Garage rock

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"Garage band" redirects here. For other uses, see Garage band (disambiguation).
"Frat rock" redirects here. For the album with a similar name, see Frat Rock! The Greatest Rock 'n' Roll Party Tunes of All-Time.

Garage rock is a style of pop music, a raw and energetic variety of rock and roll that flourished in the mid-1960s most notably in the United States and Canada, but also elsewhere. At the time it had no specific name and was not recognized as a separate genre, but critical recognition in the early-1970s, and particularly the release of the 1972 compilation album, Nuggets, did much to define and memorialise the style. The term derives from the perception that many groups were young amateurs who rehearsed in the family garage, though many were professional.

The style, a precursor to psychedelic rock, is characterized by sometimes aggressive and unsophisticated lyrics and delivery, often using guitars distorted through a fuzzbox. Surf rock and subsequently the Beatles and the beat groups of the British Invasion motivated thousands to form bands in the USA and elsewhere from 1963 through early 1968. Hundreds produced regional hits, and a handful had national chart hits. After 1968 more sophisticated forms of rock music emerged, and such records largely disappeared from the national charts.

In the early-1970s, some critics began to refer to the style as "punk rock," the first form of music to bear this description; and it is sometimes called "garage punk," "protopunk" or "'60s punk" to distinguish it from the punk rock of the mid and late-1970s.

Characteristics[edit]

The D-Men (later the Fifth Estate) in 1964

The term garage rock comes from the perception that many such performers were young and amateurish, and often rehearsed in the family garage.[1] While some bands were made up of middle-class teenagers from the suburbs, others were from rural or urban areas or were composed of professional musicians in their twenties.[2] The earliest attested use of the term "garage band" dates from March 1971, in a review by John Mendelsohn in Rolling Stone;[3] later the same year, the term was also used by Lenny Kaye in the same magazine.[4]

Performances were often amateurish, naïve or intentionally raw, with typical themes revolving around the traumas of high school life and songs about "lying girls" being particularly common.[5] The lyrics and delivery were notably more aggressive than the more polished acts of the time, often with nasal, growled, or shouted vocals, sometimes punctuated by shrieks or screams at climactic moments of release.[1] Instrumentation was often characterized by the use of guitars distorted through a fuzzbox.[6] Occasionally, the tempo would be sped up in certain, usually instrumental, passages sometimes referred to as a "raveups."[7][8]

Nevertheless, garage rock acts were diverse in both musical ability and in style, ranging from crude two and three-chord music (like the Seeds and the Keggs) to near-studio musician quality (including the Knickerbockers, the Remains, and the Fifth Estate). There were also regional variations with flourishing scenes, particularly in California, the base of Strawberry Alarm Clock, the Electric Prunes, the Music Machine, the Standells, and Texas, offering bands such as Sir Douglas Quintet, the 13th Floor Elevators, Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs (whose "Wooly Bully" reached #2 on the Billboard Hot 100 and charted for almost four and a half months in 1965), and Fever Tree.[5] The north-western states of Idaho, Washington and Oregon had perhaps the most defined regional sound with bands such as the Bootmen, the Sonics and Paul Revere & the Raiders.[9] Florida had a significant number of near studio quality bands, such as the Impacts, the Tropics, the Tempests and the Outlaws.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Richard Berry, whose 1957 song "Louie Louie" inspired the Wailers, the Kingsmen, and in turn thousands of other garage bands

In the late 1950s, the initial impact of rock and roll on mainstream American culture waned as major record companies took a controlling influence and sought to market more conventionally acceptable recordings.[10] However, some young people were still inspired by those musicians whose recordings a few years earlier, of relatively unsophisticated and hard-driving songs, often self-written, proclaimed personal independence and freedom from parental controls and conservative norms - musicians such as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Bo Diddley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, and Eddie Cochran. The guitarist Link Wray, best known for his instrumental "Rumble," who used innovative guitar techniques such as power chords and distortion, is also often cited as an early influence.[11][12][13] Electric musical instruments (particularly guitars) and amplification were becoming more affordable, allowing young musicians to form small groups to perform in front of local audiences of their peers; and in some areas there was a breakdown, especially among radio audiences, of traditional black and white markets, with more white teenagers able to hear and purchase R&B records. By the end of the 1950s regional scenes were abundant around the country and would influence much of the music of the 1960s.[14]

According to Lester Bangs, "the origins of garage rock as a genre can be traced to California and the Pacific Northwest in the early Sixties".[15] There and elsewhere, groups of teenagers were inspired directly by touring R&B performers such as Johnny Otis and Richard Berry, and began to play cover versions of R&B songs.[10] At the same time they drew on the work of purely instrumental groups such as the Ventures, formed in 1958 in Tacoma, Washington. One of the first teenage bands to emerge that played R&B songs was the Wailers (often billed as the Fabulous Wailers), also from Tacoma, who had a national chart hit in 1959 with the instrumental "Tall Cool One", and two years later recorded (unsuccessfully but influentially) a cover version of Richard Berry's 1957 song "Louie Louie", a song which soon became an unofficial anthem for bands in the region.[10] They in turn inspired other bands notably the Kingsmen from Portland, Oregon, whose 1963 version of "Louie Louie" became a national and international hit after first becoming a regional success in Seattle, and the Sonics, who formed in Tacoma in 1960, and would later would record a rendition of Berry's "Have Love, Will Travel."[15][16][17] Paul Revere & the Raiders, who also recorded a version of "Louie Louie" around this time, were originally from Boise, Idaho, but re-located to Portland, Oregon in the early 1960s.[18][19]

Elsewhere, regional scenes of teenage bands playing R&B-oriented rock, and often competing against each other in "battle of the bands" contests, were particularly well established several years before the "British Invasion", in Texas and the Midwest.[20] In Milwaukee, the Nomads were formed in the late 1950s, influenced by rockabilly and blues recordings. A rival band were the Bonnevilles, a band led by guitarist Larry Lynne and based in a newly-built middle-class suburb. Lynne said that he was inspired to form a band by the R&B radio stations broadcasting from the South, together with the experience of seeing some of the original rock and roll acts, such as Gene Vincent, perform when he was younger.[21] By 1963 singles by Paul Revere and the Raiders[22] and several such bands were creeping into the national charts, including the Trashmen (Minneapolis)[23] and the Rivieras (South Bend, Indiana).[24] At the same time, in southern California, bands like the Nomads (not the Milwaukee band) formed, playing raucous guitar- and saxophone-driven instrumentals.[15] Many bands were heavily influenced by surf rock and hot rod music, and there was a cross-pollination between these influences resulting in an energetic and upbeat sound. This is sometimes referred to as frat rock, which can be viewed as an early subgenre of garage rock.[14][25][26] Writer Neil Campbell commented: "There were literally thousands of rough and ready groups performing in local bars and dance halls throughout the USA prior to the arrival of the Beatles..... [T]he indigenous popular music which functioned in this way... was the proto-punk more commonly identified as garage rock."[27]

Impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion[edit]

The Standells in 1965

As the mid-1960s approached, garage rock entered a new period reflecting a different set of influences and circumstances.[14][28][29][30] On February 9, 1964, during their first visit to the United States, the Beatles made a historic appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show watched by a record-breaking viewing audience of a nation mourning the recent death of President John F. Kennedy.[28][29][31] For many, particularly the young, the Beatles' visit re-ignited the sense of excitement and possibility that had been momentarily taken by his assassination.[28][30][32] Much of this new excitement would be expressed in music, sometimes much to the chagrin of parents and elders.[28][30][33] Following the Beatles' first visit, a subsequent string of successful, and increasingly bold, British Invasion acts emerged between 1964 and 1966. These had a profound impact, leading many (often surf or hot rod groups) to respond by altering their style, and countless new bands to form, as teenagers around the country picked up guitars and started bands by the thousands.[5][34][35] In many cases, garage bands were particularly influenced by the British "beat groups" with a harder, blues-based attack, such as the Kinks, the Who, the Animals, the Yardbirds, the Small Faces, the Pretty Things, Them,[36] and the Rolling Stones, often resulting in a raw and primitive sound. Numerous garage rock bands were formed in countries outside North America, such as England's the Troggs who enjoyed worldwide success with "Wild Thing."[37][38] Another influence was the folk-rock of the Byrds and Bob Dylan, especially on bands such as the Leaves.[39]

Peak of popularity[edit]

Thousands of garage bands were extant in the USA and Canada and hundreds produced regional hits, in an era where it was not uncommon for a band to participate in a battle of the bands or cut a record and have it receive airplay on the local AM radio station.[5][40] Some acts were lucky enough to gain exposure on the national charts just long enough to have one or a couple of hits.[5] The mid-'60s was an era rife with one-hit wonders.[5][41][42] Usually thought to be the first to enjoy national success were the Beau Brummels with "Laugh, Laugh" and "Just a Little", which both reached the top 15 in 1965.[43] Other examples include: "Fortune Teller" by Des Moines's the Image (1967), "The Witch" by Tacoma's the Sonics (1965), "Where You Gonna Go" by Detroit's Unrelated Segments (1967), "It's Cold Outside" by Cleveland's the Choir, "Girl I Got News for You" by Miami's Birdwatchers (1966), "Dirty Water" by Los Angeles-based the Standells (1966), "I Need Love" by Canton, Illinois', the Third Booth,[44][45] and "1-2-5" by Montreal's the Haunted.

The November 12, 1966 issue of Billboard stated that sales of the "96 Tears" single by Question Mark & the Mysterians, a band from Michigan, had attained sales of one million copies. Boston's Remains, though only able to make it onto Billboard's Bubbling Under charts, had enough of a following and reputation to open for the Beatles during their 1966 U.S. tour.[46] The Count Five scored a number five hit on the Billboard charts that year with "Psychotic Reaction,"[47][48] which in turn was featured on their album of the same name.[47] Michigan's Shondells released a minor regional hit in 1964 before disbanding. When it was unearthed by a Pittsburgh Disc Jockey in 1965, the resulting success of "Hanky Panky" revived the moribund career of Tommy James, who formed a new group of Shondells. Tommy James and the Shondells followed up with twelve more top 40 singles.[49] Tommy also had three top 40 singles as a soloist.

Female garage bands[edit]

The Pleasure Seekers (Suzi Quatro at far right) pictured in 1966

Garage rock was not an exclusively male phenomenon—it fostered the emergence of all-female bands whose members played their own instruments. One of the first such acts was New York's Goldie and the Gingerbreads, who accompanied Chubby Checker on his 1962 European tour,[50] and later toured with the Rolling Stones, the Animals, the Beatles, the Yardbirds, the Hollies and the Kinks, among others.[51] The Pleasure Seekers from Detroit, later known as Cradle, featured Suzi Quatro and her sisters. Quatro would subsequently go on to greater fame as a solo act in the early 1970s.[52] The Luv'd Ones, also from Michigan, signed with Chicago's Dunwich Records, and are best known for the song "Up Down Sue."[53] San Francisco's The Ace of Cups became a fixture in the Bay Area scene in the late 1960s.[54][55][56][57] The Liverbirds hailed from the Beatles' home city of Liverpool, England, but became best known in Germany, often performing in Hamburg's Star-Club.[58] Other notable female groups were the Daughters of Eve, from Chicago, the Feminine Complex, from Nashville, and the Heartbeats from Lubbock, Texas. In many ways, bands such as these anticipated later all-female acts, such as the Runaways and the Slits, that would be associated with the 1970s punk movement.

Regional scenes[edit]

The Remains in 1966

The Pacific Northwest had provided the initial flurry of garage rock bands, such as the Fabulous Wailers, the Sonics, and the Trashmen, and numerous others. Other parts of the United States and Canada were soon to follow, particularly after arrival of the Beatles and the British Invasion, which would result in a widespread grassroots rock explosion.

Boston and New England[edit]

One of the next regions to experience a proliferation of bands was Boston and New England. The Barbarians from Cape Cod, wearing sandals and long hair, and cultivating an image of "noble savages," recorded an album and several singles, such as the partly self-referential, "Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl."[59][60] Impossible to ignore was the sight of their drummer, Victor "Moulty" Moulton, who played the drums holding one of his sticks with a prosthetic clamp in place of his left hand, worn as the result of an earlier accident.[59][61] In 1964 the group appeared on the T.A.M.I. Show, on same bill as famous acts such as the Rolling Stones and James Brown, playing the joyfully primitive "Hey Little Bird.[61] In 1966, while the other members of the band were away, Moulton recorded "Moulty," a spoken monologue set to music, in which he recounted the travails of his disfigurement, released under the Barbarians' name, but backed by future members of The Band.[61] The Remains (sometimes called Barry and the Remains), from Boston, led by Barry Tashian, were also popular in the region, and in addition to touring with the Beatles in 1966, recorded a self-titled album for Epic that year just before breaking up.[62] During their years of activity they recorded several songs which have subsequently become highly regarded, such as "Don't Look Back" and "Why do I Cry."[63] Also from Boston, the Rockin' Ramrods recorded a number of songs, including the distortion-driven protopunk of "She Lied," in 1964.[64][65][66] The Shames from Ipswich, Massachusetts were popular in the New England and Upstate New York area and released the single, "My World is Upside Down" in 1966.[67][68][69] The Squires, from Bristol, Connecticut released the song, "All the Way." All three songs are now regarded as a garage classics.[65][67][69][70] In the New Haven area, there were numerous bands, several of whom, such as the Shags and the Bram Rigg Set, recorded at the Trod Nossel Studios, in Wallingford, owned by music entrepreneur, Thomas Cavaier.[71][72][73]

California and the Southwest[edit]

The Seeds in 1966

The garage craze came into full swing all around the country and California was no exception, where the preponderance of bands was the byproduct of several influences, such as surf rock, the British Invasion and folk rock.[74][75][76] During the 1960s Southern California was home to numerous garage bands, whether native to the area or re-located from elsewhere, often with hopes of becoming successful.[76][77][78] The Sunset Strip was the center of much of the live music and nightlife, providing bands with high-profile venues to attract a larger following and possibly draw the attention of record executives looking to sign an act.[79] Exploitation films of the period, such as Riot on Sunset Strip, Mondo Hollywood, and the documentary, Mondo Mod, captured the musical and social milieu of life on the strip.[80][81] Several L.A. bands make appearances at the Pandora's Box in the club scenes in Riot on Sunset Strip, as the movie spotlights the protopunk musical underbelly of L.A. flower bohemia, with the Standells supplying the theme song and the Chocolate Watchband, fronted by the charismatic David Aguilar, singing "Don't Need Your Lovin.'"[82][83][84][85] the Seeds and the Leaves were favorites with the "in-crowd" and managed to score national hits with songs that have come to be regarded as garage classics: the Seeds with "Pushin' Too Hard" and the Leaves with "Hey Joe."[79][86]

Love, a racially integrated band headed by African-American musician, Arthur Lee, was one of the most popular bands in the scene.[87] Their propulsive 1966 protopunk anthem, "7 and 7 Is" achieved popularity in the charts, and became a staple in countless other bands' repertoires.[88] Lee along with bandmate Johnny Echols had previously been in the American Four, who cut a number of songs such as "Stay Away," unissued at the time.[89][90] The Music Machine, led by Sean Bonniwell, donned black outfits and each member wore a black leather glove on his right hand, and employed innovative musical techniques, sometimes building their own custom-made fuzzboxes.[91] Amongst their numerous recordings they are best known for their hit, "Talk Talk." The Sons of Adam, formerly known as the Fender IV, started out as an instrumental surf band in Maryland, but re-located to Southern California in 1963 in hopes of riding the crest of popular surf rock wave;[76] but, after the advent of the Beatles and the British Invasion, they switched their approach to include vocals over guitars.[76] They were able to gain a residency at the popular nightspot, Cisco's and recorded several hard-rocking songs which appeared on singles, such as "Feathered Fish," written by Arthur Lee, and "Saturday's Son," an anthem of alienation.[76] The band is notable for the presence of guitarist Randy Holden, who in 1966 left the band to join the San Francisco-based the Other Half and later Blue Cheer, and drummer Michael Stuart, who left to join Love and record on their highly acclaimed 1967 album, Forever Changes.[76]

The Great Society, featuring Grace Slick, in 1966

Garage rock was present in Latino communities in different parts of the country including in East L.A.[92][93] Rock critic Lester Bangs noted that many of the elements of garage rock were apparent years earlier, in Chicano singer Ritchie Valens' 1958 hit "La Bamba".[15] The Premiers, who had a hit in 1964 with "Farmer John," and Thee Midniters, both made up of predominantly Hispanic-American members, are considered notable figures in Chicano rock,[94][95][96][97] as are their San Diego counterparts, Cannibal & the Headhunters, who had a 1964 hit with Chris Kenner's "Land of a Thousand Dances".[15] Other bands active in the Los Angeles musical landscape were the Dovers, the Roosters, the Sloths, the Yellow Payges, Limey & the Yanks, and Ty Wagner and the Scotchmen, who recorded "I'm a No Count."[98][99][100][101] On the Liverpool label the Bees released their 1966 paranoiac anthem, "Voices Green and Purple," which climaxes with rants screamed over thrashing guitars, and came wrapped in a paper jacket festooned with the kind of scrawled lettering and defaced imagery suggestive of later "D.I.Y." punk fanzines.[102][103][104][105] The Spiders, from Phoenix, Arizona featuring Vincent Furnier, later known as Alice Cooper, recorded several songs such as "Don't Blow Your Mind," which became a local hit in Phoenix. They ventured to Los Angeles in 1967, in hopes of achieving greater success, though it would materialize not there, but subsequently in Detroit, re-christened as Alice Cooper and with a new "shock" image just in time for the success to arrive in the '70s.[106][107] The Grodes, from Tucson, Arizona recorded the original version of "Let's Talk About Girls," later covered by the Chocolate Watchband, and "Cry a Little Longer."[108][109] In 1967 the Chob, from Albuquerque, New Mexico released the frantic "We're Pretty Quick," now considered a garage classic.[110][111]

San Jose and the South Bay area just below San Francisco had a scene consisting largely of garage rock bands, such as the Chocolate Watchband, the Count Five, and the Syndicate of Sound.[112] Though San Francisco and the northern part of Bay area, is better known for the more sophisticated jam-based acid rock that would develop as the '60s progressed, early on, the garage sound was detaectable in a number of bands such the Great Society, featuring Grace Slick before she joined Jefferson Airplane.[113] The Brogues, some of whose members were later to play in Quicksilver Messenger Service, cut the single "Ain't No Miracle Worker" in late 1965.[114] In 1966 the Harbinger Complex released the single "I Think I'm Down" and the next year the fill-length album, A Pot of Flowers.[115] The Charlatans, who dressed in Old West outfits, covered Buffy Sainte-Marie's "Cod'ine" and released a belated album at the end of the '60s, but by then the "gold rush" had already passed them by.[116] The Warlocks recorded several songs in a garage vein, often with Ron "Pigpen" McKernan on vocals, before changing their name to the the Grateful Dead.[117][118] In 1967 the Humane Society recorded the menacing "Knock Knock," in which the tempo starts slowly but rises to near breakneck speed. The Flamin' Groovies, founded in 1965, would become a fixture in the Bay area scene, and their career would stretch well into the 1970s.[119]

Midwest[edit]

The Shadows of Knight in 1966

Chicago, known for electric blues, continued to have a strong recording industry well into the '60s and was also hotbed of activity for garage rock bands, providing hits for the American Breed, the Buckinghams, and the Cryin' Shames.[120][121][122] Chicago blues as well as the Rolling Stones influenced the Shadows of Knight, a band who favored a harder approach, featuring Jim Sohns on lead vocals.[123] According to Sohns: "...the Stones, Animals and Yardbirds took the Chicago blues and gave it an English interpretation. We've taken the English version of the blues and re-added a Chicago touch."[123] In 1966 the Shadows of Knight scored hits with their versions of Them's Van Morrison-penned "Gloria," and Bo Diddley's "Oh Yeah," as well as the less successful but more aggressive "I'm Gonna Make You Mine"—all released on Dunwich Records, which recorded numerous garage acts.[123][124] The Banshees recorded the cathartic "Project Blue" for Dunwich Records.[125][126][127][128] The Little Boy Blues, in addition to recording "The Great Train Robbery," also cut a version of the highly covered Van Morrison number, "I Can Only Give You Everything" in 1966.[129][130] The Del-Vetts (later changing their name to the Pride and Joy) recorded a number of songs, such as "Last Time Around" in 1966.[131] The New Colony Six, who like Paul Revere and the Raiders, wore Revolutionary war era suits, recorded several albums worth of material and had some modest chart success.[132]

In early 1967, MC5 (short for the Motor City Five) from Detroit, Michigan, who would go on to greater success later in the decade, released their own version of "I Can Only Give You Everything."[133] The Unrelated Segments recorded a string of songs beginning with local protopunk hit "You Can't Buy Love," followed by songs such as "Where You Gonna Go."[134] Jim Osterberg, also from Detroit, later known as Iggy Pop, played drums with the Iguanas.[135] Bob Seger and the Last Heard were also a fixture in the Detroit scene.[135] Detroit, as well as the rest of Michigan, had of one of the largest concentrations of garage bands in America and included Terry Knight and the Pack from Flint, who would form the basis of what would later become Grand Funk Railroad.[136] The Rationals from Ann Arbor, who were fronted by Scott Morgan, achieved a certain level of regional success but failed to make a dent in the national charts.[137] The JuJus, from Grand Rapids, recorded a number of well-regarded songs, including "You Treated Me Bad."[138]

Minneapolis/St. Paul was the home of the Castaways, who had a major hit with "Liar, Liar" in 1965.[139] The Litter, also from Minneapolis, had a harder sound and released the distortion-laden "Action Woman" as a single in 1966.[140] Ohio also was a host to the talents of many bands, such as the Outsiders from Cleveland who scored a national hit with "Time Won't Let Me," and the Choir, two of whose members would later become members of 1970s power pop combo the Raspberries, had a regional hit with "It's Cold Outside."[141][142]

New York and Mid Atlantic[edit]

Garage bands flourished up and down the Atlantic coast. From the Bronx, New York came the Blues Magoos, who had a hit with the psychedelically-tinged garage classic, "(We Ain't Got) Nothin' Yet."[143] The Vagrants, from Long Island, cut a version of the Otis Redding-penned "Respect," made famous by Aretha Franklin, which was later included on the original 1972 edition of Nuggets.[144] The Bruthers from Pearl River, New York, who comprised the four Delia brothers, cut a handful of songs, including "Bad Way to Go," which is now considered a garage classic.[145] Richard and the Young Lions, from Newark, New Jersey had a hit in 1966 with "Open Up Your Door."[146] The Myddle Class, also from New Jersey, recorded "Don't Let Me Sleep Too Long," a variation of the Blues Project's "Wake Me Shake Me," and Goffin and King's "I Happen to Love You," which was later recorded by The Electric Prunes.[147] The Doughboys, from Plainfield, New Jersey, were a popular act in the upper mid-Atlantic region during these years.[148] From Oxon Hill, Maryland, came the Dagenites, who shared the same manager with Link Wray, and recorded "I Don't Wanna Try it Again" and "I'm Goin' Slide", both released as singles.[149] The Hangmen were from Rockville, Maryland and their membership included Tom Guernsey, previously from another band the Reekers.[150][151][152][153][154] They recorded a number of songs such as "Faces" and "What a Girl Can't Do."[150][151][152][153][154] The Mad Hatters, from Annapolis recorded several sides including "I'll Come Running."[155] From the Washington, DC area came the Fallen Angels, who recorded two albums for Roulette Records.[156]

Texas[edit]

The Lone Star State was home to one of the largest concentrations of bands, with much of the action happening in several regional centers, notably Dallas/Fort Worth, Houston, Corpus Christi, San Antonio, and Austin. Sam the Sam and the Pharaohs were from Dallas and were fronted by the charismatic Domingo "Sam" Samudio, who often wore a turban during performances.[157] In addition to recording three albums worth of material, they enjoyed two nationwide hits with "Wooly Bully" and "Little Miss Riding Hood."[157] Kenny And The Kasuals, also from Dallas cut the live album, Impact, and made several other recordings, including the song, "Journey to Tyme."[158] Mouse and the Traps from Tyler, recorded the Dylanesque "A Public Execution," and followed it up with the churning rocker "Made of Sugar Maid of Spice."[159] The Moving Sidewalks from Houston, featuring Billy Gibbons, later to go on to fame in ZZ Top, recorded numerous songs and recorded "99th Floor," which has long been prized by garage rock enthusiasts as a classic.[160] Neal Ford and the Fanatics, also from Houston recorded a number of songs, including "I Will if You Want," and "Gonna be My Girl," which were both regional hits.[161]

The 13th Floor Elevators, from Austin featured Roky Erickson on guitar and vocals and are perhaps the best-remembered Texas band of the era.[162] In 1966 they received national airplay with the single "You're Gonna Miss Me," which Erickson had previously recorded with his earlier band, the Spades.[162] Later that year they released the groundbreaking LP, The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators, which became influential in the burgeoning psychedelic movement.[162] The Zakary Thaks from Corpus Christi, recorded numerous songs and are best known for the frantic sped-up Kinks-inspired riffs of "Bad Girl."[163] Also from Corpus Christi, the Bad Seeds recorded several songs, such as "More of the Same."[164] The Outcasts, from San Antonio, recorded a number of tracks, but are best known for two hard-driving songs considered classics in the genre: "I'm in Pittsburgh and It's Raining" and the psychedelic-influenced protopunk of "1523 Blair."[165] The Sparkles, from Levelland, in West Texas, had existed in several different configurations since 1959, but it is their lineup between 1963 and 1967 that produced such songs as "Ain't No Friend of Mine", that is best known.[166] The Gentlemen, from Dallas, cut a single featuring a song that has been recognized as one of the greatest garage rock records of all time, the fuzz-drenched anthem "It’s a Cry’n Shame"[167][168][169] G45 Legends called it "One of the top 10 tracks to play to anyone you need to convert to 60s garageism."[168][169]

Florida and the South[edit]

The peninsula of Southern Florida was rife with activity, particularly in the areas around Orlando, Miami, and Tampa. We the People, a popular fixture in the Orlando area, came about as the result of a merger between two bands and featured songwriters Tommy Talton and Wane Proctor. They went to Nashville and recorded a number of self-composed songs for the Challenge and RCA labels—several of which are now highly regarded.[170] They are known for primitive rockers, such as "You Burn Me Upside Down," and "Mirror of my Mind," as well as more eclectic pieces such as "In the Past," later covered by the Chocolate Watchband, which combines surf influence with the use of eastern scales played on an octachord, a large eight-stringed mandolin.[170][171][172] The Birdwatchers, from West Palm Beach achieved some national airplay with "I'm Gonna Love you Anyway," and made an appearance on TV show, Where the Action Is.[173][174] The Nightcrawlers, from Daytona Beach, had a folk-rock influenced sound and released several singles, but are best known for "Little Black Egg," which became a minor hit on the national charts.[175] From Miami came The Montells and Evil, whose members knew each other well, and who both at different times used the services of drummer Jeff Allen, who made regular trips to England, and was able to keep both bands abreast on the latest happenings in the London scene.[176][177][178] Both bands recorded a number of songs.[176] The Montells recorded a couple of numbers previously done by the Who, "Daddy Rolling Stone" and "I Can't Explain" as well as songs such as "You Can't Make Me."[176][179] Evil specialized in a harder, sometimes thrashing sound, epitomized in such protopunk anthems as the posthumously-released outtakes, "I'm Movin' On" and "From a Curbstone."[180][181][182] They released a single featuring their rendition of the Small Faces' "Whatcha Gonna Do About It" b/w "Always Runnin' Around," which was re-released on Capitol a few months later.[183] The Gants, from Greenwood, in the heat of the Mississippi Delta, recorded a number of songs, such as blues-drenched rocker, "(You Can't Blow) Smoke Rings" and the Beatles-inspired ballad, "I Wonder."[184][185]

Canada[edit]

The Paupers in 1967

The garage craze spread all over North America, and Canada was host to numerous of bands. The Guess Who, from Winnipeg, Manitoba began in 1958 and entered the mid-1960s essentially as a garage rock unit.[186][187] In 1965 they had a hit in both the U.S. and Canada with a version of British band Johnny Kidd & the Pirates' 1960 UK hit "Shakin' All Over."[186][187] As the '60s progressed they would evolve to a more sophisticated approach, for which they became better known. The Ugly Ducklings from Toronto, Ontario had a hard-driving R&B sound, and toured with the Rolling Stones in 1966.[188] They recorded several songs that are highly regarded by enthusiasts of garage including "Nuthin'" and "Just in Case You're Wondering," from 1966 and "Gaslight" from 1967.[188][189] The Haunted from Montreal specialized in a gritty blues-based sound influenced by the Rolling Stones and released the single "1-2-5," which has been re-issued in the Pebbles compilation series.[190] Two other bands from Toronto were the Paupers and the Mynah Birds. The Paupers released two albums and numerous songs, such as "If I told You Baby" and "Think I Care."[191][192] The Mynah Birds featured the unique combination of Rick James on lead vocals and Neil Young, who would both go on to fame as solo acts, as well as Bruce Palmer who later accompanied Young to California to join Buffalo Springfield in 1966.[193][194] They landed a contract with Motown Records and recorded a number of songs such as "I've Got You In My Soul," "It's My Time" and "It's a Long Time Baby."[193][194]

Elsewhere in the Americas[edit]

Outside of the mainland, garage rock also became a fixture in the islands and territories adjacent to the continent.[195][196] The Savages, from Bermuda, recorded an album which is considered seminal in the genre, Live ‘n Wild, recorded live at a Bermuda nightclub, which includes the song "The World Ain't Round It's Square," which has been cited as a classic anthem of youthful defiance.[195][196][197]

Garage and its counterparts worldwide[edit]

The garage phenominon, though most often associated with North America, was not exclusive to it. Its attributes were present in much of the beat music played in various countries throughout the world, as bands proliferated in the wake of the British Invasion.[198][199][200][201][202] The particular countries involved had grass-roots rock movements which essentially served as counterparts to what was happening in the North America, several of which are sometimes retroactively referred to as Freakbeat, Nederbeat, Uruguayan Invasion, or Group Sounds, or in other cases as "beat" or "garage rock."[199][200][201][202][203]

British influences and counterparts[edit]

The Troggs in 1966

Along with the Beatles’ innate personal charm, stylistic diversity, and pop sensibility, their frantic and energetic approach to playing rock & roll was a large part of their early appeal and served as a basis for the formation of countless groups.[31] However, as 1965 approached another wave of British Invasion bands based in London and other cities outside of Liverpool emerged, who were more blues-based and confrontational in their approach, such as the Rolling Stones, the Animals, the Yardbirds, and the Who.[204] A musical cross-fertilization materialized between the two continents. In their 1964 transatlantic hits "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night," the Kinks would take the influence of the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" and apply greater volume and distortion, which in turn, would influence the approach of many American garage bands.[205] Their influence would continue with several more hard-driving, yet increasingly despondent songs, such as “Where Have All the Good Times Gone,” as well as “I’m Not Like Everybody Else,” later covered by the Chocolate Watchband.[206][207][208] While the British bands, except in certain instances, are not generally classified as garage rock, they nonetheless shared certain characteristics with the American bands who often attempted to emulate them and are sometimes seen as counterparts to garage, particularly in the case of certain lesser-known British groups.[198][203][209][210]

Them, featuring Van Morrison in 1965

Bands such as the Who and the Small Faces would tailor their appeal directly to the burgeoning mod subculture happening in London, whose sense of style would become influential with American youth.[211][212][213] Many of the harder-driving and more obscure bands associated with the mod scene in the UK are sometimes retroactively referred to as Freakbeat, which is sometimes viewed as the more stylish British correlative to garage rock.[210][214][215] Several bands often mentioned as Freakbeat are the Creation, the Action, the Move, and the Smoke, the Sorrows, the Red Squares, Wimple Winch, and the Birds, featuring Ron Wood, later of the Rolling Stones.[216] The Equals, from North London, an were a racially integrated band consisting of black and white members, and featured lead singer Derv Gordon and guitarist Eddy Grant (later to gain fame as a reggae star in the 80s with the hit "Electric Avenue”), specialized in an upbeat style of rock typified in songs such as “Baby Come Back,” "Softly Softly,” and “Police On My Back,” which was later recorded by The Clash on their 1980 Sandinista album.[217][218] The Syndicats, whose ranks included Steve Howe, later of Yes, recorded several sides including "Crawdaddy Simone" and the protopunk, "What to Do."[219][220] The Pretty Things, who took their name from the title of a Bo Diddley song, in addition to their unkempt appearance, were known for their raw approach to blues-influenced rock, as exhibited in songs such as Diddley's "Midnight to Six Man," as well as and "Don't Bring Me Down."[221][222] The Renegades, from Birmingham, never had much success in their native country, but became considerably better known in Finland and Italy.[223] They recorded an album and a number of songs, including "13 Women." The Downliners Sect were if anything even more brazen in their approach.[224] The Troggs scored a massive worldwide hit with “Wild Thing” in 1966.[198][225] Extolling the virtues of their seemingly unrepentant primitivism and sexually-charged innuendo, the Troggs were the British band that Lester Bangs would single out as perhaps the quintessential "punk" (i.e. garage) band of the 60s.[198][226][227][228]

From Belfast, Northern Ireland came Them, led by Van Morrison and the Wheels.[229][230] Them recorded two songs that would become widely covered by American garage bands, “Gloria,” which would become a big hit for Chicago’s the Shadows of Knight and “I Can Only Give You Everything’ which was covered by numerous American acts, such as The MC5 and The Little Boy Blues.[229] The Wheels would record the original version of “Bad Little Woman,” which like “Gloria” before it, would be covered in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight.[230] Rhino Records's 2001 box-set compilation Nuggets II: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire and Beyond, 1964-1969 contains many of the better-known songs performed by obscure British beat and freakbeat acts of this era.[231][232]

Continental Europe[edit]

See also: Nederbeat and Beat-Club
Q65 in 1967

The beat boom swept through continental Europe, resulting in the emergence of numerous bands who played in styles sometimes cited as European variants of garage rock.[233] The Netherlands had one of the largest scenes, sometimes retroactively described as Nederbeat.[234] The Outsiders from Amsterdam, featured Wally Tax on lead vocals, and recorded three albums and a string of singles which included songs such as “Thinkin’ About Today” “Sun’s Going Down,” and “Lying all the Time.”[235][236] Q65 from the Hague recorded extensively and lasted well into the 70s, waxing the highly invective "I Despise You" in 1966.[237][238] Also from the Hague, came the Golden Earrings, later to gain greater fame in the70s and 80s as Golden Earring. Cuby and the Blizzards, the Shoes, and the Motions were also fixtures in the Dutch rock scene of the time.[239][240][241]

Having nurtured the Beatles' early development in Hamburg, Germany was well-positioned to play a key role as the beat craze overtook the Continent. Bands from Britain and around Europe, would travel to there to gain exposure, playing in clubs and appearing on popular German TV Shows such as Beat Club and Beat! Beat! Beat!.[242][243] The Lords, founded in Düsseldorf in 1959, pre-dated the British Invasion by several years, but would adapt their sound and look to reflect the influence of the British groups, even singing in English, but providing a comic twist to the proceedings in their renditions of songs such as "Greensleeves" and "Shakin' All Over."[244] The Rattles, from Hamburg, also had a lengthy history, but were more serious in their approach.[245] The German Bonds were another fixture in the German rock scene and recorded a number of songs such as "We're Out of Sight", but failed to gain traction on the record charts.[246][247] The Monks were a transplanted band founded by American G.I.’s who had been stationed in Germany. They would replicate the appearance of monks by donning modified habits and having their heads tonsured. The Monks had an avant garde garage rock sound, with lyrics often filled with irony, social criticism, and anti-war sentiments, and have been cited as an influence on later acts.[248] Sweden had an active scene with bands such as the Hep Stars, who featured future member of 70s pop group Abba, Benny Anderson, as well as The Merrymen.[249] From Belgium came the Pebbles and John Wooley and the Just Born.[250][251]

Even during the Franco regime there were numerous bands active in Spain, such as Los Bravos, who scored a worldwide hit with "Black Is Black," as well as Los Cheyenes and Los Salvajes.[252][253] [254][255] Micky y los Tonys were known for their sometimes irreverent and satirical approach.[252][253] They recorded "Ya no estas, which appeared in the 1965 film, Megatón Ye Yé 1965 (find source for song from movie), as well as songs such as "El problema de mis pelos," "Jabon de azufre."[252][253] The compilation, Algo Salvaje: Untamed 60's Beat and Garage Nuggets from Spain Vol. 1. features a number of Spanish bands from this period, including Los Hurricanes ("El caletin"), Los Botines ("Eres un vago"), Los Tomacts ("A tu vera"), Los Polares ("La droga," their version of Pretty Things' "L.S.D.), Los Sirex - ("Acto de fuerza"), and Prou Matic ("It's My World)").[252][256] The Trans World Punk Rave-Up compilation series is devoted to covering 60s garage rock and primitive beat music in continental Europe.[233]

Latin America[edit]

Los Mockers, from Uruguay in 1965

Latin America was home to a significant amount of musical activity in the worldwide beat craze. And Mexico was no exception, creating its own homegrown equivalent of American garage.[257][258] Mexico's proximity to the United States was detectable in the raw sounds being produced by a number of groups. Mexico often absorbed American musical influences and trends, to a greater degree than most of Latin America, with the possible exception of Puerto Rico and pre-revolutionary Cuba, where it was often unavoidable. To certain extent, even the British Invasion came, somehow, through the filter of the United States. One of Mexico's hottest acts were Los Dug Dug's, who recorded a number of albums and stayed active well into the 70s.[259] Los Monjes dressed in monk habits, much like the American band, The Monks, who played in Germany.[260] Los Sinners, who had been a been a surf group, were also a popular at the time and known for their 1964 instrumental "Rebel Radioactive," and made an appearance in the riotous finale of director Luis Buñuel's 1965 film, Simon of the Desert.[261] Los Sleepers recorded "Zombie."[257]

The beat boom flourished in Uruguay during the mid-60s in a period often referred to as the Uruguayan Invasion. Two of best known acts were Los Shakers and Los Mockers, who essentially played the role of surrogate Beatles and Rolling Stones, with Los Shakers, the more popular of the two bands, playing in the melodic style of the Beatles and Los Mockers playing harder more blues-based fare more akin to the Stones.[262][263] Peru was host to an active scene. Los Saicos were one of the first bands to gain national prominence.[264] Their 1965 song "¡Demolición!" with its humorously anarchistic lyrics was a huge hit in Peru and is today considered a protopunk classic.[264] Allmusic, writing about Los Saicos, noted that "The guitars sound like nothing so much as fountains of sparks, the drums have a tribal post-surf throb, and the vocals are positively unhinged" and "These guys were a punk rock band, even if nobody outside Lima knew it at the time".[265] After the breakup of Los Saicos, Los Yorks, would become the most popular group in Peru. Colombia had a number of bands. Los Speakers from Bogata recorded several albums of material and recorded "Te Olvidare."[257][266][267] Los Gatos Salvajes, who came from Brazil, were one of the country's first beat groups and recorded numerous songs, such as "la Respuesta."[268][269] Two of their members would go on to form Los Gatos, who became a popular act in Brazil during the late 1960s.[268] The Los Nuggetz compilation series covers Latin American beat and garage rock of the 1960s.[257]

Japan[edit]

See also: Group Sounds
The Spiders in 1966

The far East was not immune to the beat group bug, and Japan was no exception, particularly after the Beatles' 1966 visit, when they played two shows at Tokyo's famed Budokan.[270] The popular rock movement in Japan during the 60s is often referred to as Group sounds (or GS). The Spiders are one of the better-known groups and recorded songs such as "Furi Furi" and "Monkey Dance."[271] The Out Cast are known for rocking material such as "Everything's Alright" and "You Gat a Call Me."[272] The Carnabeats and are known for songs such as "Chu Chu Chu," "Sutekina Sandy," "Give Me Lovin'," "Love Only You."[273] The Tempters had songs such as "Himitsu No Haikutoba, ""Kono Mune Ni Dakishimete," and "Bokutachi Tenshi,"[273] The Youngers did "Hasnashitaknai,"[273] as well as the Jaguars who recorded "Dancing Lonely Night," "Seaside Bound," "Stop the Music," and "Beat Train."[273] The Golden Cups from Yokohama recorded several albums of material and did a version of the Leaves' "Hey Joe," as well as "I Can't Keep From Crying."[274][275] The Tigers, another group in Japan during this era, would enjoy chart sucess.[276]

India[edit]

Despite famine, economic hardship, and political instability, India had an had an abundance of garage bands in the 1960s, persisting into the beginning of the next decade, with the musical style in tact, after it had fallen out of favor elsewhere.[277][278][279] As in so many places the Beatles mid-1960s success made a major impact on India's youth and resulted in the formation of countless bands.[280] Bombay (now known as Mumbai), with its hotels, clubs, and nightlife had a large beat group scene. The Jets, who were active from 1964-1966, were perhaps the first beat group to become popular in Bombay.[281] Also active Bombay were the Trojans, who became one of the most popular acts there and featured Biddu (full name Biddu Appaiah), originally from Bangalore, who would later move to London and become a solo act, later writing the song "Kung Fu Fighters," which would provide a hit for Carl Douglas.[282] He also produced an album by Japanese group the Tigers.[282] The Mascots were another popular act in Bombay, as well as the Savages who played at venues such as Blow Up and the Taj Majal Hotel.[283] Later in the decade, the Combustibles became a popular act and recorded "Watch Her" and "Some Peace of Mind."[284] Calcutta had an active scene. The Flintstones were one of its best-known acts.[285] The Mustangs came from Madras (now known as Chennai).

As the 60s progressed Junior Statesman, became a popular magazine with India's young and it would remain popular well into the 1970s.[286] Its pages were devoted to the latest trends in the ever-changing youth culture, often including articles and interviews with bands.[286] Every year the annual Simla Beat Contest was held in Bombay by the Imperial Tobacco Company to promote their Simla brand of menthol cigarates.[286][287] Groups from all around India would compete for first prize.[286] The Simla Beat 70 71 compilation includes recordings of some of the bands who attended in 1970 and 1971.[278][279] On the album, the Eruptions, from Cuttack perform "You Can't Judge a Book by the Cover." [278][288] The Confusions, from Madras sing "Voice from the Inner Soul."[278][289] The Dinosours, from Bombay do a version of the Troggs' "You Can't Beat It," as well as "Sinister Purpose."[278][290] The Genuine Spares perform "Proper Stranger" and "What's Going On."[278] [291] The Fentones, from Shillong, won first prize in 1970 and are heard doing the "Simla Beat Theme" and the garage ballad, "Until the Dawn."[278] [292] The Mini Beats perform "Gypsy Girl."[278] Other bands included on the compilation are The Innerlight, Purple Flower, from Ahmedabad, and Hypnotic Eye.[278] [293] The Velvet Fog, from Bombay won second prize at the contest in 1971.[278][294] Atomic Forest was another popular band of the time and recorded a protopunk version of Deep Purple's "Mary Long."[295]

Australia and New Zealand[edit]

See also: Australian rock
The Easybeats in 1966

Australia and New Zealand experienced a huge garage and beat explosion in the mid-1960s.[199] The garage boom in those countries has been the subject of compilations such as Down Under Nuggets: Original Australian Artyfacts 1965-1967.[296][297] Before the British Invasion hit, the land down under had enjoyed a sizable surf rock scene, with popular bands such as The Atlantics, who scored hits in the Australian charts with "Bombura" and "the Crusher" in 1963, as well as The Aztecs, and The Sunsets.[298][299] In late 1963 and early 1964 British Invasion influence started permeating the music scenes of Australia and New Zealand.[299][300] June 1964 the Beatles made a historic visit to Australia, were greeted by a crowd of an estimated 300,000 in Adlelaide.[300] In response, many of the prior surf bands adapted by adding vocals over guitars, and countless new bands formed.[300] The first wave of British-inspired bands, such as Billy Thorpe and the Aztecs, from Sydney and Ray Columbus & the Invaders from Christchurch, New Zealand, tended to be more pop-oriented in the Mersey beat mold.[301][302][303] However, with rise in popularity of bands such as the Rolling Stones and the Animals, a second wave of Australian bands emerged who favored a harder, blues-influenced approach.[301]

In Australia, Sydney was the host to numerous acts during this time. Though the Atlantics had begun as an instrumental surf group, after the advent of the British Invasion, they brought in veteran singer Johnny Rebb, formerly with Johnny Rebb and His Rebels, to supply vocals. "Come On" is the song done during Rebb's tenure for which they are best known.[304][305][306] Also from Sydney, the Easybeats became the most popular group in Australia during the mid-sixties.[307] Most their pre-1967 songs were written by vocalist Stevie Wright and guitarist George Young, the older brother of Angus Young and Malcolm Young later of AC/DC fame.[307] Several of their songs of the period were "I'm Happy," "Hey Babe," and the previously unissued "Keep Your Hands Off My Babe."[307] In late 1966, they re-located to London and signed with the Beatles' manager Brian Epstein and his NEMS organization in hopes of gaining an international audience.[307] They recorded the riff-driven "Sorry" and had a worldwide hit with "Friday on My Mind," but were unable to duplicate its success.[307] Vince Maloney who had been a member of Billy Thorpe and the Aztecs before starting a duo with Tony Barber which eventually led to the formation of his own band, the Vince Maloney Sect, who recorded a song previously done by Ron Wood's London-based band the Birds, "No Good Without You."[308]

One Sydney's most notorious acts was the Missing Links, who throughout 1965 managed to go through a complete and total lineup change within the relatively short intervening time between the release their first single, "We 2 Should Live," in March and the subsequent releases on the Philips label later that year, which would include brazenly primitivist anthems such as "Wild About You" and "You're Drivin' Me Insane" as well as their self-titled LP, The Missing Links, which would arrive just in time for Chrismas.[309][310] They released the EP, Unchained in 1966, but disbanded shortly thereafter, with several of the members going onto other acts such as Running Jumping Standing Still, the Masters Apprentices, and the Richard Wright Group.[309] The Throb had a hit in Australia with their 1966 version of "Fortune Teller," originally recorded by Benny Spellman, then later by the Rolling Stones.[311] Later that year they released a single featuring "Black," a brooding version of a traditional folk ballad b/w "Turn My Head."[311] Though the single failed to chart, their rendition of "Black," with its evocation of mood and use of guitar feedback, has been mentioned as a significant achievement.[311] The Black Diamonds from Lithgow cut "I Want, Need, Love You" that same year.[312] Former surf band the Sunsets from Newcastle released the single "Hot Generation" in 1967.[313]

Originally from Brisbane, though they would later re-locate to Sydney, the Pleazers featured two lead singers, "brothers" Bob London and Bill London, who later replaced by Shane Hales.[314][315] They recorded a number of songs including "Last Night," their version of "Gloria," "Hurtin' All Over," and "Security."[314][315] Also from Brisbane, The Purple Hearts "Just a Little Bit," "Of Hopes and Dreams and Tombstones," and the chant-like "Early in the Morning."[316][317] Toni McCann, originally a native of London, established a career in Brisbane in the 60s, specializing in a hard-driving brand of R&B-based rock: "All the other women at the time were wearing the pretty dresses...So when I came out with the music of the Rolling Stones and started screaming my head off, people went, 'What the heck's that?'"[318][319] She released the single "My Baby" b/w "No" in which Tony Worlsley's support group, the Blue Jays played the backup.[318] The Elois from Maryborough, Queensland, were known for playing loud and in 1967 cut distortion-laden "By My Side."[320]

From Melbourne came the Pink Finks who featured Ross Wilson on vocals and Ross Hannaford on lead guitar.[321] They cut a version of "Louie Louie" as well as "Nowhere to Run" and "You're Too Good for Me."[321] Wilson and Hannaford would go on form bands groups as the Party Machine in 1967 and later the popular 70s Australian act, Daddy Cool.[321] Also from Melbourne, The Moods released the single "Rum Drunk" in 1966.[322] The Loved Ones, who grew out of a prior traditional jazz combo, switched to rock and recorded several songs such as "The Loved One," "Everlovin' Man," and "Sad Dark Eyes."[323][324] The Wild Cherries released "Krome Plated Yabby," "That's Life," and "Gotta Stop Lying" for Festival Records.[325][326] Steve and the Board were led by led by the American-born Steve Kipner and are known for several songs such as "I Want," "Giggle-Eyed Goo," the ballad "Lonely Winter."[327][328] In 1967, their drummer Colin Peterson would join the Bee Gees for several years during the late 1960s.[327] The Chimney Sweeps, who hailed from the suburbs of Melbourne, did not release any records during the time when they were active as a group, however they recorded practice demos on a home tape recorder, which would later be released on the Devil Girl album in 2002, which featured the ragged protopunk of songs such as "Give Your Lovin' to Me" and "Devil Girl." [329][330] The Creatures, from Mildura, Victoria, were one of the more notorious groups, sometimes dying their hair, which was considered outrageously long for the times.[331][332] They recorded hard-driving blues-based songs such as "All I Do is Cry" and "Ugly Thing." The Masters Apprentices were from Adelaide and had a long career that spanned into the 1970s.[331] While in later years they would move in a more progressive direction, their early sound was largely R&B-influenced garage and psychedelic rock.[333][334] Two of their best known early songs are "Wars or Hands of Time" and the proptopunk "Buried and Dead."[334]

After the initial success of Ray Columbus and the Invaders, a number of more aggressive and blues-based groups would emerge from New Zealand. Chants R&B, were from Christchurch and specialized in a raw R&B-influenced sound heard in such songs as "I'm Your Witchdoctor," previously done by John Mayall and "Neighbour Neighbour."[335][336] The Blue Stars from Auckland cut the defiant protopunk "Social End Product" which anticipated some of the thematic concerns of later punk acts in the 1970s.[337][338] The La De Das from Huapai, near Auckland) recorded a version of the Changin' Times' "How is the Air Up There?" [339][340][341] The group would remain active into the 70's, but would evolve towards a more progressive funk-based sound.[339]

Decline[edit]

Despite scores of garage bands being signed to major or large regional labels, most were commercial failures. For instance, "Going All the Way" by the Squires was issued on a national label under Atco and is now regarded as a genre classic, but was not a hit anywhere.[342] It is generally agreed that garage rock peaked both commercially and artistically around 1966.[5] By 1968 the style largely disappeared from the national charts, the minor hit "Question of Temperature" by the Balloon Farm being a notable exception. It was also disappearing at the local level as amateur musicians faced college, work or the draft.[5] New styles had either evolved out of garage rock or replaced it, such as psychedelic rock, progressive rock, heavy metal, country rock, and bubblegum.[5] However, in Detroit, garage rock's legacy remained alive well into the 1970s, with bands such as the MC5, the Stooges, the Up and Death, who employed a much more aggressive approach to the form.

Later developments[edit]

Critical recognition[edit]

Iggy Pop of the Stooges onstage in 1977

At the time of its original happening in the 1960s, garage rock was not thought of as a genre, but merely as typical rudimentary rock of the period, and had no name.[343] However, in the early-1970s, certain rock critics, such as Dave Marsh, Lester Bangs, Greg Shaw, and Lenny Kaye, began to speak of the mid-'60s garage bands (as well bands that they considered continuing in their line, such as MC5 and the Stooges) as an actual genre, which they referred to as "punk rock."[344][345][346] In 1971, conjuring up a more innocent time, Lester Bangs would remark nostalgically about the garage bands of mid-60s: "...then punk bands started cropping up who were writing their own songs but taking the Yardbirds' sound and reducing it to this kind of goony fuzztone clatter...oh, it was beautiful, it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I think those were the best days ever."[347] However, since the advent of the New York and London scenes of 1975-78, the term "punk rock" has become most commonly applied to groups emerging after 1974. Sixties garage bands are now most often described as "garage rock," but sometimes as "garage punk," "'60s punk," or, especially in the case of successors, such as MC5 and the Stooges, "protopunk."[348][349][350]

Emergence of punk aesthetic and movement[edit]

Main articles: Punk Rock and Punk subculture

Along with critical recognition, much of the revival of garage rock, and to a certain extent the emergence of the punk movement in the mid-1970s, can be traced to the release of the 1972 two-disk album Nuggets compiled by future Patti Smith guitarist Lenny Kaye, which drew together both commercially successful and relatively obscure tracks from the mid-1960s and whose sleeve notes used the term punk rock to describe the phenomenon.[351][352][353] As a result of the popularity of Nuggets, and critical attention being paid to primitive-sounding rock of past and present, a self-conscious musical aesthetic began to emerge around the term, "punk,"[354][355] that eventually, with the arrival of the New York and London scenes, would grow into a subculture, having its own look, iconography, identity, and values.[356][357] Iggy and the Stooges, arguably the last garage band, carried garage rock and protopunk into the early-1970s.[6] But, the mid to late-1970s saw the arrival of the bands most often viewed as the quintessential punk rock acts, most notably the Ramones, from New York, some of whose members had played in '60s garage bands,[358][359] and who are usually considered the first punk band as the term is now commonly understood, as well as the Sex Pistols, from London.[360][361] Both bands would spearhead the popular '70s punk movement from their two respective locations.[360][361] Though garage rock and protopunk influenced many of the bands from the New York and London scenes of this period,[362][363][364] punk rock had now become a movement with a subculture all of its own,[356][357] and the garage band era of the '60s came to be viewed as a distant forerunner.

Revivals[edit]

Main articles: Garage punk and Post-punk revival

Garage rock has continued to be an influence in rock. In the 1980s, another garage rock revival saw a number of bands linked to the underground music scene earnestly trying to replicate the sound, style, and look of the 1960s garage bands, including the Chesterfield Kings, the Fuzztones, the Pandoras, and the Lyres.[365] This trend coincided with a similar surf rock revival, and both styles fed in into the alternative rock movement and future grunge explosion, which some say was partially inspired by garage rock from the Tacoma area like the Sonics and the Wailers, but was largely unknown by fans outside the immediate circles of the bands themselves.[citation needed]

This movement also evolved into an even more primitive form of garage rock that became known as garage punk by the late 1980s, thanks to bands such as the Gories, thee Mighty Caesars, the Mummies and thee Headcoats.[366] Bands playing garage punk differ from the garage rock revival bands in that they do not necessarily attempt to replicate the exact look and sound of 1960s garage bands and their overall approach tends to be even louder and rawer, often infusing elements of protopunk and 1970s punk rock. But, the garage rock revival and garage punk have coexisted throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s, with many independent record labels releasing thousands of records by bands playing various styles of primitive rock and roll all around the world. Some of the more prolific of these independent record labels included Estrus,[367] Get Hip,[368] Bomp!,[369] and Sympathy for the Record Industry.[370]

The Black Keys performing in 2011

In the early 2000s, a garage rock or post-punk revival[371] achieved the airplay and commercial success that had eluded garage rock bands of the past. This was led by four bands: the Strokes of New York City, the Hives of Fagersta, Sweden, the Vines of Sydney, and the White Stripes from Detroit, Michigan, christened by the media as the The bands, or "The saviours of rock 'n' roll".[372] Other products of the Detroit rock scene included; the Von Bondies, Electric 6, the Dirtbombs and the Detroit Cobras[373] Elsewhere, other acts such as Billy Childish and the Buff Medways from Chatham, England,[374] the (International) Noise Conspiracy from Umeå, Sweden,[375] the 5.6.7.8's from Tokyo, Japan,[376] and Jay Reatard and the Oblivians from Memphis, USA[377] enjoyed moderate underground success and appeal. A second wave of bands that managed to gain international recognition as a result of the movement included the Black Keys,[378] Black Rebel Motorcycle Club, the Yeah Yeah Yeahs, the Killers, Interpol, and Kings of Leon from the US,[379] the Libertines, Arctic Monkeys, Bloc Party, the Editors, and Franz Ferdinand from the UK,[380] Jet from Australia,[381] and the Datsuns and the D4 from New Zealand.[382]

The mid-2000s saw several underground bands achieve some mainstream prominence. Bands such as Black Lips[383] and Jay Reatard,[384] who initially released their records on traditionally garage punk labels such as In the Red Records, began signing to larger, more well-known independent labels.[385] Several bands followed them in signing to larger labels such as Rough Trade[386] and Drag City.[387]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b R. Shuker, Popular music: the key concepts (Routledge, 2nd edn., 2005), p. 140.
  2. ^ E. J. Abbey, Garage Rock and Its Roots: Musical Rebels and the Drive for Individuality (McFarland, 2006), pp. 74–6.
  3. ^ John Mendelsohn, Review of Long Player by The Faces, Rolling Stone, March 18, 1971
  4. ^ "etymology - Where did the term "garage band" originate from? - English Language & Usage Stack Exchange". English.stackexchange.com. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Backbeat Books, 3rd end., 2002), pp. 1320–1.
  6. ^ a b N. E. Tawa, Supremely American: Popular Song in the 20th Century: Styles and Singers and what They Said about America (Scarecrow Press, 2005), p. 179.
  7. ^ Bangs, Lester. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung. Anchor Books, a division of Random House. 2003. pg. 73 - Reprinted from 1971 article that appeared in Greg Shaw's fanzine, Who Put the Bomp. Bangs refers to how garage bands would do "raveups" influenced by British acts such as the Yardbirds and the Rolling Stones. Generally, the Yardbirds are usually credited with being the first band to do raveups. A popular example of an American Garage rock band doing a Yardbirds'-influenced "raveup" is in the song "Psychotic Reaction," in which the tempo speeds up during the instrumental passage. A "raveup" is a common term used amongst musicians of the '60s era to describe a sped-up (usually instrumental) passage. The term is alluded to in the title of the website, Trans World Rave-Up, listed in the "External links" section of this article. Such sped-up passages would likely have influence on later punk and hardcore acts.
  8. ^ Marks, Ian and McFarlane, Ian, and McIntyre, Iain. Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Verse Chorus Press. Portland, London, Melbourne. 2010. pg. 323 - Marks, McFarlane, and McIntyre refer to "double-time rave-ups" in Pink Finks' version of "Louie Louie."
  9. ^ N. Campbell, American Youth Cultures (Edinburgh University Press, 2nd edn., 2004), p. 213.
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  78. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "Pebbles, Vol. 9: Southern California, Part 2 (Review)". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
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  93. ^ Kaye, Lenny. "Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era 1965-1968 1998 CD reissue liner notes".  - also mentioned in Mike Stax's track-by-track liner notes on pg. 44 in booklet (box set only)
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  97. ^ Payne, Ed (April 25, 2003). "The original band from East L.A.". CNN.com/Entertainment (Cable News Network LP, LLLP.). Retrieved July 16, 2015. 
  98. ^ n/a, Jason (2014). "The Roosters "All Of Our Days"". The Rising Storm. therisingstorm.net. Retrieved July 6, 2015. 
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  102. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "Bees: Artist Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 6, 2015. 
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  117. ^ Montfichet, Stansted. "Warlocks:Artist Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 6, 2015.  - AllMusic mentions term psychedic/garage in infobox. Grateful Dead's first album had pieces in similar vein with songs such as "Cream Puff War."
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  122. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "The Cryan' Shames: Artist Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 7, 2015. 
  123. ^ a b c Deming, Mark. "Shadows of Knight: Artist Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 7, 2015. 
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  125. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Oh Yeah! The Best of Dunwich Records". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 20, 2015.  - Though Erlewine does not mention the song "Project Blue" specifically in his review of the compilation on which it appears, the song is listed in the song selection right below the review.
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  130. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Oh Yeah! The Best of Dunwich Records". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 20, 2015.  - Though Erlewine does not mention the song "The Great Train Robbery" specifically in his review of the compilation on which it appears, the song is listed in the song selection right below the review.
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  132. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "New Colony Six : Artist Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 7, 2015. 
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  136. ^ Viglione, Joe. "Terry Knight & the Pack: AllMusic Review". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 7, 2015. 
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  145. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "The Bruthers: Artist Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  146. ^ Ankeny, Jason. "Artist Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 7, 2015. 
  147. ^ "The Myddle Class". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 7, 2015. 
  148. ^ Segal, Stephen H. (ed.). "The Doughboys". Philly Weekly (R.P.M. Philly, LLC). Retrieved July 7, 2015. 
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  151. ^ a b Bishop, Chris (May 2, 2007). "The Reekers". Garage Hangover. Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 26, 2015. 
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  153. ^ a b "Reekers". 60s Garage Bands.com. Retrieved July 26, 2015. 
  154. ^ a b Kiviat, Steve. "City Paper obit for Tom Guernsey, from '60s DC band the Hangmen". Humanities and Social Sciences Online. Humanities & Social Sciences Online. Retrieved July 26, 2015. 
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  156. ^ "The Fallen Angels". Psychedelicized. Psychedelicized & MileHighMusic. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  157. ^ a b Huey, Steve. "Sam the Sham & the Pharaohs: Artist Biography". Sam the Sham & the Pharaohs. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
  158. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "Kenny & the Kasuals: Artist Biography". AllMuisic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
  159. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "Mouse & the Traps: Artist Biography". AllMuisc. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
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  161. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Neal Ford & The Fanatics". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
  162. ^ a b c Deming, Mark. "The 13th Floor Elevators: Artist Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
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  164. ^ Eder, Bruce. "The Bad Seeds: Artist Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
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  167. ^ Markesich, Mike (2012). Teen Beat Mayhem (First ed.). Branford, Connecticut: Priceless Info Press. pp. 118, 387. ISBN 978-0-9856482-5-1.  - On pg. 118, the song is given a ranking of 10 (out of 10). In the section listing the 1000 greatest garage rock songs of all time (voted on by a panel of garage rock writers and experts), the song is mentioned in the top two garage rock songs of all time and is listed as #2 (pg. 387), second only to "You're Gonna Miss Me," by the 13th Floor Elevators.
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  175. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "The Nightcrawlers". Billboard. Billboard. Retrieved July 9, 2015. 
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  196. ^ a b "The Savages - Live 'n Wild (Crude 60s Garage Bermuda 1966)". Psychedelic Rock 'n' Roll. Psychedelic Rock 'n' Roll. December 4, 2009. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
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  198. ^ a b c d Bangs, Lester (2003). Marcus, Greil, ed. Pychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung (First ed.). New York: Ancor Books, a division of Random House Inc. pp. 56–57, 61, 64, 101. ISBN 0-679-72045-6.  - Lester Bangs, one of the first writers to define genre, in his article, "James Taylor Marked for Death," which appeared in the Spring 1971 edition of Grag Shaw's publication, Who Put the Bomp, extolling the virtues of their seemingly unrepentant primitivism and sexually-charged innuendo (pg. 54, 57), wrote that he considered the Troggs, a British band, not only of the genre, but quintessential to it. He constantly uses the word "punk" (which at the time was the term used for the garage rock genre) to describe them (pg. 56-57, 61, 64). On pg. 101 he uses the word "punk" again and even goes to the extreme of calling them its "supreme archetype" and also equates them with the Stooges and Modern Lovers, whom he holds in similar but lesser regard in that respect.
  199. ^ a b c Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 7–9, 11–352. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. Retrieved July 21, 2015.  - The entire 352-page book is devoted to garage rock in Australia during 1960s. Ian McFarland, one of the best known writers covering Australian rock, uses the term "garage, "garage punk' or "punk" repeatedly in his Foward on pg. 7-9 when describing the Australian 60s bands; his first sentence reads: "When the subject of 1960s Aussie garage-punk-/R&B/psych comes up in conversation, most afficanados of the genre will grin knowingly, nod enthusiastically and immediately rattle of a list of their personal fave raves." The main text by Marks and McIntyre uses these same terms constantly throughout the whole book, whose central purpose is to address the Australian garage rock bands. The book in its coverage of numerous acts, underscores the scope and size of the Australian garage rock scene in the mid 60s. Also see: Evertt True's Australian Garage Rock Primer (website)True’s Australian Garage Rock Primer
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  253. ^ a b c "Ye-yé! Spanish Nuggets - Ten 1960s Garage, Beat and Psych Classics from Spain.". Stranger Than Known. Awesome Inc. July 12, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2015. 
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  271. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "GS I Love You: Japanese Garage Bands of the '60s (Review)". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 30, 2015. - not to be confused with Alice Cooper's American band of the same name.
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  276. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "Ch. 7". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. p. 91. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4.  - Note: pg. 91 mentions that Biddu, previously of India's the Trojans, produced the Tigers from Japan and that the song went up the charts.
  277. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "1, 4". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 1–4, 10, 51. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4.  - Pg. 1-2 discuss the Simla Beat Contest in 1971 (one listen the Simla Beat 70 71 compilation confirms that the mid-60s style of garage rock was still present in India, not as a revival, but as a living, organic, and unconscious continuation of the form). Pg. 3-4 the author describes the famine and economic hardship, as well as political instability in India at the time. On pg. 10 and 51 the author indicates that the term often used for many the Indian bands of the 60s is "garage bands." Source B: "New Book on India’s 1960s–1970s Rock Scene: Highly explosive out of time garage-punk from India!". Combustibles. Nissim Ezekiel. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
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  281. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "Ch. 2". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 24, 27–30, 32. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. 
  282. ^ a b Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "Ch. 2 and 7". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 15–22, 91. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4.  - Note: pg. 91 mentions that Biddu, previously of India's the Trojans, produced the Tigers from Japan.
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  284. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "Ch. 6". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 78–80. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. 
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  286. ^ a b c d Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "4". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 50–56. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. 
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  288. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "Introduction". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. 
  289. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "Ch. 4". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. p. 50. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. 
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  291. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "Ch. 4". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. p. 55. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. 
  292. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 133–134. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. 
  293. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "Ch. 5". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. p. 67. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. 
  294. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "10". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. p. 121. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. 
  295. ^ Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "Ch. 9". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. p. 118. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. 
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  298. ^ Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 12, 55, 63. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. 
  299. ^ a b Unterberger, Richie. "The Atlantics: Artist Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 18, 2015. 
  300. ^ a b c Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. 
  301. ^ a b Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 12, 16, 18–19, 87. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. Retrieved July 26, 2015. - These pages describe the differences between the first wave (more pop) and second wave (more blues based) of Australian beat music.
  302. ^ Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 25–38, 39–47. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.  - Pg. 25-38 is devoted to Billy Thorpe and the Aztecs as well as Vince Maloney.[1] Pg. 39-47 is devoted to Ray Columbus and the Invaders.[2]
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  304. ^ Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 55–61. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. Retrieved July 18, 2015.  - Marks and McIntyre chose "Come On" as the #1 song in "The Australian and New Zealand Beat 'n' Garage Top 100" section at the back of the book.
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  306. ^ "Aussie Rocker Johnny Rebb Dead at 79". The Australian. The Australian News. August 3, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
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  344. ^ Bangs, Lester. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung. Anchor Books, a division of Random House. 2003. pp. 8, 56, 57, 61, 64, 101: reprints of articles which appeared in 1971 and 1972, that refer to garage bands such as the Count Five and the Troggs as "punk"; p. 101 associates "Iggy" and "Jonathan of Modern Lovers" with the Troggs and their ilk (as being punk); pp. 112-113 speak of the Guess Who as "punk"--The Guess Who had made recordings (i.e. their hit version of Shakin' All Over," 1965) as a garage rock outfit in the mid 60s; p. 8 makes a general statement about "punk rock" (garage) as a genre: "...then punk bands started cropping up...it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I think those were the best days ever."; p. 225 is a reprint from article which appeared in late-70s, that refers back to garage bands as "punk"
  345. ^ Laing, Dave. One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in Punk Rock. PM Press. Oakland, CA 2015. pp. 22-23 - Laing writes that the term, "punk rock" was used "generically" (i.e. as to designate a genre) in the early '70s to describe mid-'60s garage rock bands--he quotes Greg Shaw from the late '70s referring to how it was used in the early '70s to designate the genre: "Punk rock in those days was a quaint fanzine term for a transient form of mid-60s music..." [3] Marsh, D. Creem. May, 1971 - from a review of live show by ? & the Mysterions - Marsh refers to their style as "a landmark exposition of punk rock." >Christgau, Robert. Village Voice. October, 1971 - refers to "mid-60's garage rock as "punk" >Shaw, Greg. Who Put the Bomp. 1971. - In 1971 article in Who Put the Bomp, Greg Shaw wrote about "...what I have chosen to call 'punk rock' bands—white teenage hard rock of '64-66 (Standells, Kingsmen, Shadows of Knight, etc.)"
  346. ^ Kaye, Lenny. "Headed, Decked, and Stroked..." - original liner notes for Nuggets LP. (Elektra, 1972): uses the term "punk rock" to describe whole genre of 60s garage bands: "..the name that has been unofficially coined for them - "punk rock" - seems particularly fitting in this case..." >Shaw, Greg. Rolling Stone, Jan. 4, 1973 - review of original Nuggets LP: speaks of whole phenomenon of 60s garage bands as an actual genre called "punk rock": "Punk rock at its best is the closest we came in the 60's to the original rockabilly spirit of Rock 'n Roll..."
  347. ^ Bangs, Lester. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung. Anchor Books, a division of Random House. 2003. p. 8 - Taken from article, '"Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung," which appeared in June, 1971 edition of Creem
  348. ^ G. Thompson, American Culture in the 1980s (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-7486-1910-0, p. 134.
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  350. ^ Davidson, Eric (May 1, 2010). "10". We Never Learn: The Gunk Punk Undergut, 1988-2001. Backbeat Books (Hal Leonard Performing Arts Publishing). p. 211. ISBN 978-0879309725. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  351. ^ L. Kaye, "Headed, Decked, and Stroked..." - original liner notes for Nuggets (Elektra, 1972)
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  355. ^ M. Blake (ed.). Punk: The Whole Story (Mojo Magazine). Dorling Kindersley Limited. 2006 - Nick Kent (journalist and very early member of the Sex Pistols), in his piece, "Punk Rock Year Zero" describes the origin of the punk aesthetic: "For me, punk didn't start in 1976: it started in 1971 when I first read US rock magazine Creem. The writer Dave Marsh claims he coined the phrase "punk rock" in a review he wrote for the magazine late '71 of a gig by ? & the Mysterions. But it was fellow Creem scribe Lester Bangs who really took the term and created a whole aesthetic for it. For Bangs and his disciples, punk rock began in 1963 when Seattle quartet the Kingmen hit Number 1 stateside with the deliciously moronic Louie, Louie, grew with the influx of one hit wonders from the US mid-60's that Creem correspondent, Lenny Kaye paid fullsome tribute to with his influential 1972 album Nuggets..."
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Additional references[edit]

  • Buckley, Peter (2003). The Rough Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to More than 1200 Artists and Bands (3rd ed.). London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1843531054. 

Suggested reading[edit]

  • Bangs, Lester (ed. Greil Marcus) (1987, 2003) Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung. Anchor Books (a division of Random House). New York. ISBN 0-679-72045-6 - a partial compendium of Bangs' articles discussing various musical topics, including some of the earliest writings about this genre
  • Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). India Psychedelic: The Story of a Rocking Generation. Harper Collins Publishers, India. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4 - covers the garage and psychedelic beat boom in India during the '60s and early '70s
  • Hicks, Michael (2001) Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252069153 / ISBN 978-0252069154 - covers garage and psychedelic bands of the 60s
  • Lemlich, Jeffrey M. (2001) Savage Lost: Florida Garage Bands: The '60s and Beyond. Distinctive Publishing Corp. ISBN 978-0942963120 - covers '60s Florida garage rock scene
  • Markesich, Mike (2012) Teen Beat Mayhem. Priceless Info Press. ISBN 0985648252 / ISBN 978-0985648251 - includes information about more than 16,000 garage rock songs and recordings form the '60s
  • Marks, Ian D., Ian, and McIntyre, Iain. (2010) Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand Verse Chorus Press. Portland, London, Melbourne. Foreword by Ian McFarlane. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4 - covers '60s garage rock scene in Australia and New Zealand
  • Nobles, Mark (2012) Fort Worth's Rock and Roll Roots (Images of America series). Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0738584991 / ISBN 978-0738584997 - covers '60s Fort Worth garage rock scene
  • Unterberger, Richie (1998) Unknown Legends of Rock 'n' Roll: Psychedelic Unknowns, Mad Geniuses, Punk Pioneers, Lo-Fi Mavericks & More. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0879305347 / ISBN 978-0879305345 - covers lesser known and overlooked rock artists from the 1960s, including garage and psychedelic
  • Unterberger, Richie (2000) Urban Spacemen and Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0879306165 / ISBN 978-0879306168 - covers more lesser known and overlooked rock artists from the 1960s, including garage and psychedelic

External links[edit]

  • '60s Garage Bands – histories of local and regional bands of the 1960s
  • A Bit Like You And Me – '60s garage band biographies, song histories, lyrics, and music
  • About .com A Brief History of Punk – early history of punk rock from garage era through the late 1970s
  • Beyond the Beat Generation – interviews with former members of 1960s garage bands
  • Brum Beat - biographies of mostly 60s bands from Birmingham, England
  • Classic Garage Rock - includes profiles and lyrics of '60s garage rock bands and songs—have inventory of records rented to film studios
  • Cosmic Mind at Play - discusses garage and psychedelic records of the '60s along with band histories
  • Down The Line – news, information, and reviews of 1960s bands
  • Everett True's Australian Garage Rock Primer - covers Australian garage rock bands of the 1960s and later
  • Garage 60s BlogSpot - website and devoted to covering '60s garage rock bands
  • Garage Hangover – garage bands of the 1960s by state, province and country
  • Garage Music – biographies and reviews of garage rock bands
  • GS - covers the group sounds ("G.S.") garage/beat boom in Japan
  • Lee's Garage Sector - information about '60s garage bands: 45's, compilations, newspaper clippings, etc.
  • It's Psychedelic Baby - articles, interviews, and reviews of '60s psychedelic and garage acts
  • Limestone Lounge - Jeff Lemlich's website and blog which features profiles, articles, and threads about Florida music from the '60s, particularly Florida garage rock bands
  • Psychedelic Rock 'n' roll – information (and reviews) about 60' garage, British invasion, folk-Rock, hard-Rock, sunshine Rock, eastern bands and psychedelic bands
  • Southern Garage Bands – information about '60s garage bands from the Southern United States
  • Start - Website devoted to covering as many as 1400 Dutch Nederbeat bands of the '60s (in both Dutch and English)
  • Transparent Radiation – provides information about '60s garage rock bands (and other speciality genres)
  • Trans World '60s Punk:Cutie Morning Moon – mostly about garage bands from outside of the United States
  • Ugly Things - magazine founded by Mike Stax that provides information on garage rock vintage rock from 1960s and other eras