Garden Park, Colorado

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Garden Park, in southcentral Colorado, is known for its Jurassic dinosaurs and the role the specimens played in the infamous bone wars of the late 19th century. Located 10 km (6.2 mi) north of Cañon City, Colorado, the name originates from the area providing vegetables to the miners at nearby Cripple Creek in the 19th century. Garden Park proper is a triangular valley surrounded by cliffs on the southeast and southwest and by mountains to the north; however, the name is also refers to the dinosaur sites on top and along the cliffs. The dinosaur sites now form the Garden Park Paleontological Resource Area, which is overseen by the Bureau of Land Management.

One of the few photographs taken shortly after the discovery of dinosaur bones in the Garden Park area. These bones are of the first Camarasaurus supremus skeleton being excavated by Oramel Lucas for E. D. Cope
Felch Quarry 1 (Marsh-Felch Quarry) in the Garden Park Paleontological Resource Area. Discovered in 1877, this site produced numerous holotypes of dinosaurs, which were named by O. C. Marsh. Most of the specimens are at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington D.C.

Geology[edit]

Garden Park was formed by erosion of sedimentary rocks that have been distorted by uplift of the Rocky Mountains. The region is bisected by Four Mile Creek (also called Oil Creek), which has carved a canyon through the Mesozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. One of these Mesozoic strata is the Morrison Formation, which is exposed within the canyon. However, because the formation contains high amounts of swelling clays, large faulted blocks or slump-blocks of the formation are slowly moving towards the creek. The result is to make it difficult to correlate the various dinosaur quarries because exposures are limited and not continuous.

The formation in Garden Park can be divided informally into a lower and upper unit.[1] The lower unit is composed primarily green and gray mudstones, with numerous lenticular, white to tan to gray sandstones. The upper is composed mostly of red mudstone, with lesser amounts of yellowish, often tabular sandstone. These two units probably correspond to the Tidwell, Saltwash and Brushy Basin members of the Morrison Formation on the Colorado Plateau.

Dinosaurs[edit]

The discovery of dinosaurs in the Garden Park area has been presented numerous times by Schuchert and LeVene,[2] Shur,[3] Ostrom and McIntosh,[4] and Jaffe.[5] The lesser known post-Marsh and Cope collecting of dinosaurs has been presented by Monaco.[6] She recounts the expeditions by the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in the early 20th century, the Denver Museum of Natural History in the 1930 and 1990s, and the Cleveland Museum of Natural History in the mid-1950s.

Dinosaurs from Garden Park on display include Allosaurus fragilis, Diplodocus longus, Ceratosaurus nasicornis, and Stegosaurus stenops at the National Museum of Natural History, Haplocanthosaurus delfsi at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and Othnielosaurus consors (then called Othnielia rex), Stegosaurus stenops and a clutch of Preprismatoolithus coloradensis eggs at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science.

Major vertebrate quarries[edit]

references [7][8] (h) = holotype

Cleveland Museum of Natural History Quarry[edit]

Reptilia
Testudines
Amphichelydia
Glyptops plicatus
Crocodilia
Mesosuchia
Eutretauranosuchus delfsi
Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Haplocanthosaurus delfsi

Cope's Quarries[edit]

CS 1 (Cope's Nipple = Saurian Hill)

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Camarasaurus supremus (h)
Caulodon leptoganus (h) (nomen dubium)

Quarry 1

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Theropoda
Laelaps trihedrodon (h) (nomen dubium)

Quarry 2

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Camarasaurus leptodirus (h) nomen dubium (now Camarasaurus supremus)
Theropoda
Epanterias amplexus (h) nomen dubium (now Allosaurus)
Ornithischia
Stegosauria
Hypsirophus discurus

Quarry 3

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Amphicoelias fragillimus (h)

Quarry 4

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Amphicoelias fragillimus?
Symphyrophus musculosus (h) nomen dubium

Quarry 5 (=Denver Museum of Natural History Camarasaurus)

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Camarasaurus supremus

Quarry 6

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Camarasaurus supremus

Quarry 7

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Amphicoelias sp.
Camarasaurus supremus

Quarry 8 (CS 2; The Fort)

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Camarasaurus supremus

Quarry 9

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda?

Quarry 10

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda?

Quarry 11

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda?

Quarry 12

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Amphicoelias altus (h)

Quarry 13

Dinosauria indeterminate

Quarry 14

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Camarasaurus supremus

Quarry 15 (Oil Tract)

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Amphicoelias latus (h) (now Camarasaurus grandis)

The following cannot be assigned to specific quarries

Reptilia
Testudines
Amphichelydia
Glyptops plicatulus
Incertae sedis
Tichosteus lucasanus (h) nomen dubium
Tichosteus aequifacies (h) nomen dubium
Brachyrophus altarkansanus (h) nomen dubium
Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Caulodon diversidens (h) nomen dubium
Ornithischia
Stegosauria
Hypsirophus seeleyanus (h)

Denver Museum of Natural History[edit]

Deweese Quarry (DMNH)

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Diplodocinae indeterminate

Egg Gulch

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Theropoda
Prismatoolithus coloradensis (eggs)
Ornithischia
Ornithopoda
Dryosauridae indeterminate

Kessler's Quarry

Reptilia
Testudines
Amphichelydia
Glyptops plicatus
Crocodilia
Mesoeucrocodylia
Goniopholididae indeterminate
Dinosauria
Saurischia
Theropoda
Torvosaurus sp.
Ornithischia
Ornithopoda
genus and species indeterminate
Stegosauria
Stegosaurus stenops

Lindsey Quarry

Amphibia
Anura
Reptilia
Testudines
Amphichelydia
Glyptops plicatus
Rhynchocephalia
Opisthias rarus
Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Camarasaurus grandis
Theropoda
Allosaurus fragilis
Ornithischia
Ornithopoda
genus and species indeterminate
Mammalia
Multituberculata
genus and species indeterminate

Meyer Site 1

Reptilia
Crocodilia
Mesosuchia
Goniopholididae indeterminate
Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
genus and species indeterminate
Theropoda
Allosaurus sp.

Meyer Site 2

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Theropoda
Torvosaurus cf. T. tanneri

Meyer Site 3

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Diplodocinae indeterminate

Not-A-Haplocanthosaurus Quarry

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Diplodocidae indeterminate
Theropoda
genus and species indeterminate

Small's Quarry

Osteichthyes
Actinopterygii
genus and species indeterminate
Sarcopterygii
Dipnoi
Ceratodus guentheri
Reptilia
Testudines
Amphichelydia
Dinochelys whitei
Glyptops plicatus
Squamata
?Sauria indeterminate
Lacertilia
Pterosauria
Kepodactylus grandis (h)
Crocodylia
Mesosuchia
Goniopholididae indeterminate
Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Apatosaurinae indeterminate
Theropoda
Ceratosauria indeterminate
genus and species indeterminate
Ornithiscia
Ornithopoda
Dryosaurus altus
Stegosauria
Stegosaurus stenops
Ankylosauria
?Mymoorapelta sp.
Mammalia
Docodonta
Docodontidae
Docodon apoxys
Dryolestidae
new genus and species

Valley of Death Locality

Reptilia
Testudines
Amphichelydia
Glyptops plicatulus
Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Diplodocinae indeterminate
Ornithischia
Neornithischia
genus and species indeterminate

Marsh Quarries[edit]

Jennings and Johnson Locality

Reptilia
Crocodilia
Hallopus victor

Felch Quarry 1

Osteichthyes
Sarcopterygii
Dipnoi
Ceratodus guentheri
Reptilia
Testudines
Amphichelydia
Dinochelys whitei
Glyptops plicatulus
Crocodylia
Mesosuchia
Eutretauranosuchus sp.
Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Brachiosaurus sp.
?Eobrontosaurus
Diplodocus longus (h)
Haplocanthosaurus priscus (h)
Haplocanthosaurus utterbacki (h) (=H. priscus)
Theropoda
Allosaurus fragilis (h)
Ceratosaurus nasicornis (h)
Ceratosauria indeterminate
Tanycolagreus topwilsoni
Labrosaurus ferox (h) (now Allosaurus fragilis)
Ornithischia
Ornithopoda
Dryosaurus altus
Othnielia rex (h)
Stegosauria
Stegosaurus stenops (h)

Felch Quarry 2

Dinosauria
Saurischia
Sauropoda
Diplodocus longus

Lucas's Site

Reptilia
Crocodylia
Mesoeucrocodylia
Amphicotylus lucasii
Dinosauria
Ornithischia
Ornithopoda
Nanosaurus agilis (h)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carpenter, K. 1998. Vertebrate biostratigraphy of the Morrison Formation near Cañon City, Colorado. In Carpenter, K., Chure, D. and Kirkland, J.I. (eds.) The Morrison Formation: An Interdisciplinary Study. Modern Geology 23:407-426.
  2. ^ Schuchert, C., and LeVene, C.M. 1940. O.C.Marsh, Pioneer in Paleontology. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  3. ^ Shur, E. 1974. The Fossil Feud. Exposition Press, NY. 340p.
  4. ^ Ostrom, J,H., and McIntosh, J.S. 1966. Marsh's Dinosaurs: The Collections from Como Bluff. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  5. ^ Jaffe, M. 2000. The Gilded Dinosaur. Crown Publ., New York.
  6. ^ Monaco, P.E. 1998.A short history of dinosaur collecting in the Garden Park Fossil Area, Canon City, Colorado. In, Carpenter, K., Chure, D. and Kirkland, J.I. (eds.) The Morrison Formation: An Interdisciplinary Study. Modern Geology 23: 465-480.
  7. ^ Carpenter, K. 1998. Vertebrate biostratigraphy of the Morrison Formation near Cañon City, Colorado. In Carpenter, K., Chure, D. and Kirkland, J.I. (eds.) The Morrison Formation: An Interdisciplinary Study. Modern Geology 23:407-426.
  8. ^ McIntosh, J.S. 1998. New information about the Cope collection of sauropods from Garden Park, Colorado. In Carpenter, K., Chure, D. and Kirkland, J.I. (eds.) The Morrison Formation: An Interdisciplinary Study. Modern Geology 23:481-506.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°34′24″N 105°13′31″W / 38.57333°N 105.22528°W / 38.57333; -105.22528