Gardens by the Bay

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Gardens by the Bay
Taman di Persisiran (Malay)
滨海湾花园 (Chinese)
வளைகுடா தோட்டம் (Tamil)
Gardens by the Bay logo.svg
Marina Bay Sands from Gardens By The Bay.jpg
The Supertree Grove Trees from the Lily Pond at Gardens by the Bay
TypeNature park
LocationDowntown Core, Kallang, Marina East, Marina South, Singapore
Coordinates1°17′5″N 103°51′54″E / 1.28472°N 103.86500°E / 1.28472; 103.86500Coordinates: 1°17′5″N 103°51′54″E / 1.28472°N 103.86500°E / 1.28472; 103.86500
Area101 hectares (250 acres)
Opened29 June 2012; 10 years ago (2012-06-29)
Operated byNational Parks Board
Visitors50 million (as of October 2018)[1]
Public transit access TE22  Gardens by the Bay
 CE1  DT16  Bayfront
 TE22A  Founders' Memorial (Bay East Garden, from 2027)

The Gardens by the Bay is a nature park spanning 101 hectares (250 acres) in the Central Region of Singapore, adjacent to the Marina Reservoir. The park consists of three waterfront gardens: Bay South Garden (in Marina South), Bay East Garden (in Marina East) and Bay Central Garden (in Downtown Core and Kallang).[2] The largest of the gardens is the Bay South Garden at 54 hectares (130 acres) designed by Grant Associates. Its Flower Dome is the largest glass greenhouse in the world.[3]

Gardens by the Bay was part of the nation's plans to transform its "Garden City" to a "City in a Garden", with the aim of raising the quality of life by enhancing greenery and flora in the city. First announced by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong at Singapore's National Day Rally in 2005, Gardens by the Bay was intended to be Singapore's premier urban outdoor recreation space and a national icon.

Being a popular tourist attraction in Singapore, the park received 6.4 million visitors in 2014, while topping its 20 millionth visitor mark in November 2015 and over 50 million in 2018.[4]

Bay Central Garden[edit]

Bay Central Garden will act as a link between Bay South and Bay East Gardens. It stands at 15 hectares (37 acres) with a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) waterfront promenade that allows for scenic walks stretching from the city centre to the east of Singapore.[5]

Bay East Garden[edit]

The Singapore skyline viewed from Bay East Garden

Bay East Garden is 32 hectares (79 acres) in size and it has a 2-kilometre (1.2 mi) promenade frontage bordering the Marina Reservoir. An interim park was developed at Bay East Garden in support of the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics. The first phase of the garden was opened to the public in October 2011, allowing alternative access to the Marina Barrage.[6]

It is designed as a series of large tropical leaf-shaped gardens, each with its own specific landscaping design, character and theme. There will be five water inlets aligned with the prevailing wind direction, maximizing and extending the shoreline while allowing wind and water to penetrate the site to help cool areas of activity around them.

Bay East Garden provides visitors with an unobstructed view of the city skyline. Upcoming developments of Bay East Garden will be based on the theme of water.

In 2018, Bay East Garden was designated as the future site of the Founders' Memorial.[7]

Bay South Garden[edit]

Bay South Garden opened to the public on 29 June 2012.[8] It is the largest of the three gardens at 54 hectares (130 acres) and designed to show the best of tropical horticulture and garden artistry.[9]

The overall concept of its master plan by Grant Associates draws inspiration from an orchid as it is representative of the tropics and of Singapore, being the country's national flower, the Vanda 'Miss Joaquim'. The orchid takes root at the waterfront (conservatories), while the leaves (landforms), shoots (paths, roads and linkways) and secondary roots (water, energy and communication lines) then form an integrated network with blooms (theme gardens and Supertrees) at key intersections.


Gardens by the Bay conservatories

The conservatory complex at Gardens by the Bay comprises two cooled conservatories – the Flower Dome and the Cloud Forest, situated along the edge of Marina Reservoir. The conservatories, designed by WilkinsonEyre and Grant Associates, are intended to be an energy-efficient showcase of sustainable building technologies and to provide an all-weather edutainment space within the Gardens. Both are very large (around 1 hectare (2.5 acres)) and the Flower Dome is the world's largest columnless glasshouse.[10]

The construction of the glasshouses is special in two ways. First of all by being able to have such large a glass-roof without additional interior support (such as columns). Secondly, because the constructions aim strongly at minimizing the environmental footprint. Rainwater is collected from the surface and circulated in the cooling system which is connected to the Supertrees. The Supertrees are used both to vent hot air and to cool circulated water.[11]

Flower Dome[edit]

The Flower Dome is the largest greenhouse in the world as listed in the 2015 Guinness Book of World Records at 1.2 hectares (3.0 acres) and replicates a cool-dry mediterranean climate.[12] It features a changing display, the flower field, and eight other gardens, namely The Baobabs, Succulent Garden, Australian Garden, South African Garden, South American Garden, Olive Grove, California Garden and the Mediterranean Garden. These eight gardens exhibit exotic flowers and plants from the Mediterranean and semi-arid regions from five different continents.[13]

Here is the list of some plants growing in the Flower Dome:[14]

Cloud Forest[edit]

The Cloud Fountain, the world's second tallest indoor waterfall

The Cloud Forest is higher but slightly smaller at 0.8 hectares (2.0 acres). It replicates the cool moist conditions found in tropical mountain regions between 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) above sea level, found in South-East Asia, Central- and South America. It features a 42-metre (138 ft) "Cloud Mountain." After ascending to the top by an elevator, visitors descend the mountain via a circular path which crosses underneath the 35-metre (115 ft) waterfall multiple times.

The "Cloud Mountain" itself is an intricate structure completely clad in epiphytes such as orchids, ferns, peacock ferns, spike- and clubmosses, bromeliads and anthuriums. The design by Grant Associates was inspired by the Maiden Hair Fungus and consists of a number of levels, each with a different theme, including The Lost World, The Cavern, The Waterfall View, The Crystal Mountain, The Cloud Forest Gallery, The Cloud Forest Theatre and The Secret Garden.

The following is a partial list of plants growing in the Cloud Forest:[15]

In April 2022, a Maori kuwaha sculpture was presented to Singapore by Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern of New Zealand during her first official trip abroad since the 2020 pandemic. Representing strong friendship between New Zealand and Singapore, it is the work of master carvers from New Zealand's Maori Arts and Crafts institute.[16]

Supertree Grove[edit]

Supertree Grove, Singapore

Supertrees are the 18 tree-like structures that dominate the Gardens' landscape with heights that range between 25 metres (82 ft) and 50 metres (160 ft). They were conceived and designed by Grant Associates, with the imaginative engineering of Atelier One and Atelier Ten. They are vertical gardens that perform a multitude of functions, which include planting, shading and working as environmental engines for the gardens.[17]

The Supertrees are home to enclaves of unique and exotic ferns, vines, orchids and also a vast collection of bromeliads such as Tillandsia, amongst other plants. They are fitted with environmental technologies that mimic the ecological function of trees: photovoltaic cells that harness solar energy which can be used for some of the functions of the Supertrees (such as lighting), similar to how trees photosynthesize, and collection of rainwater for use in irrigation and fountain displays, similar to how trees absorb rainwater for growth. The Supertrees also serve air intake and exhaust functions as part of the conservatories' cooling systems.

Supertrees with elevated walkway

There is an elevated walkway, the OCBC Skyway, between two of the larger Supertrees for visitors to enjoy a panoramic aerial view of the Gardens. Every night, at 7:45pm and 8:45pm, the Supertree Grove comes alive with a coordinated light and music show known as the Garden Rhapsody. The accompanying music to the show changes every month or so, with certain themes such as A World of Wonder and A Night of Musical Theatre, which features excerpts/pieces from films like Jurassic Park and Pirates of the Caribbean.

There is also an available attraction called the Supertree Observatory, which opened on 27 December 2019. The observatory is housed inside the tallest Supertree which is 50 metres tall. It comprises three levels, the ground floor, the Observatory Space and the Open-Air Rooftop Deck. Visitors would take the lift up to the Observatory Space and thereafter take a flight of stairs up to the Rooftop Deck. The Observatory Space is located one level below the rooftop deck and it consists of an indoor area with full-height glass windows, as well as a peripheral outdoor walkway. Here visitors can also experience a message about the effects of climate change conveyed through digital media. The Open-Air Rooftop Deck, which is an open-air observation deck on the canopy of this Supertree, offers 360-degree unblocked views of the Gardens and the Marina Bay area.[18]

Italy's Pavilion in Expo 2015, featured a structure called Albero Della Vita (or "Tree of Life" in Italian), which proved visually similar to Singapore's Supertrees.

Children's Garden[edit]

Designed by Grant Associates, which also designed Gardens by the Bay, the Children's Garden was fully funded by Far East Organization for $10 million. This attraction was opened on 21 January 2014. The children's garden is near the treehouse and the adventure trail. The adventure trail consists of trampolines, balancing beams, hanging bridges and more.

It is open from Tuesdays to Fridays from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. and on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. It is closed on Mondays, or on the next working day if Monday is a public holiday.[19]

Horticultural themed gardens[edit]

There are two distinctly different sets of horticultural themed gardens which centre on the horticultural heritage of the various cultural groups in Singapore and on the biology and ecology of gardens and forests. They are an important part of the Gardens' edutainment programme, which aims to bring plant knowledge to the public.

The "Heritage Gardens" theme features gardens that highlight the various cultural groups in Singapore and the important role that plants play in their respective cultures, as well as the country's colonial history. It also focuses on economically important plants in Singapore and South East Asia. The four gardens are the Indian Garden, the Chinese Garden, the Malay Garden and the Colonial Garden.[20]

The "World of Plants" theme emphasizes the web of relationships amongst the various plants within a fragile forest setting, showcasing the biodiversity of plant life on the planet. It consists of six subthemes illustrated by six "gardens", which are named Discovery, Web of Life, Fruits and Flowers, Understorey, World of Palms, and Secret Life of Trees.[21]

Bayfront Plaza and Floral Fantasy[edit]

A model by the Urban Redevelopment Authority of the future garden at Marina South

The Bayfront Plaza is the main entry precinct into the Gardens from Bayfront MRT station. It includes an attraction called Floral Fantasy which consists of four garden landscapes of floral artistry and a 4D ride experience. The 1,500-square-metre (16,000 sq ft) Floral Fantasy features floral artistry, as well as a 4D multimedia ride simulating the journey of a dragonfly's flight path through Gardens by the Bay. Included is also an indoor events space, the Bayfront Pavilion, a cafe and a pop-up markert on weekends.[22]


The final construction cost for the project, not including the price of the land but including an access road, drainage works, and soil improvement, was within a $1.035 billion allocated budget.[23] The annual operating cost was expected to be approximately $58 million, of which $28 million was for operation of the Conservatory buildings. The project received 1.7 million visitors between June and October 2012, who had free admission to most portions of the park but were required to purchase tickets for entering the Conservatories.[24]

In 2006, an international competition for the design of the park was held, attracting more than 70 entries submitted by 170 firms from 24 countries. Two British firms – Grant Associates[25] and Gustafson Porter – were awarded the contracts for the Bay South and Bay East Gardens respectively.

Alongside the lead designers Grant Associates, the design team for Bay South included WilkinsonEyre, Atelier Ten (environmental design consultants) and Atelier One (structural engineers). They were supported by a number of Singapore firms including CPG Consultants (architecture, civil and structural, mechanical and electrical), Meinhardt Infrastructure (civil and structural), Langdon & Seah (cost consultants) and PMLink (project management).


The nearest Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations are Thomson-East Coast Line, which is Gardens by the Bay MRT station and Bayfront MRT station (Circle and Downtown Lines).[26]

Bus Service 400 also serves the Gardens.[27]

In popular culture[edit]


The center hosts events throughout the year.[38] Dye-nosaur gardens was an immersive and educational event held at Gardens by the Bay in 2017 as part of the annual Children's Festival. This event involved several dinosaur inspired characters been found in the exhibits.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Gardens by the Bay's visitorship reaches 50 million". Singapore. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  2. ^ "Introduction".
  3. ^ "Gardens by the Bay sets Guinness record for world's largest glass greenhouse". AsiaOne.
  4. ^ Vimita Mohandas (22 November 2015). "Gardens by the Bay received 6.4m visitors last year". Today. Singapore. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
  5. ^ "Interesting Facts about Gardens by the bay that will blow your mind". 13 May 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  6. ^ "Bay East Garden". Gardens by the Bay. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  7. ^ "Road to Founders' Memorial".
  8. ^ "Gardens by the Bay opens to the public". Channel NewsAsia. 29 June 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  9. ^ "Gardens by the Bay". National Parks Board. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  10. ^ "Flower Dome". Gardens by the Bay. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  11. ^ "Sustainability Efforts". Gardens by the Bay. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  12. ^ "Largest glass greenhouse", Guinness World Records
  13. ^ "Flower Dome - Visitor Information". Gardens by the Bay. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  14. ^ "Flower Dome, April 2014". Independent Travellers. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  15. ^ "Cloud Forest, April 2014". Independent Travellers. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  16. ^ "New Zealand PM Jacinda Ardern unveils Maori carving at Gardens by the Bay's Cloud Forest". CNA. 19 April 2022.
  17. ^ "Supertree Grove". Gardens by the Bay. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  18. ^ "Supertree Observatory - New!". Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  19. ^ "New children's garden opens at Gardens by the Bay". Yahoo! News. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  20. ^ "Gardens & Plant Collections".
  21. ^ "Gardens & Plant Collections".
  22. ^ "8 Things To Know About Gardens by the Bay's Bayfront Plaza".
  23. ^ "This is how huge it costs for Gardens by the Bay to keep operating". Singapore Business Review. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  24. ^ "Final cost for Gardens by the Bay within budget: Khaw". AsiaOne. 15 October 2012. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  25. ^ "Bath architects help design Singapore's City in a Garden". BBC News. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  26. ^ "Speech by Mr Lui Tuck Yew, Minister for Transport, at the Inspection of Downtown Line 1 Station and Announcement of Thomson Line alignment, 29 August 2012, 10.00am at Telok Ayer Station". Ministry of Transport. 29 August 2012. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  27. ^ "Getting here and parking". Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  28. ^ Failes, Ian (13 August 2014). "The VFX of Guardians of the Galaxy". Fxguide. Archived from the original on 16 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
  29. ^ Chang, Justin (19 August 2015). "Film Review: 'Hitman: Agent 47'". Variety. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  30. ^ Ang, Gillian (24 August 2015). "5 Singapore landmarks that star in Hitman: Agent 47". Geek Crusade. Tumblr. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  31. ^ "HITMAN: AGENT 47 Instagram Contest". Gardens by the Bay. Archived from the original on 30 August 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  32. ^ Gardens by the Bay. "WIN Premiere tickets to HITMAN:AGENT47 (courtesy of Twentieth Century Fox)". Instagram. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  33. ^ Treyarch (6 November 2015). Call of Duty: Black Ops III (Microsoft Windows, Xbox One, PlayStation 4). Activision. Level/area: Mission 4: Provocation.
  34. ^ "Call of Duty: Black Ops 3 Mission 4 – Provocation". Prima Games. 8 November 2015.
  35. ^ "Game preview: COD: Black Ops 3 is a break from tradition". 12 October 2015.
  36. ^ "Iconic S'porean landmarks & locations featured in Japanese anime series Plastic Memories". Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  37. ^ hermesauto (23 April 2018). "Crazy Rich Asians trailer shows off Singapore's CBD and Gardens by the Bay skylines". The Straits Times. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  38. ^ "Gardens by the Bay Events". Gardens by the Bay.

External links[edit]