García Sánchez II of Pamplona
García Sánchez II, sometimes García II, III, IV or V (c. 964 – c. 1000–1004), called the Trembling, the Tremulous, or the Trembler (in Spanish, el Temblón) by his contemporaries, was the king of Pamplona and count of Aragón from 994 until his death. He was the son of King Sancho II and Urraca Fernández.
Throughout his reign, his foreign policy seems to have been closely linked to that of Castile. His mother was an aunt of count Sancho García of Castile, and also of the powerful count of Saldaña, García Gómez of Carrión, and she appears to have played a role in forming a bridge between the kingdom and county.
He joined his cousin Sancho in attempting to break from the submission his father had offered to Córdoba, as a result of which he had to face Almanzor. In 996 he was forced to seek peace in Córdoba. In 997 during an expedition into the land of Calatayud, García killed the governor's brother. Almanzor took revenge by beheading 50 Christians. At the Battle of Cervera in July 1000, he joined, along with count García Gómez of Saldaña, in a coalition headed by count Sancho García of Castile that was defeated by Almanzor (that count Sancho led the group is thought to reflect García's decline). Tradition names him one of the Christian leaders at the 1002 Battle of Calatañazor, which resulted in the death of Almanzor and the consequent crisis in the Caliphate of Córdoba, but there is no contemporary record of him after 1000, while his cousin Sancho Ramírez of Viguera may have been ruling in Pamplona in 1002. García was certainly dead by 1004, when his son Sancho Garcés III first appears as king.
Domestically, he granted the rule in Aragon to his brother Gonzalo, under the tutelage of his mother Urraca. A tradition reports that he freed all of the Muslim captives being held in the kingdom. He had married by August 981, Jimena, daughter of Fernando Bermúdez, count of Cea by Elvira Díaz (an aunt of count García Gómez of Saldaña). Among their children were the future king Sancho III and Urraca, later the second wife of Alfonso V of León.
- Martín Duque, Ángel. "Don García Sánchez III «el de Nájera»: Biographía de un Reinado" in García Sánchez III "el de Nájera" un rey y un reino en la Europa del siglo XI : XV Semana de Estudios Medievales, Nájera, Tricio y San Millán de la Cogolla del 2 al 6 de agosto de 2004 José Ignacio de la Iglesia Duarte, ed. 2005, pp. 17–38
- Pérez de Urbel, Justo. "Los Primeros Siglos de la Reconquista, (Años 711-1038)" in España Christiana: Comienzo de la Reconquista (711-1038). Historia de España [dirigida por Don Ramón Menéndez Pidal], vol. 6. Espasa Calpe: Madrid, 1964.
- Pérez de Urbel, 318, says it was his brother Ramiro, but this appears to be an unintended slip, as his supporting endnote includes a quotation explicitly naming Gonzalo as the count.
García Sánchez II of PamplonaBorn: c. 964 Died: c. 1000–1004
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