap promised to investigate breaches in its ethical policy.
On February 19, 2014, Glenn Murphy, CEO of Gap Inc., announced Gap will raise the minimum wages for its 65,000 U.S. store employees.
The current leadership is:
- Art Peck, President, Gap Inc.
- Teri List-Stoll, EVP and CFO
- Neil Fiske, President & CEO, Gap 
- Mark Breitbard, President & CEO, Banana Republic
- Sonia Syngal, President & CEO, Old Navy
- Nancy Green, President and CEO, Athleta
- Jyothi Rao, President and General Manager, Intermix
- Michael Yee, EVP and General Manager, Greater China
- Julie Gruber, EVP, General Counsel, Corporate Secretary, Chief Compliance Officer, Gap Inc.
- Brent Hyder, EVP, Chief People Officer, Gap Inc.
- Sebastian DiGrande, EVP, Strategy & Chief Customer Officer, Gap Inc.
- Christophe Roussel, EVP Global Sourcing, Gap Inc.
- Sally Gilligan, Chief Information Officer
- Shawn Curran, EVP, Global Supply Chain and Product Operations, Gap Inc.
Board of directors
- Robert J. Fisher, Chairman
- William S. Fisher
- Tracy Gardner
- Brian Goldner
- Bella Goren
- Bob L. Martin
- Jorge P. Montoya
- Chris O'Neill
- Art Peck
- Mayo A. Shattuck III
- Katherine Tsang
As of the end of Q3 2018, Gap Inc. had 3,688 company-operated or franchised stores in operation across 43 countries and had the ability to ship to 90 countries. Stores in Brazil, Canada, China, France, Italy, Ireland, Japan, Mexico, UK, and US (including Puerto Rico) are company-owned; those outside of these countries are owned and operated by franchises.
- "Gap Inc.'s Global Footprint" (PDF). The Gap, Inc. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
As of the end of Q4 2017, Gap Inc. had 3,594 company-operated or franchised stores in operation across 46 countries.[self-published source]
- Sciacca, Annie (May 23, 2016). "Gap decides not to keep its store workers waiting". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- "GAP company profile". Craft. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
- "The Gap, Inc. 2017 Annual Report (Form 10-K)". sec.gov. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. March 2018.
- Legal name as stated in the company's SEC filings (such as its 2010 10-K report). For non-regulatory purposes the company usually refers to itself as "Gap Inc."
- "Gap And Zara Battle For Top Spot – News Markets". Portfolio.com. September 11, 2008. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- "Store Count". Archived from the original (PDF) on March 28, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- "Gap Explores Alternatives, Including Possible Sale: CNBC's Faber". CNBC.com. January 8, 2007.
- "Gap Inc.'s Glenn Murphy to Pass Reins to Digital Leader Art Peck as Next Chief Executive Officer". www.gapinc.com. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
- Robinson, Bud (November 30, 2010). Guaranteed to Shrink, Wrinkle, and Fade (First ed.). AMAZON Books: self-published. pp. Chapter 11 pps.54–58. ISBN 978-0615434230.
- "Gap Profile on Forbes". forbes.com. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- Rusli, Evelyn M. (November 23, 2010). "In J. Crew Buyout, an Effort to Gain a Retail Visionary". The New York Times.
- Paumgarten, Nick. The Merchant. The New Yorker. September 20, 2010.
- Gordon, Meryl. Mickey Drexler’s Redemption. The New Yorker. May 21, 2005.
- Jackson, Eric (December 2, 2011). "What Mickey Drexler Learned from Steve Jobs". Forbes.
- "Best (and Worst) Leaders | BusinessWeek". Images.businessweek.com. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- "Paul Pressler's Fall From The Gap". Businessweek. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- "Gap CEO resigns after poor holiday season – Business – US business | NBC News". MSNBC. January 22, 2007. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- "CEO Pressler's out at Gap Inc." MarketWatch
- "Gap flagship brand to be run by company veteran" MarketWatch
- Cartner-Morley, Jess (May 5, 2011). "Gap sacks Patrick Robinson as chief designer". The Guardian. London.
- Holmes, Elizabeth (May 6, 2011). "Revolving Door Spins at Gap". The Wall Street Journal.
- "A Fashion Guy Gets Gap Back to Basics". Businessweek. August 6, 2008. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- "2007 World's Most Ethical Companies - Ethisphere Magazine". Archived from the original on July 6, 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- "Gap closing stores in US". Jakarta Post. Associated Press. October 14, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- Mattioli, Dana (October 14, 2011). "Gap to Slash Its Store Count". The Wall Street Journal. p. B1.
- "Gap Inc. Announces Plans to Open First Gap Stores in Brazil : RushPRNews – Newswire & Global Press Release Distribution". RushPRNews. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- Engel, Meredith (January 23, 2015). "Gap's Piperlime shop to close". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
- Segran, Elizabeth (September 20, 2018). "Gap Inc. unveils its first new brand in more than a decade". Fast Company. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
- Moss, Hilary (October 6, 2010). "Gap Gets A New Logo (PHOTOS, POLL)". Huffington Post.
- Moss, Hilary (October 12, 2010). "Gap Gets Rid Of New Logo". Huffington Post.
- "Head of Gap brand out, outlet executive in line: source". Reuters. February 1, 2011.
- "Gap Inc. Announces Plan to Separate into Two Independent Publicly Traded Companies".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 26, 2006. Retrieved April 22, 2005.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Gap Inc. Announces it will close Forth & Towne Store concept". Gap Inc. February 26, 2007. Archived from the original (press release) on May 31, 2015.
- Duxbury, Sarah (October 6, 2006). "Piperlime — the shoe fits, Gap wears it". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
- Rosenbloom, Stephanie (September 22, 2008). "Gap Acquires Athleta for $150 Million". New York Times. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
- "INTERMIX". Gapinc.com. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Breakdown of net sales by Division from company 8Ks
- Morning Edition (September 28, 2009). "Gap Inc. Co-Founder Donald Fisher Dies At 81". NPR. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- Arnold-Ratliff, Katie (October 16, 2013). "There's a Gap for That". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
- Research 1960s: Commerce – Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell Bottoms. www.BookRags.com. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- "Site Profile for gap.com (rank #238) | Compete". Siteanalytics.compete.com. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- "Gap Inc. Company-Operated Store Count by Country" (PDF). Gap Inc. 2017. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- "Gap Inc.'s Global Footprint" (PDF). Gap Inc. June 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- Shields, Amy (January 22, 2008). "Gap signs Greek franchise partner | News". Retail Week. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- Elbit Imaging to franchise Gap, Banana Republic in Israel By Robert Daniel, February 18, 2009
- Mangubat, Carlos (August 30, 2010). "GAP opens in Australia". SCOUT. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- "GAP Inc. Announces franchise agreement to bring gap brand to Australia" (Press release). San Francisco: Gap Inc. March 24, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- "Gap abrirá primera tienda en Chile e inicia desembarco en Sudamérica". La Tercera. November 17, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2011.
- "Pierwszy sklep Gap w Polsce powstanie w Warszawie". Warszawa.gazeta.pl. September 21, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- Armental, Maria; Safdar, Khadeeja (May 19, 2016). "Gap to Close Old Navy in Japan, Warns of Earnings Shortfall". Wsj.com. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- Steinberg, Jessica (January 12, 2017). "The Gap will close in Israel, and it's not just because of its clothes". Times of Israel. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- Hatch, Patrick (August 4, 2017). "Gap stores to close in Australia after Oroton Group pulls pin". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- "GAP INTRODUCES INSPIRATIONAL MARKETING CAMPAIGN TO CELEBRATE FIRST ANNIVERSARY OF GLOBAL LAUNCH OF GAP (PRODUCT) RED". GapInc.com. Gap Inc. Retrieved March 10, 2007.
- "Achtung, Bono! Activists See Red". NYmag.com. Retrieved October 27, 2007.
- Abrams, Fran (September 23, 1999). "Shirts for the fashionable, at a price paid in human misery On US soil, the Gap workers are forced to have abortions". The Independent. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- Clarren, Rebecca (Spring 2006). "Paradise Lost: Greed, Sex Slavery, Forced Abortions and Right-Wing Moralists". Ms. Magazine. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- "Do Any of Us Really Want a "Bargain" Based on Trafficking of Young Women into Involuntary Servitude?" (PDF). NLCNET. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2008.
- Flanagan, Mike (2006). "Jordan accepts abuse claims" (PDF). The Source (4).
- "GAP INC. FACTORY LIST" (PDF). Gap Inc. Global Sustainability. May 2018. p. 36. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- "Gap pulls 'child labour' clothing". BBC News. October 28, 2007. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Gap accused of child labor. CBS News. October 29, 2007. Archived from the original on February 7, 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- Edelson, Sharon (February 10, 2014). "Gap Readies Minimum Wage Increase". WWD. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- "Our Leadership". Gapinc.com. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- Clare O'Connor (October 9, 2014). "Meet Art Peck, Gap Inc's New CEO, The Man Modernizing Retail's Old-Timer". Forbes. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- "Our Leadership". Gapinc.com. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- "Board of Directors" (PDF). Gapinc.com. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- "Media – Press Releases". Gap Inc. Archived from the original on September 30, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- "Gap Inc. Store Count by Brand" (PDF). Gapinc.com. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- "Gap Inc". Retrieved March 3, 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "GAP supera obstáculos y llega a México – Lifestyle". CNNExpansion.com. September 13, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- "Fiba Group - Gap". Archived from the original on July 31, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- "Al Tayer Group – Al Tayer Trends". Altayer.com. Archived from the original on June 1, 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- "Home – Live Gap". livegap.cl. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- "Gap Coming to Egypt, Morocco". Zacks.com. June 30, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- "City Mall directory". Archived from the original on October 10, 2011. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- mall28.az. "Kişi geyimləri". Mall28.az. Archived from the original on July 10, 2014. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- "Gap Paraguay Home". Archived from the original on August 10, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "Our Story". Banana Republic. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- "Fiba Group - Banana Republic". Archived from the original on January 13, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- "Banana Republic – Bienvenido". Bananarepublic.cl. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- "Banana Republic entra al país con una tienda en Medellín | Negocios". Portafolio.co. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
Media related to Gap Inc. at Wikimedia Commons