Garland County, Arkansas

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Coordinates: 34°35′01″N 93°07′39″W / 34.58361°N 93.12750°W / 34.58361; -93.12750

Garland County
Garland County Courthouse
Garland County Courthouse
Official seal of Garland County
Map of Arkansas highlighting Garland County
Location within the U.S. state of Arkansas
Map of the United States highlighting Arkansas
Arkansas's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 34°35′01″N 93°07′39″W / 34.5836°N 93.1275°W / 34.5836; -93.1275
Country United States
State Arkansas
FoundedApril 5, 1873
Named forAugustus Hill Garland
SeatHot Springs
Largest cityHot Springs
Area
 • Total735 sq mi (1,900 km2)
 • Land678 sq mi (1,760 km2)
 • Water57 sq mi (150 km2)  7.7%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total100,180
 • Density140/sq mi (53/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district4th
Websitewww.garlandcounty.org

Garland County is located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2020 census, the population was 100,180.[1] The county seat is Hot Springs.[2]

Garland County comprises the Hot Springs, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county includes Hot Springs National Park, the only national park in the state of Arkansas as well as the first property to be protected under federal legislation. A law was passed in 1832 supported by President Andrew Jackson to preserve this area, even before Arkansas was admitted as a state.

Hot Springs National Park, located in Garland County

History[edit]

This area was occupied by the historic Natchitoches people, who frequented the hot springs for their healing powers. Their ancestors among regional indigenous peoples had been coming to this area for thousands of years before their time.

After acquiring the Louisiana Territory in 1803, which had been controlled by French and Spanish officials, President Thomas Jefferson requested William Dunbar, a planter and amateur scientist of Natchez, Mississippi, to explore this area. Dunbar led small group of a dozen soldiers and friend George Hunter, a chemist, to the Ouachita Mountains to report on the Indian tribes, minerals, and springs. They reached Hot Springs in December 1804, where they found a basic cabin used by visitors to the springs.

The first European-American settler was Jean Pierre Emanuel Prudhomme, a descendant of French colonists. An owner of a plantation at Red River, Prudhomme was suffering from illness and sought relief from the springs. In 1807 he built the first permanent European house by the springs, living here for two years. Isaac Cates and John Percival, two trappers from Alabama, joined him. Percival foresaw a great potential for the area and built log cabins in order to rent to visitors to the springs.[3]

In 1828, Ludovicus Belding came with wife and children to visit the hot springs. After a few months they built a small hotel for the visitors of the springs.[4]

In 1832 President Andrew Jackson signed legislation to protect the hot springs area for recreational use by American citizens as Hot Springs Reservation, the first time such action was taken. This was four years before Arkansas became a state, on June 15, 1836. A dispute among original settlers and their descendants over control of the property was settled by the US Supreme Court in 1877 in favor of the federal government.[3] Hot Springs National Park was established in 1921 and is managed by the National Park Service.[5]

Garland County is Arkansas' 68th county, formed during the Reconstruction era on April 5, 1873, from portions of Hot Spring, Montgomery, and Saline counties.[6] It was named for Augustus H. Garland, eleventh governor of Arkansas.[7][8] It is the only county in the United States with this name.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 735 square miles (1,900 km2), of which 678 square miles (1,760 km2) is land and 57 square miles (150 km2) (7.7%) is water.[9]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected areas[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18809,023
189015,32869.9%
190018,77322.5%
191027,27145.3%
192025,785−5.4%
193036,03139.7%
194041,66415.6%
195047,10213.1%
196046,697−0.9%
197054,13115.9%
198070,53130.3%
199073,3974.1%
200088,06820.0%
201096,0249.0%
2020100,1804.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[10]
1790–1960[11] 1900–1990[12]
1990–2000[13] 2010[14]
Age pyramid Garland County[15]

2020 census[edit]

Garland County racial composition[16]
Race Number Percentage
White (non-Hispanic) 77,239 77.1%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 8,034 8.02%
Native American 623 0.62%
Asian 960 0.96%
Pacific Islander 71 0.07%
Other/Mixed 6,206 6.19%
Hispanic or Latino 7,047 7.03%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 100,180 people, 41,743 households, and 26,006 families residing in the county.

2000 census[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census,[17] there were 88,068 people, 37,813 households, and 25,259 families residing in the county. The population density was 130 people per square mile (50/km2). There were 44,953 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile (26/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 88.85% White, 7.80% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from other races, and 1.49% from two or more races. 2.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 37,813 households, out of which 25.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.20% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.20% were non-families. 28.80% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.78.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 21.30% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, and 21.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,724, and the median income for a family was $38,079. Males had a median income of $28,117 versus $20,421 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,631. About 10.50% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over.

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Towns[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Townships[edit]

Townships in Garland County, Arkansas as of 2010

Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas; some may have incorporated cities or towns within part of their boundaries. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States census does list Arkansas population based on townships (sometimes referred to as "county subdivisions" or "minor civil divisions"). Townships are also of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research. Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Garland County are listed below; listed in parentheses are the cities, towns, and/or census-designated places that are fully or partially inside the township. [18][19]

Township FIPS code ANSI code
(GNIS ID)
Population
center(s)
Pop.
(2010)
Pop.
density
(/mi2)
Pop.
density
(/km2)
Total area
(mi2)
Total area
(km2)
Land area
(mi2)
Land area
(km2)
Water area
(mi2)
Water area
(km2)
Geographic coordinates
Hale 05-91581 00066591 Mountain Pine, most of CDP Hot Springs Village, small part of CDP Rockwell 16,142 41.99 16.21 428.979 1,111 384.389 995.6 44.590 115.5 34°38′02″N 93°11′55″W / 34.633909°N 93.198598°W / 34.633909; -93.198598
Hot Springs 05-91773 00066592 most of Hot Springs 41,479 801.70 309.54 54.073 140.0 51.739 134.0 2.334 6.045 34°29′40″N 93°02′52″W / 34.494338°N 93.047883°W / 34.494338; -93.047883
Lake Hamilton 05-92100 00066594 CDP Lake Hamilton, most of CDP Rockwell 20,534 260.45 100.56 86.717 224.6 78.839 204.2 7.878 20.40 34°25′52″N 93°05′11″W / 34.431040°N 93.086323°W / 34.431040; -93.086323
Whittington 05-94047 00066602 Fountain Lake, Lonsdale, CDP Piney, part of CDP Hot Springs Village, small part of Hot Springs 17,599 108.09 41.73 164.852 427.0 162.814 421.7 2.038 5.278 34°34′08″N 92°59′59″W / 34.568990°N 92.999676°W / 34.568990; -92.999676
Source: "Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files: County Subdivisions in Arkansas". U.S. Census Bureau, Geography Division. Archived from the original on May 31, 2014.

Source: "Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files". U.S. Census Bureau, Geography Division.

Government and politics[edit]

Over the past few election cycles Garland County has trended heavily towards the GOP. The last Democrat to carry this county was Arkansas “favorite sonBill Clinton in 1996.

United States presidential election results for Garland County, Arkansas[20][21]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 29,069 65.77% 14,045 31.78% 1,085 2.45%
2016 26,087 63.93% 12,311 30.17% 2,407 5.90%
2012 26,014 63.87% 13,804 33.89% 910 2.23%
2008 26,825 61.36% 15,899 36.37% 995 2.28%
2004 21,734 54.13% 18,040 44.93% 380 0.95%
2000 19,098 53.15% 15,840 44.08% 997 2.77%
1996 13,662 37.73% 19,211 53.06% 3,333 9.21%
1992 12,886 35.80% 18,811 52.26% 4,298 11.94%
1988 19,281 60.93% 11,406 36.05% 955 3.02%
1984 21,213 62.47% 11,484 33.82% 1,261 3.71%
1980 15,739 52.96% 12,515 42.11% 1,463 4.92%
1976 10,394 39.72% 15,707 60.02% 69 0.26%
1972 15,602 73.90% 5,207 24.66% 303 1.44%
1968 7,674 37.83% 5,655 27.88% 6,955 34.29%
1964 9,952 46.01% 11,591 53.59% 86 0.40%
1960 7,204 51.66% 6,333 45.42% 407 2.92%
1956 9,427 62.53% 5,437 36.06% 212 1.41%
1952 7,848 60.07% 5,165 39.53% 52 0.40%
1948 2,286 31.95% 3,764 52.61% 1,104 15.43%
1944 2,069 36.50% 3,596 63.43% 4 0.07%
1940 1,424 29.84% 3,335 69.89% 13 0.27%
1936 1,217 29.09% 2,931 70.07% 35 0.84%
1932 833 16.38% 4,252 83.60% 1 0.02%
1928 2,720 48.94% 2,823 50.79% 15 0.27%
1924 1,064 37.50% 1,501 52.91% 272 9.59%
1920 1,423 45.45% 1,619 51.71% 89 2.84%
1916 1,057 38.65% 1,678 61.35% 0 0.00%
1912 300 14.80% 1,046 51.60% 681 33.60%
1908 1,105 42.91% 1,340 52.04% 130 5.05%
1904 854 50.92% 804 47.94% 19 1.13%
1900 708 42.62% 940 56.59% 13 0.78%
1896 703 31.33% 1,465 65.29% 76 3.39%
1892 940 37.10% 1,456 57.46% 138 5.45%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census - Geography Profile: Garland County, Arkansas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ a b "Garland County: History", Rootsweb
  4. ^ on, Best Books (April 27, 2018). Arkansas: A Guide to the State. Best Books on. ISBN 9781623760045. Retrieved April 27, 2018 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ "The National Parks: Index 2009–2011". National Park Service. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
  6. ^ "Garland County - Encyclopedia of Arkansas". www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
  7. ^ "Profile for Baxter County, Arkansas, AR". ePodunk. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  8. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. pp. 134.
  9. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  10. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  11. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  12. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  13. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 27, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  14. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
  15. ^ Based on 2000 census data
  16. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved December 31, 2021.
  17. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  18. ^ 2011 Boundary and Annexation Survey (BAS): Garland County, AR (PDF) (Map). U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
  19. ^ "Arkansas: 2010 Census Block Maps - County Subdivision". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  20. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved November 18, 2016.
  21. ^ "Our Campaigns - U.S. President". Retrieved January 22, 2021.

External links[edit]