|Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
|• Total||356.84 km2 (137.78 sq mi)|
|Elevation||41 m (135 ft)|
|• Density||640/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Jhargram|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Garbeta|
- 1 Geography
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Human Development Report
- 4 Economy
- 5 Transport
- 6 Education
- 7 Healthcare
- 8 References
Paschim Medinipur, located in the south-western part of West Bengal, was created with the partition of the erstwhile Midnapore district, then the largest district of India, on 1 January 2002. It ranks second in terms of geographical area (9,295.28 km2) amongst the districts of the state, next to South 24-Parganas (9,960 km2). It ranks third in terms of rural population (4.58 million) following South 24-Parganas (5.82 million) and Murshidabad (5.13 million). It ranked fourth in terms of percentage of tribal population (14.87) following Jalpaiguri (18.87), Purulia (18.27) and Dakshin Dinajpur (16.12) in 2011.
Broadly speaking, there are two natural divisions of the district. NH 14 and NH 16 (old numbering NH 60) from Bankura to Balasore, cuts across the district and roughly is the dividing line between the two natural divisions. To the east of this road, the soil is fertile alluvial and the area is flat. To the west, the Chota Nagpur Plateau gradually slopes down creating an undulating area with infertile laterite rocks/ soil. The landscape changes from dense dry deciduous forests in the west to marshy wetlands in the east.
The river system of Paschim Medinipur district consists of the Rupnarayan, the Silabati or Silai, the Kangsabati or Kansai, the Subarnarekha and the Dulongs. The Silai enters the district from Bankura district, flows through the northern parts of Medinipur Sadar subdivision and then enters Ghatal subdivision and joins the Rupnarayan at Bhandar, 4 miles below Ghatal. The Kasai enters the district from Bankura district. It flows past Medinipur town, bifurcates into two channels, one of which joins the Rupnarayan. Purandar, Gopa, Chandaur and Kubai are important tributaries in the system. The Subarnarekha enters the district from East Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, flows through the southern part of Medinipur Sadar subdivision, intersects Gopiballavpur police station area, flows past Dantan town and enters Balasore district of Odisha.
Floods and drought
Paschim Medinipur district is subject to both floods and drought. Ghatal and parts of Kharagpur subdivision covering an area of 142,647 hectares (1,426.47 km2) are flood prone. Water logging during the rainy season affects Ghatal and the southern parts of Kharagpur subdivion and results in loss of crops in such areas as Sabang, Pingla and Narayangarh CD Blocks.335,248 hectares (3,352.48 km2) in Jhargram and Medinipur Sadar subdivisions are drought prone. The drought situation is particularly severe in Jhargram subdivision. Although the district is away from the sea, cyclones hit it frequently in October–November.
Garbeta is located at.
Garhbeta I CD Block is bounded by Bishnupur, Joypur and Kotulpur CD Blocks in Bankura district in the north, Goghat II CD Block in Hooghly district and Chandrakona I and Chandrakona II CD Blocks in the east, Garhbeta III CD Block in the south and Garhbeta II CD Block in the west.
Area and administration
Garhbeta I CD Block has an area of 356.84 km2. Garhbeta and Goaltore police stations serve this CD Block. Garhbeta I panchayat samity has 12 gram panchayats. The block has 304 inhabited villages. Headquarters of this block is at Garbeta Cantonment.
Pashim Medinipur has a forest cover of 171,935 hectares. The main products of the forest are: Sal, Teak, Babble, Mahua, Amla, broom sticks etc. The main forested areas are Jhargram, Binpur, Nayagram, Garhbeta, Midnapore, Jambani, Gopiballavpur and Salboni.Garhbeta I CD Block has a forest cover of 11,197 hecatres, which is 31,05% of the reporting area of the CD Block.
As per the 2011 Census of India Garhbeta I CD Block had a total population of 228,513, of which 218,239 were rural and 10,274 were urban. There were 116.620 (51%) males and 111,893 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 28,076. Scheduled Castes numbered 55,133 (24.13%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 18,134 (7.93%). 
As per the 2001 census, Garhbeta I block had a total population of 200,393, out of which 102,687 were males and 97,706 were females. Garhbeta I block registered a population growth of 18.59 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the combined Midnapore district was 14.87 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.
Census Towns and villages
Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Garhbeta I CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Khar Kusum (5,428) and Lapuria (4,787).
Other villages in Garhbeta I CD Block are (2011census figures in brackets): Bera Chapra (2,079), Agra (1,042), Dhadhika (2,566), Shyamnagar (1,565), Garanga (1,179) and Amkopa (396).
As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Garhbeta I CD Block was 144,728 (72.21% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 80,544 (78.80% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 64,184 (65.41% of the female population over 6 years).The gender gap in literacy rates was 13.39%.
|Literacy in CD Blocks of
Paschim Medinipur district
|Binpur I – 69.74%|
|Binpur II – 70.46%|
|Gopiballavpur I – 65.44%|
|Gopiballavpur II – 71.40%|
|Jamboni – 72.63%|
|Jhargram – 72.23%|
|Nayagram – 63.70%|
|Sankrail – 73.35%|
|Medinipur Sadar subdivision|
|Garhbeta I – 72.21%|
|Garhbeta II – 75.87%|
|Garhbeta III – 73.42%|
|Keshpur – 77.88%|
|Midnapore Sadar – 70.48%|
|Salboni – 74.87%|
|Chandrakona I – 78.93%|
|Chandrakona II – 75.96%|
|Daspur I – 83.99%|
|Daspur II – 85.62%|
|Ghatal – 81.08%|
|Dantan I – 73.53%|
|Dantan II – 82.45%|
|Debra – 82.03%|
|Keshiari – 76.78%|
|Kharagpur I – 77.06%|
|Kharagpur II – 76.08%|
|Mohanpur – 80.51%|
|Narayangarh – 78.31%|
|Pingla – 83.57%|
|Sabang – 86.84%|
2011 Census: CD Block Wise
Primary Census Abstract Data
There is a tribal presence in many of the CD Blocks of the district. Santali is spoken by 55.93% of the tribal population of the district. The Bhumij, forming 11.16% of the tribal population, and the Mundas, forming 6.10% of the tribal population, speak Mundari. Other small groups include Koras and Mahalis. The Lodhas, forming 3.85% of the tribal population, the only primitive tribe in the district, speak Lodhi.
In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 171,514 and formed 75.05% of the population in Garhbeta I CD Block. Muslims numbered 50,743 and formed 22.21% of the population. Others numbered 6,256 and formed 2.74% of the population. Others include Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria,. Christians and other religious communities.
In 2011, Hindus numbered 5,056,953 and formed 85.52% of the population in Paschim Medinipur district. Muslims numbered 620,554 and formed 10.49% of the population. Others (including Christians) numbered 235,950 and formed 3.99% of the population. Christians numbered 23,287 and formed 0.39% of the population. In West Bengal, Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.
Human Development Report
According to the District Human Development Report of Paschim Medinipur: The district represents regional diversity in terms of physiographic, agro-climatic characteristics, economic development, social composition etc. Over 7,500 inhabited villages of the district reflect highly differential features and indicators of human development. There are pockets of prosperity in the eastern part and areas of distress in the western part. From 2009 Maoist violence rapidly spread across eleven western CD Blocks of the district: Binpur I, Binpur II, Salboni, Grahbeta II, Jamboni, Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Gopiballavpur I, Gopiballavpur II, Sankrail and Nayagram.
The level of urbanisation in the district is low. In 2001 the percentage share of the urban population in the district was 11.90 against 27.96 in the state as a whole. Population density at 531 persons per km2 was lower than the West Bengal average of 903 persons per km2. The literacy rate has increased significantly from 39.80% in 1981 to 70.41% in 2001, but the gender gap in literacy rate (difference between female and male literacy rates) is substantial.
There is high agricultural productivity differential across 29 blocks of the district. The differential being high across drought prone blocks of the western part of the district and substantially irrigated blocks of its eastern part. Low productivity of agriculture has considerable relevance for high level of poverty among households in the drought prone regions specially among the SCs and STs. The district is relatively backward in the development of infrastructure.
Electrification was extended to 76.79% mouzas of the district by 2007. In Garhbeta I CD Block electricity was extended to 69.27% of mouzas by 2007.
The United Nations Development Programme considers the combined primary and secondary enrolment ratio as the simple indicator of educational achievement of the children in the school going age. The infrastructure available is important. In Garhbeta I CD Block out of the total 177 primary schools in 2008-2009, 102 had pucca buildings, 10 partially pucca, 3 kacha and 62 multiple type. In the district as a whole 43.6% of primary schools and 88.38% of upper primary schools had libraries, 30.99% primary schools (classes I – V) and 78.37% upper primary schools (classes VI to VIII) had play grounds, and 20.83% upper primary schools had computers. 62,697 sudents of primary schools and 242,728 students of upper primary schools were covered under the Midday Meal Scheme. Nayagram and Gopiballavpur I CD Blocks have been identified as educationally backward blocks and special efforts are being made through National Programme of Education for Girls at Elementary Level and Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya hostels. These are the hostels for accommodating girl students from weaker sections of the society and all costs relating to their livelihood are borne by the government so that they are not to be deprived of availing elementary education for want of money or other social issues.
As per the Rural Household Survey conducted in 2005 by the Department of Panchayats and Rural Development, Government of West Bengal, 43.79% of rural houselds in the district were Below Poverty Line against 34.12% in West Bengal.
The 29 CD Blocks of the district were classified into four categories based on the poverty ratio. Nayagram, Binpur II and Jamboni CD Blocks have very high poverty levels (above 60%). Kharagpur I, Kharagpur II, Sankrail, Garhbeta II, Pingla and Mohanpur CD Blocks have high levels of poverty (50-60%), Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Dantan I, Gopiballavpur II, Binpur I, Dantan II, Keshiari, Chandrakona I, Gopiballavpur I, Chandrakona II, Narayangarh, Keshpur, Ghatal, Sabang, Garhbeta I, Salboni, Debra and Garhbeta III CD Blocks have moderate levels of poverty (25-50%) and Daspur II and Daspur I have low levels of poverty (below 25%).
The loco shops of South Eastern Railway employed 3,983 persons, the carriage shops of South Eastern Railway employed 2,189 persons, the wagon repair shops of South Eastern Railway employed 1,700 persons. There 14 units employing between 250 and 1,000 persons. All other industrial establishments in Paschim Medinipur employed less than 250 persons. More than 80% of Paschim Medinipur’s population depend on agricultural activities for a living.
The dominant SC groups in the district are Bagdi Dule, Dom, Jalia Kaibarta, Mal, Rajbanshi, Rajoyar, Keora, Bhimali, Bauri, and Tiyar. Ghatal sub-division has highest concentration of 24.95% SC population. The western part of the district shows more dense ST population. The Jhargram sub division has the highest concentration, i.e. 30.02% of total ST population. The major tribal communities of the district are Santhal, Bhumij, Munda, Lodha, Kora and Mahali. Among them, Lodha only belong to the primitive tribal group. Most of the STs live on agricultural labour. Many ST families move to the neighbouring districts in search of work, particularly during the cultivation season.
(Note: Certain topics, such as Geography, Literacy, Education, Healthcare etc., are not/not fully covered here and are covered elsewhere in this page.)
in CD Blocks of
Paschim Medinipur district
|Binpur I – 47.46%|
|Binpur II – 68.59%|
|Gopiballavpur I – 44.25%|
|Gopiballavpur II – 47.72%|
|Jamboni – 67.11%|
|Jhargram – 49.02%|
|Nayagram – 69.26%|
|Sankrail – 51.33%|
|Medinipur Sadar subdivision|
|Garhbeta I – 36.87%|
|Garhbeta II – 50.76%|
|Garhbeta III – 31.95%|
|Keshpur – 39.90%|
|Midnapore Sadar – 48.90%|
|Salboni – 36.11%|
|Chandrakona I – 44.21%|
|Chandrakona II – 41.84%|
|Daspur I – 22.16 %|
|Daspur II – 20.29%|
|Ghatal – 38.86%|
|Dantan I – 48.81%|
|Dantan II – 46.97%|
|Debra – 33.76%|
|Keshiari – 46.89%|
|Kharagpur I – 58.56%|
|Kharagpur II – 53.57%|
|Mohanpur – 50.16%|
|Narayangarh – 41.60%|
|Pingla – 50.51 %|
|Sabang – 37.37%|
District Human Development Report:
Paschim Medinipur, 2010, page 177
In 2003-04 Garhbeta I CD Block had 50 km of surfaced roads under PWD, 30 km surfaced roads and 10 km unsurfaced roads under Zilla Parishad and 304 km unsurfaced roads under Gram Panchayat and Panchayat Samiti.
In 2003-04 the farmers of Garhbeta I CD Block could be classified as follows: Bargadars 7.01%, patta (document) holders 25.34%, small farmers 3.01%, marginal farmers 27.76% and agricultural labourers 36.87%.
As of 2003-04, Garhbeta I CD Block had 7,064 hectares vested land, out of which 3,168 hectares was distributed amongst 20,437 persons.
In 2003-04 net area sown in Garhbeta I CD Block was 16,178 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 14,500 hectares.
In 2003-04 Garhbeta I CD Block produced 10,680 tonnes of Aus paddy from 4,830 hectres, 28,630 tonnes of Aman paddy from 10,260 hectares, 2,810 tonnes Boro paddy from 1,110 hectares, 980 tonnes wheat from 410 hectares and 281,970 tonnes of potatoes from 9,530 hectares.
In Garhbeta I CD Block 130 hectares was the nett area under effective pisiculture and 4,598 persons were engaged in the profession. Approximate annual production in 2003-04 was 1,838 qtl.
Garhbeta I CD Block has 9 ferry services and 18 originating/ terminating bus routes.
The Kharagpur-Adra line of South Eastern Railway passes through this CD Block and there is a station at Garbeta.
In 2003-04, Garhbeta I CD Block had 174 primary schools with 17,300 students, 5 middle schools with 1,893 students, 11 high schools with 7,231 students and 6 higher secondary schools with 6,001 students. Garhbeta I CD Block had 1 general college with 3,226 students and 259 institutions with 12,817 students for special and non-formal education. Garhbeta I CD Block had 149 mass literacy centres
Garhbeta I CD Block had 1 hospital, 3 health centres, 33 clinics and 5 dispensaries with 70 beds and 13 doctors in 2003.
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