|In Garhwali - गढ़वळि, In Hindi - गढ़वाली|
'Garhwali' as spelled in Garhwali language
|Region||Garhwal (Uttarakhand, India)|
|2.9 million (2000)|
Śāradā script (historical)
Takri alphabet (historical)
Garhwali language (गढ़वळि भाख/भासा) is a Central Pahari language belonging to the Northern Zone of Indo-Aryan languages. It is primarily spoken by over 2.5 million Garhwali people who are from the Garhwal Division of the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand in the Indian Himalayas.
The Central Pahari languages include Garhwali and Kumauni (spoken in the Kumaun region of Uttarakhand). Garhwali, like Kumauni, has many regional dialects spoken in different places in Uttarakhand. The script used for Garhwali is Devanagari.
Due to a number of reasons, Garhwali is one of the languages which is shrinking very rapidly. UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger designates Garhwali as a language which is in the unsafe category and requires consistent conservation efforts.
Almost all people who can speak and understand Garhwali can also speak and understand Hindi, one of the most commonly spoken languages of India. As per a study, Garhwali is only 50% intelligible for Hindi speakers and there is one-way full intelligibility of Hindi for Garhwali speakers because of the high rate of Hindi literacy in Uttarakhand and the popularity of Hindi in Northern India.
- 1 Geographical distribution
- 2 Alternate names
- 3 Language code
- 4 Development of Garhwali
- 5 Garhwali dialects
- 6 Sources of vocabulary
- 7 Linguistics
- 7.1 Morphology
- 7.2 Phonology
- 7.2.1 Phone or phoneme
- 7.2.2 Allophony
- 7.2.3 Assimilation
- 7.2.4 Verb conjugation
- 7.2.5 Present tense
- 7.2.6 Past tense
- 7.2.7 Future tense
- 8 Example of short phrases
- 9 Earliest known audio recordings
- 10 Debates concerning the classification of the Bangani dialect
- 11 Comparative analysis with other Indian languages
- 12 Problems and issues
- 13 Struggle for official recognition
- 14 Organisations
- 15 Garhwali literature
- 16 Usage
- 17 See also
- 18 Further reading
- 19 References
- 20 External links
Garhwali is spoken primarily by people in Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Rudraprayag and Dehradun districts of Garhwal division in the state Uttarakhand. Garhwali is also spoken by Garhwali migrants to other parts of India including Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. According to various estimates, there are at least 2.5 million Garhwali migrants living in Delhi and the National Capital Region.
It is difficult to estimate the exact number of Garhwali speakers, as different agencies give different accounts of this number. According to the 2001 Census of Languages in India, there were 22,67314 Garhwali language speakers, while Ethnologue gave a much larger figure of 29,20,000 Garhwali language speakers in a 2005 report. As per the latest 2011 Census of Languages in India, there are an estimated 24,82,089 speakers of the Garhwali. If any of these figures are correct, then Garhwali is more widely spoken than many of the languages included in the 8th schedule of the Constitution of India.
The Ethnologue has catalogued alternate names by which Garhwali is known such as Gadhavali, Gadhawala, Gadwahi, Gashwali, Girwali, Godauli, Gorwali, Gurvali, and Pahari Garhwali. These alternate names of the language may have come from the speakers having more than one name for their language, or variant spellings and pronounciations of what is essentially the same name.
The Ethnologue includes Garhwali in its database as a language and given a code ISO 639-3 gbm to the language. ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes that defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The Glottolog also includes Garhwali in its database as a language and has given a Glottocode garh1243 to the language.
Development of Garhwali
In the middle period of the course of development of Indo-Aryan languages, there were many prakrit. Of these, the "Khas Prakrit" is believed to be the source of Garhwali . The early form of Garhwali can be traced to the 10th century which is found in numismatics, royal seals, inscriptional writings on copper plates and temple stones containing royal orders and grants. One such early example is the temple grant inscription of King Jagatpal at Dev Prayag (1335 AD). Most of the Garhwali literature is preserved in folk form, handed down verbally from generation to generation but since the 18th century, literary traditions are flourishing. Till the 17th century, Garhwal was always a sovereign nation under the Garhwali Kings. Naturally, Garhwali was the official language of the Garhwal Kingdom
- Srinagariya (सिरिनगरिया) – classical Garhwali spoken in erstwhile royal capital, Srinagar, accepted as Standard Garhwali by most scholars.
- Tihriyali (टीरियाळि)/Gangapariya (गंगपरिया) – spoken in Tehri Garhwal.
- Badhani (बधाणी)- spoken in Chamoli Garhwal.
- Lohabbya (लोहब्या)
- Majh-Kumaiya (मांझ-कुमैया)- spoken at the border of Garhwal and Kumaon.
- Nagpuriya (नागपुर्या)- spoken in Rudraprayag district.
- Rathi (राठी)- spoken in Rath area of Pauri Garhwal.
- Salani (सलाणी)- spoken in Talla Salan, Malla Salan and Ganga Salan parganas of Pauri.
- Ranwalti (रंवाल्टी)- spoken in Ranwain (रंवाँई), the Yamuna valley of Uttarkashi.
- Bangani (बंगाणी)- spoken in Bangaan (बंगाण) area of Uttarkashi.
- Parvati – reportedly not mutually intelligible with other dialects.
- Jaunpuri (जौनपुरी)- spoken in Uttarkashi and Tehri districts.
- Gangadi (गंगाड़ी) (spoken in Uttarkashi)
- Chaundkoti चौंदकोटी- spoken in Pauri.
Dialects and standard Garhwali
- Standard Garhwalis & more of its dialects have an accusative case सणि (/səɳi/) while South Garhwalis dialects have different word ते (/te/) for accusative case ( Maybe borrowed from Awadhi or Braj). But in Standard Garhwali or High Garhwali ते is used as oblique case.
Sources of vocabulary
During the Medieval period, due to increasing interaction with outside regions, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali words also crept into the repertoire of spoken Garhwali. Contact with the Delhi rulers resulted in the introduction of Persian, Arabic, and Turkish vocabulary. Colonialism brought English and some Portuguese words. From the 18th century, however, Hindi started exerting the maximum impact, not only on enriching the vocabulary, but also on the grammatical formation and syntax of the Garhwali language.
|Nominative||Oblique||Reflexive||Possessive determiner||Possessive pronoun|
|1st pers. sing.||मि||म्ये||म्यर||म्ये|
|2nd pers. sing./pl.||(तू/ति inf) , (तांउ lf /तिमि f)||(त्वे/तिथे/तिते inf) , (तांऊ lf /तिम्ये f)||(तेरो/त्यारो inf) , (तिम्रो f /तांउरो lf)||(त्वे/तिथे/तिते inf) , (तिम्रो f /तांउरो lf)|
|3rd pers. sing.||व, उ, इ, सि||वीँ, वे, ए, से||वीँ, वे, ए, से||वीँ, वे, ए, से|
|1st pers. pl.||अमि||अम्ये||अम्रो||अम्रो|
|3rd pers. pl.||उ , श्या , सी||उँते||उँ||ऊँ|
|Written||Spoken (Low Speed)||Spoken (fluently)|
|5||५||पाँच||paanch or paa~||/pʌ~ç/ or //pʌ~/|
There are many differences from Hindi and other Indic languages, for example in the palatal approximant /j/, or the presence of a retroflex lateral /ɭ/. Garhwali also has different allophones.
Phone or phoneme
There are many theories used to explains how many Monophthongs are used in the Garhwali language. The Non-Garhwali Indian scholars with some Garhwali scholars (who believes Garhwali as a dialect of Hindi) who follows Common Hindustani phonology argue that there are eight vowels found within the language are ə, ɪ, ʊ, ɑ, i, u, e, o. A Garhwali language scholar Mr. Bhishma Kukreti argues that /ɑ/ is not present in the language instead of it long schwa i.e. /ə:/ is used. Although it can be accepted that southern Garhwali dialects have uses of /ɑ/ instead /ə:/. If we follow his rule of vowel length we found that there are five vowels found in Garhwali. The three are ə, ɪ, ʊ with their vowel length as /ə:/, /ɪ:/, /ʊ:/. Other two /o/ & /e/ with no vowel length. But there are 13 vowels founded by Mr. Anoop Chandra Chandola as follows /ə/, /ɪ/, /ʊ/, /ɑ/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/, /æ/, /ɨ/, /y/, /ɔ/, /ɯ/. His arguments can be accepted as universal (also /ɑ/ which is used only in Southern dialects but borrowed to Standard dialect for distinction purposes) . But Bhishma Kukreti's argument about vowel length is also accepted. Hence we concluded that Garhwali (Standard Garhwali in this mean) has twelve vowels (/ə/, /ɪ/, /ʊ/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/, /æ/, /ɨ/, /y/, /ɔ/, /ɯ/) where three has vowel length (/ə:/, /ɪ:/, /ʊ:/).
There are Diphthongs in the language which makes the words distinctive than other. However diphthongs vary dialect by dialect.
|Diphthongs (IPA)||Example (IPA)||Glos|
|उइ /ui/||कुइ /kui/||anybody|
|इउ /iu/||जिउ /ʤiu/||Heart, mind|
|आइ /ai/||बकाइ /bəkɑi/||After-all, besides|
|अइ /əi/||बकइ /bəkəi/||Balance|
|आउ /au/||बचाउ /bətʃou/||Save (verb)|
|अउ /əu/||बचउ /bətʃəu/||Safty|
Triphthongs are less commonly found in the language. The most common word where a triphthong may occur is ह्वाउन [English: may be] /hɯɔʊn/ (in standard Garhwali) or /hɯaʊn/ (in some dialects). However many speakers can't realize the presence of triphthongs. Other triphthongs might be discovered if more academic research were done on the language.
|GPA (Garhwali Phonetic Alphabet) /IPA /||Phoneme /IPA alternate/||Phonemic category||Example /<IPA Alternate>/ (<Description>)||Hindustani language alternate of the word|
|क /kə/||क् /k/||voiceless velar stop||कळ्यो /kaɭyo/ (Literary meaning:- Breakfast)||नाश्ता, कलेवा|
|ग /gə/||ग् /g/||voiced velar stop||गरु /gərʊ/ (Literary meaning:- Heavy weight)||भारी|
|च /tʃə/||च् /tʃ/||voiceless palato-alveolar affricate||चिटु /tʃiʈɔ/ (Literary meaning:- White; masculine)||सफ़ेद, श्वेत|
|ज /ʤə/||ज् /dʒ/||voiced palato-alveolar affricate||ज्वनि /dʒɯni/ (Literary meaning:- Youngage)||जवानी, यौवन|
|ट /ʈə/||ट् /ʈ/||voiceless retroflex stop||टिपुण् /ʈɨpɯɳ/ (Literary meaning:- to pick; a verb)||चुगना, उठाना|
|ड /ɖə/||ड् /ɖ/||voiced retroflex stop||डाळु /ɖɔɭʊ/ (standard) or /ɖaɭʊ/ (in some southern dialects),(Literary meaning:- Tree)||डाल, पेड़, वृक्ष|
|त /tə/||त् /t/||voiceless dental stop||तिमुळ /tɨmɯɭ/ ,(Literary meaning:- Moraceae or Fig; a fruit)||अञ्जीर/अंजीर|
|द /də/||द् /d/||voiced dental stop||देस /deç/ ,(Literary meaning:- Foreign) [don't be confused with देस /des/; meaning "country" borrowed from Hindustani]||विदेश, परदेस, बाहरला-देस|
|प /pə/||प् /p/||voiceless bilabial stop||पुङ्गुड़ु /pʊŋuɽ, (Literary Meaning:- Farm or Field)||खेत or कृषि-भुमि|
|ब /bə/||ब् /b/||voiced bilabial stop||बाच /batʃə, (Literary Meaning:- Tongue, Phrasal & other meaning:- Voice)||जीभ, जुबान, आवाज़|
|ल /lə/||ल् /l/||dental lateral approximant||लाटु /lʌʈɔ/ (Literary meaning:- idiot or mad or psycho; when used in anger. insane; when used in pity or love)||झल्ला, पागल|
|ळ /ɭə/||ळ् /ɭ/||retroflex lateral approximant||गढ़वाळ् /gəɖwɔɭ/ (Literary meaning:- One who holds forts, Generally used for the land of Garhwallis People, or Garhwal)||गढ़वाल|
|य /jə/||य् /j/||palatal approximant||यार /jar/ (Literary meaning:- Friend, commonly used as vocative word)||यार|
|व /wə/||व् /w/||labio-velar approximant||बिस्वास /biswɔs/ (Literary meaning: Faith)||विश्वास, भरोसा|
|म /mə/||म् /m/||bilabial nasal||मुसु /mʊs/ (Literary meaning: Mouse)||मूषक, चुहा|
|न /nə/||न् /n/||dental nasal||निकम् /nɨkəm/ (Literary meaning:- Useless, Worthless)||बेकार, व्यर्थ|
|ण /ɳə/||ण् /ɳ/||retroflex nasal||पाणि /pæɳ/ (Literary meaning:- Water)||पानी|
|ङ /ɳə/||ङ् /ɳ/||velar nasal||सोङ्ग or स्वाङ्ग /sɔɳ/ (Literary meaning:- Easy)||सरल, आसान|
|ञ /ɲə/||ञ् /ɲ/||palatal nasal||फञ्चु /pʰəɲtʃɔ/ (Literary meaning:- Bundle or Bunch)||पोटली|
य्, र्, ल्, ळ्, व्, स् and the nasal consonants (म्, न्, ञ्, ङ्, ण्) have no aspirated consonantal sound.
|Alphabet /<IPA alternate>/||Phoneme /<IPA alternate>/||Example /<IPA alternate>/ (<Description>)||Hindustani language alternate of the word|
|ख /kʰə/||ख् /kʰ/||खार्यु /kʰɔryʊ/ (Literary meaning:- Enough, Sufficient)||नीरा, पर्याप्त, खासा|
|घ /gʰə/||घ् /gʱ/||घंघतौळ /gʱɔŋgtoɭə/ (Literary meaning:- Confusion)||दुविधा|
|छ /tʃʰə/||छ् /tʃʰ/||छज्जा /tʃʰəʤə/ (Literary meaning:- Balcony, Gallery)||ओलती, छज्जा|
|झ /dʒʰə/||झ् /dʒʱ/||झसक्याण /dʒʱəskæɳ/ (Literary meaning:- to be scared)||डर जाना|
|थ /tʰə/||थ् /tʰ/||थुँथुरु /tʰɯ~tʊr/ (Literary meaning: Chin)||ठोड़ी|
|ध /dʰə/||ध् /dʱ/||धागु /dʱɔgʊ/ (Literary meaning: Tag or thread)||धागा|
|ठ /ʈʰə/||ठ् /ʈʰ/||ठुङ्गार /ʈʰɯɳʌr/ (Literary meaning: Snacks)||स्नैक्स्, नमकीन|
|ढ /ɖʰə/||ढ् /ɖʱ/||ढिकणु /ɖʱikəɳʊ/ (Literary meaning: Coverlet)||ओढने की चादर|
|फ /pʰə/||फ् /pʰ/||फुकाण /pʰʊkaɳ/ (Literary meaning:- Destruction)||नाश|
|भ /bʰə/||भ् /bʱ/||भौळ or भ्वळ /bʱɔɭə/ (Literary meaning:- Tomorrow)||कल (आने वाला)|
The Garhwali speakers are most familiar with allophones in the Garhwali language. For example, फ (IPA /pʰ/) is used as फ in the word फूळ (IPA /pʰu:ɭ/ English: flower) but pronounced as प (IPA /p/) in the word सफेद (IPA /səpet/, English: "white").
Allophones of aspirated consonants
Conversion to tenuis consonant or loss of aspiration
Almost every aspirated consonant exhibits allophonic variation. Each aspirated consonant can be converted into the corresponding tenuis consonant. This can be called loss of aspiration.
|Alphabet /IPA/||Phoneme /IPA/||Allophone /IPA/||Example /IPA/ (Description)||Hindustani language alternate of the word|
|ख /kʰə/||ख् /kʰ/||क् [k]||उखरेण [ukreɳ] (Literary meaning:- pass away or die)||गुजर जाना|
|घ /gʰə/||घ् /gʱ/||ग् [g]||उघड़ण [ugəɽɳ] (Literary meaning:- to open or to release)||खोलना, विमोचन|
|थ /tʰə/||थ् /tʰ/||त् [t]||थुँथुरु [tʰɯ~tʊr] (Literary meaning:- Chin)||ठोड़ी|
|फ /pʰə/||फ् /pʰ/||प् [p]||उफरण [upə:ɳ] (Literary meaning:- to unbind or to undo or to unlace)||खोलना, विमोचन (बंधी हुइ चीज़ को खोलना)|
Allophone of छ
|Alphabet /<IPA alternate>/||Phoneme /<IPA Alternate>/||Allophone||Example /<IPA Alternate>/ (<Description>)||Hindustani Language Alternate of the word|
|छ /tʃʰə/||छ् /tʃʰ/||स़् [ç]||छन्नी [çəːni] (Literary meaning:- Shed; but used specially for cattle-shed, some southern dialects sometime use छ as an pure phonem so words like छन्नी pronounced as छन्नी or as स़न्नी)||छावनी,पशु-शाला|
|छ /tʃʰə/||छ् /tʃʰ/||च़् [c]||छ्वाड़ [cɔɽ] (Literary meaning:- Bank, Side)||छोर, किनारा|
Allophones of tenuis consonants
Conversion from voiced to voiceless consonant
A few of the tenuis consonants have allophonic variation. In some cases, a voiced consonant can be converted into the corresponding voiceless consonant.
|Alphabet /<IPA alternate>/||Phoneme /<IPA Alternate>/||Allophone||Phonemic Category of Allophone||Example /<IPA Alternate>/ (<Description>)||Hindustani Language Alternate of the word|
|ग /gə/||ग् /g/||क् [k]||voiceless velar stop||कथुग [kətuk] ,(Literary meaning:- How much)||कितना|
|द /də/||द् /d/||त् [t]||voiceless dental stop||सफेद [səpet] ,(Literary meaning:- White)||सफेद|
|ड् /ɖə/||ड् /ɖ/||ट् [ʈ]||voiceless retroflex stop||परचण्ड [pərətʃəɳʈ] ,(Literary meaning:- fierce)||प्रचण्ड|
|ब /bə/||ब् /b/||प् [p]||voiceless bilabial stop||खराब [kʰərap] ,(Literary meaning:- Defective)||खराब|
|Alphabet /<IPA alternate>/||Phoneme /<IPA alternate>/||Allophone||Phonemic category of allophone||Example /<IPA alternate>/ (<Description>)||Hindustani language alternate of the word|
|ज /ʤə/||ज् /ʤ/||य़् [j]||palatal approximant||जुग्गा [jɯggə] ,(Literary meaning:- Able)||योग्य, क़ाबिल|
|स /sə/||स् /s/||स़् [ç]||voiceless palatal fricative||(a) सि [çɨ] (Literary meaning:- This), (b) देस /deç/ (Literary meaning:- Foreign)||(a) यह (b)बाहरला-देस, परदेस|
|च /tʃə/||च् /tʃ/||च़् [c]||voiceless palatal stop||चाप [capə] (Literary meaning:- Anger)||कोप, गुस्सा|
In grammatical numbers
|Singular (written) /IPA/||Singular (spoken)||Plural (written and spoken)|
|किताब /kitʌb/||किताप /kitʌp/||कितबि /kitəbi/|
|जुराब /ʤurʌb/||जुराप /ʤurʌp/||जुरबि /ʤurəbi/|
Garhwali exhibits deep Assimilation (phonology) features. Garhwali has schwa deletion during sandhi, as in Hindi, but in other assimilation features it differs from Hindi. An example is the phrase राधेस्याम. When we write this separately, राधे & स्याम (IPA:- /rəːdʰe/ & /syəːm/) it retains its original phonetic feature, but when assimilated it sounds like रास्स्याम /rəːssyəːm/ or राद्स़्याम /rəːdçyəːm/.
|मि लटो छु||mi lato chhu||I look|
|तू लटो छै||tu lato chhe||you look|
|वुु लटो छन्||vu lato chhan||he looks|
|अमि लटो छौ||ami lato chaau||we look|
|तीमी लटो छौ||timi lato chaau||you look|
|श्या लटो छन्||shya lato chhan||they look|
|मिल लटोलि||mil latoli||I wrote|
|त्वील लटोलि||tveel latoli||you wrote|
|वैल लटोलि||vail latoli||he wrote|
|अमिल लटोलि||aamenl latoli||we wrote|
|तीमी लटोलि||tim latoli||you wrote|
|तौंल लटोलि||taunl latoli||they wrote|
|मि लटोलु||mi Latolu||I will look|
|तू लटोली||tu Latoli||you will look|
|वुु लटोलण||vu Latolan||he will look|
|अमि लटोला||Ami lekhula||we will look|
|तीमी लटोला||Timi lekhla||you will look|
|तौ लटोल||tau latol||they will look|
Example of short phrases
|जद्यों||Jadyon||Hello (lit. praise the lord) Formal.|
|कन छै?||Kan chhe?||How are you? Informal|
|कन छौ?||Kan chau?||How are you? Formal|
|पौंडल्या छु||Bhalo chhoon||I am fine|
|कन्नै जाणु छौ?||kanne janu chau?||Where are you going|
|कत्ति?||Katti?||How much?/How many?|
|कि छयो/भयो?||Ki chhyo/bhayo.||What happened?|
|तिम्रो नौ कि छं ?||Timro nau ki chhan?||What is your name?|
|चंडी कूड़ि (घर) उन्नुस्||chandi koodi (ghar) Unnus||You come home early|
|तीमी कख बटिक कूड़ि (घर) बुडिग्यो ?||Timi kakh baṭik koodi (ghar) buḍigyo||From where have you come home ?|
Earliest known audio recordings
The earliest known audio recordings of Garhwali language were done in the monumental Linguistic Survey of India (LSI) led by George Abraham Grierson, a member of the Indian Civil Service and a linguist. LSI documented more than 300 spoken Indian languages and recorded voices and written forms between 1894 and 1928. Garhwali language was featured in Part IV - 'Pahari Languages & Gujuri' of Volume IX - 'Indo-Aryan Languages, Central Group' published in 1916 by Grierson. Recordings include the parable of The Prodigal Son and of a well-known folk-tale-the fable of the 'Bundle of Sticks' in Garhwali.
Debates concerning the classification of the Bangani dialect
The Bangani dialect of Garhwali is of interest amongst scholars of Indo-European languages, due to some unusual features.
Since the 1980s, Claus Peter Zoller – a scholar of Indian linguistics and literature – has claimed that there is a centum language substrate in the Bangani dialect. Zoller has also suggested that Bangani has been misclassified as a dialect of Garhwali and is more closely related to the Western Pahari languages.
The substance of Zoller's claims has been rejected by George van Driem and Suhnu Sharma, in publications since 1996, which claim that Zoller's data was flawed and that Bangani is an unambiguously satem language. Zoller does not accept the findings by van Driem and Sharma.
Comparative analysis with other Indian languages
Comparison with Hindi
Garhwali is generally regarded as a language distinct from Hindi. Although some scholars call it a dialect of Hindi, Garhwali differs from it in various aspects of phonology, morphology, semantics and syntax.
Using instrumental and ablative cases and degrees
Garhwali language has more specific words used for the instrumental and ablative cases and degrees while Hindi has only one. Here are the examples shown:
|Feature||Garhwali /IPA/||Hindi /IPA/||English||Example||Translation in English||Translation in Hindi|
|Comparative Degree||चुले /tʃule/||से /se/||Greater than||चैतु मि चुले बोळ्या च||Chetu is stupider than me.||चैतु मुझसे झल्ला है.|
|Superlative Degree||मनन /mənən/||से /se/||Greatest||मी छौं सब मनन ग्वरु||I am fairest.||मैं सबसे गोरा हूं|
|बटिन /bəʈɨn/||से /se/||From||मी ब्यळी दिल्ली बटिन औं||I came from Delhi yesterday||मैं कल दिल्ली से आया|
|चे //tʃɪ/||से /se/||By||सि मि चे ह्वाइ||It is done by me.||यह मुझ से हुआ|
|मुङ्गे or मुंगे //|
Comparison with Gujarati
The most similar feature in both languages is using of ār in Gujarati & ɪr like suffix er is used in English for person's relation with its object of occupation.
Problems and issues
According to the UNESCO Atlas of World’s Languages in Danger, Garhwali is in the category of “vulnerable language”.
The reasons for this are manifold. Key amongst them is the lack of patronization at the State and Central government levels. Garhwali is regarded as a ‘dialect’ or ‘mother tongue’ as per the Census of Languages and is counted as a dialect of Hindi. It has not received patronage at the State level. History has a role to play as well. Historically, Sanskrit was the language of the Garhwali court and Garhwali was the language of the people. During the British Raj and in the period after Independence of India, the Garhwal region was included in the Hindi-speaking state of Uttar Pradesh for decades. Further, Uttar Pradesh government's policy of affirmative action through the law of reservation of jobs for the SCST population in Uttar Pradesh is said to have led to increased migration of Hindi speakers from the plains of Uttar Pradesh to the cities of Garhwal to make up for the low percentage of SCST population in Garhwal. These factors are also said to contribute to increased importance of Hindi and reduced prestige for Garhwali language in the minds of the local population.
Today, Garhwali is not used in the official domain. It is not taught at school or college level. Its usage remains limited to home and local use. Further, migration to other parts of India and the ever-increasing pressure of globalization has led to diminishing importance of Garhwali for the local population. Knowledge of Garhwali is not regarded as a special skill and gathering Hindi and English skills for economic and social progress are viewed as critical.
Out-migration for economic reasons has further relegated the language to ‘low prestige’ status amongst its speakers. Since the creation of Garhwal army regiments during the British rule, temporary out-migration had been the trend. Over the last century, as most of the economic opportunities tended to concentrate in plain areas, temporary out-migration followed by eventual return-migration was witnessed. Since 2000, the situation has changed substantially with many out-migrating permanently along with families from Garhwal mainly to eke out their livelihoods and better future of their children.
I think of my parents’ generation, the ‘socially mobile’ one which grew up in the urban. They listened to Garhwali all their lives from their parents. But their naturalisation was in Hindi (lingua franca of the north Indian urban, including Dehradun) and then English at school. They speak the language either when someone comes from the village, or as a mock-performative thing (like the kidspeak with dadi). By the time you come to our generation, the traces are almost gone.— Martand Badoni, Outlook Magazine: Garhwali: My Grandmother Tongue
Successive state governments have not done much to stem the tide. The state does not accord Garhwali the status of state language. Hindi and Sanskrit are the official languages of Uttarakhand. State universities did not have Garhwali language departments till as recently as 2014. Garhwali has not received much attention from the academia, and much of the research on the language has been driven by local linguists. In 2017, the state government announced a proposal to adopt English as the medium of instruction for early-age learners (from Class 1) in 18000 government schools, thus ignoring the key role played by the mother tongue or home language in early learning and subject-based learning.
The economic development experience of Uttarakhand continues to mainly centred in three plain districts of the State, and ten hill districts remain far behind in this increasing prosperity of the State. Due to this lopsided development, the pace of out-migration could not slow down from the hill districts of the Uttarakhand after its formation.The pace of out-migration is so huge that many of the villages in Garhwal are left with a population in single digit.
These are some of the factors contributing to the deteriorating health of Garhwali and the declining number of its speakers. While the UNESCO “vulnerable language” category is by far the healthiest category amongst the categories of endangered languages, it does not take long for a language to gradually head towards the category of ‘critically endangered’.
Struggle for official recognition
Since the formation of Uttarakhand in 2000, successive state goverments have been slow-footed in promoting and developing the regional languages of Uttarakhand. Like other languages of Uttarakhand, Garhwali, the most spoken language does not have official recognition. In 2010, Hindi was made the official language and Sanskrit the second official language of the Uttarakhand.
Ceding to long-standing demands to make Garhwali the official language of Uttarakhand and to be taught at schools and universities, in 2014 the Uttarakhand state government issued orders to set up departments of Kumaoni and Garhwali languages at Kumaon University and Garhwal University respectively and to introduce Kumaoni and Garhwali language courses at the undergraduate level. In 2016, State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) announced that Garhwali, Kumaoni, Jaunsari and Rang languages would be introduced on pilot basis for students in standard one to 10th in government schools Under the ‘Know Your Uttarakhand’ project.
At the national level, there have been constant demands to include Garhwali in the 8th schedule of the Constitution of India so that it could be made one of the Scheduled Language of India. In July 2010, a Member of Parliament from Pauri Garhwal, Satpal Maharaj brought a private member's bill in the Lok Sabha to include Garhwali and Kumaoni languages in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. As is the case with most private member's bills, this bill was not discussed in parliameent and has since lapsed.
There have been small movements to preserve and develop Garhwali language and culture but primarily, these have been restricted to individuals and communities.
The Akhil Garhwal Sabha, a citizen's group in Dehradun aims to raise awareness amongst young Garhwalis about Garhwali language and culture. From 2012 onwards, it has been organising an annual 2 week Garhwali language workshop in which it provides training in the language and presents the interesting specificities of the language to the learners in Dehradun. It has also been the organiser of a series of 7 days cultural programmes called Kautig Uttarakhand Mahotsava from 1998 onwards to promote traditional folk dances and traditions of Uttarakhand.It publishes a monthly Garhwali newspaper called Rant Raibar. On the initiative of the Akhil Garhwal Sabha, the Uttarakhand state department of culture published a comprehensive dictionary of the Garhwali language which has Hindi and English meanings of the Garhwali words. A team of authors led by eminent Garhwali scholars Achalanand Jakhmola and BP Nautiyal sourced Garhwali words spoken in all areas of Garhwal and compiled them in a most comprehensive lexicon of the language.
Winsar Publishing Company is an organisation that has dedicated a large part of its publications to Garhwali language and literature.
The first Garhwali language app called ‘Chakhul Garhwali Dictionary’ that lists Garhwali words as well as information on Garhwali culture, traditions and heritage was launched in 2015.
In 2017, the Delhi state government announced its intention to create 12 regional language academies under the government's Art, Culture and Languages Department including an academy for Garhwali language. In 2018, the Uttarakhand state government announced plans to launch a State Cultural Centre as a hub of all cultural activities in Dehradun which would have an auditorium, six art galleries, a library, a museum, an amphitheatre and a place for symposiums and seminars to promote Uttarakhand's traditional ‘Pahari’ language and culture.
Modern day Garhwali has rich literature in all genres including poetry, novels, short stories and plays. Earlier, Garhwali language was present only as folklore. It had practically no literature. Though according to Saklani, a regular literary activity throughout the known history of Garhwal has been reported with most of such efforts related to the orthodox themes of religious matters, poetics, astronomy, astrology, and ayurveda, etc. Most of these works were the copies of the ancient texts, however, few original works related to history, poetry, religion, and architecture are also said to exist. It was only in the 20th century, due to the influence of English language, modern literary forms and themes were adopted. This literature was written both in Hindi and Garhwali.
The oldest manuscript in Garhwali that has been found is a poem named "Ranch Judya Judige Ghimsaan Ji" written by Pt. Jayadev Bahuguna (16th century). In 1828 AD, Maharaja Sudarshan Shah wrote "Sabhaasaar". In 1830 AD, American missionaries published the New Testament in Garhwali. The Gospel of St. Matthew in Garhwali was printed at Lucknow in the year 1876. Pandit Gobind Prasad Ghildyal, B.A. translated the first part of the Hindi Rajniti into Garhwali, and this was printed at Almora in 1901. Several specimens of Garhwali were also found in Pandit Ganga Datt Upreti's 'Hill Dialects of the Kumaon Division'. Pandit Ganga Datt Upreti also collected and published 'Proverbs & folklore of Kumaun and Garhwal' in 1894. The principal forms of Garhiwali Grammar were first published in Dr. Kellogg's Hindi Grammar (2nd edition, London, 1893). The first and comprehensive research work about the Garhwali language, its various dialects, where is it spoken, number of speakers, grammar, vocabulary, phrases and specimens was done in Part IV - Volume IX of the Linguistics Survey of India.
The five local Hindi newspapers of Garhwal of the early 20th century helped to bring about cultural and political awakening in Garhwal. The early writers keen to project and nurture the cultural heritage of Garhwal. These papers were conscious of the cultural-exclusiveness of the region and nurtured the feeling for 'Garhwal nationalism'. Atma Ram Gairola wrote in a poem that Garhwalis of both the parts (State and British) are extremely proud of the fact that 'we are Garhwalis'. Writers like Chandra Mohan Raturi and Tara Dutt Gairola asked the young writers to write only in the 'Garhwali' language, because one could write more sweetly, poignantly and judiciously in one's own mother tongue. These poets and writers brought renaissance in the Garhwali literature. Collections of various oral-folk-literary traditions, like ancient folk songs, Mangal, Bhadiyali, Panwara etc were also made available during this period.
Some of the famous writers of Garhwal of that era were Sudarsan Shah, Kumudanand Bahuguna, Hari Dutt Sharma (Nautiyal), Hari Krishna Daurgadutti Rudola, Urvi Dutt Shastri, Bal Krishna Bhatt, Mahidhar Dangwal, etc. Few writers writing in Garhwali were Chandra Mohan Raturi, Satyasaran Raturi, Atma Ram Gairola, Sanatananand Saklani, Devendra Dutt Raturi, Suradutt Saklani, etc. Some of the historians were Mola Ram, Miya Prem Singh, Hari Dutt Shastri, Hari Krishna Raturi, Vijaya Ram Raturi.
Contemporary Garhwali literature
Garhwali literature has been flourishing despite government negligence. Today, newspapers like "Uttarakhand Khabarsar" and "Rant Raibaar" are published entirely in Garhwali. Magazines like "Baduli", "Hilaans", "Chtthi-patri" and "Dhaad" contribute to the development of the Garhwali language.
In 2010, the Sahitya Akademi conferred Bhasha Samman on two Garhwali writers: Sudama Prasad 'Premi' and Premlal Bhatt. The Sahitya Akademi also organized "Garhwali Bhasha Sammelan"(Garhwali Language Convention) at Pauri Garhwal in June 2010. Many Garhwali Kavi Sammelan (poetry readings) are organized in different parts of Uttarakhand and, in Delhi and Mumbai.
Notable Garhwali writers
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- Abodh bandhu Bahuguna – (1927-2004) Known for his contribution to modern Garhwali writing including plays, poems, and essays. Some writings include Gaad, Myateki Ganga, and Bhumyal.
- Atmaram Gairola
- Ravindra Dutt Chamoli
- Bachan Singh Negi – "Garhwali translation of Mahabharata and Ramayana"
- Baldev Prasad Din (Shukla) "Bata Godai kya tyru nau cha" (Garhwali Nirtya-natika)
- Beena Benjwal – "Kamedaa Aakhar"
- Bhagbati Prasad Panthri – "Adah Patan" and "Paanch Phool"
- Bhajan Singh 'Singh' – "Singnaad"
- Bhawanidutt Thapliyal – "Pralhad"
- Bholadutt Devrani – "Malethaki Kool"
- Bijendra Prasad Naithani "Bala Sundari Darshan", "Kot Gaon Naithani Vanshawali", "Ristaun ki Ahmiyat", "Chithi-Patri-Collection"
- Chakradhar Bahuguna – "Mochhang"
- Chandramohan Raturi – "Phyunli"
- Chinmay Sayar – "Aunar"
- Dr. Narendra Gauniyal – "Dheet"
- Dr. Shivanand Nautiyal
- Durga Prasad Ghildiyal – "Bwari", "Mwari" and "Gaari"
- Gireesh Juyal 'Kutaj' – "Khigtaat"
- Govind Chatak – "Kya Gori Kya Saunli"
- Harsh Parvatiya – "Gainika nau par"
- Jayakrishna Daurgadati – "Vedant Sandesh"
- Jayanand Khugsaal – "Jhalmatu dada"
- Kanhaiyyalal Dandriyal (Kavi/Poet) – "Anjwaal", "Mangtu", "Nagraja" (in 2 parts)
- Keshavanand Kainthola – "Chaunphal Ramayan"
- Lalit Keshwan – "Khilda Phool Hainsda Paat", "Hari Hindwaan"
- Lalit Mohan Thapalyal – "Achhryun ku taal"
- Leeladhar Jagudi – (1944) Writer & Novelist. PadmaShri
- Lokesh Nawani – "Phanchi"
- Madan Mohan Duklaan – "Aandi-jaandi saans"
- Mahaveer Prasad Gairola – "Parbati"
- Pratap Shikhar – "Kuredi phategi"
- Premlal Bhatt – "Umaal"
- Purushottam Dobhal
- Sadanand Kukreti
- Satyasharan Raturi – "Utha Garhwalyun!"
- Shreedhar Jamloki – "Garh-durdasa"
- Sudaama Prasad Premi – "Agyaal"
- Sulochana Parmar
- Taradutt Gairola – (1875– 1940) Known for his contribution to the folk-lore of Garhwal and for writing modern Garhwali poetry including 'Sadei' (सदेई).
- Virendra Panwar – "Inma kankwei aan basant"(Poetry)"Been(critic)Chween-Bath(interviews)Geet Gaun Ka(Geet)kathga khauri haur(Translation of Hindi story Dr Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank to Garhwali)
- Vishalmani Naithani "Chakrachal", "Kauthik", "Beti Buwari", "Pyunli Jwan Hwegi", "Matho Singh Bhandari Nirtya Natika", "Meri ganga holi ta mai ma bauri aali", "Jeetu Bagdwal", etc. scripts writer.
In the last few decades[when?] Garhwali folk singers like Narendra Singh Negi, Preetam Bhartwan and many more have roused people's interest in the Garhwali language by their popular songs and videos. On average there is one movie in four or five years in Garhwali. Anuj Joshi (Hindi: अनुज जोशी) is one of the prominent Garhwali film director.
In order to create a folk genome tank of Uttarakhand where one can find each genre and occasions in the form of folk music, and to bring the melodious folk from the heart of Himalaya to the global screen, the very first Internet radio of Kumaon/Garhwal/Jaunsar was launched in 2008 by a group of non-resident Uttarakhandi from New York, which has been gaining significant popularity[clarification needed] among inhabitants and migrants since its beta version was launched in 2010. This was named after a very famous melody of the hills of Himalaya, Bedupako Baramasa O Narain Kafal Pako Chaita Bedupako
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|Garhwali language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|