Garrett Augustus Morgan
March 4, 1877|
|Died||July 27, 1963
|Other names||Big Chief Mason|
|Known for||Inventing a type of respiratory protective hood|
Garrett Augustus Morgan, Sr. (March 4, 1877 – July 27, 1963) was an African-American inventor and community leader. He was the subject of a newspaper feature in Cleveland, Ohio, for a heroic rescue in 1916 of workers trapped within a water intake tunnel, 50 ft (15 m) beneath Lake Erie. He performed his rescue using a hood fashioned to protect his eyes from smoke and featuring a series of air tubes that hung near the ground to draw clean air beneath the rising smoke. This enabled Morgan to lengthen his ability to endure the inhospitable conditions of a smoke-filled room. Other inventions of Morgan's include the development of a chemical for hair-straightening. Morgan is also credited as the first African American in Cleveland to own an automobile.
Morgan was born in Claysville, an African-American community outside of Paris, Kentucky, to Sydney Morgan, a son and former slave of Confederate Colonel John H. Morgan (of Morgan's Raiders fame), and Elizabeth Reed, also a former slave who was half Native American and daughter of Rev. Garrett Reed. He had at least one sibling, a brother Frank, who assisted in the 1916 Lake Erie tunnel rescue.
Most of his teenage years were spent working as a handyman for a Cincinnati landowner. Like many American children growing up in the turn of the century, Morgan had to quit school at a young age in order to work full-time. Morgan was privileged enough to hire a tutor and continue his studies while working in Cincinnati. In 1895, he moved to Cleveland, Ohio, where he began repairing sewing machines for a clothing manufacturer. This experience with repairing sewing machines was the impetus for Morgan's interest in how things work. His first invention, developed during this period, was a belt fastener for sewing machines. Throughout this period of time, before his first patent in 1912, he was slowly building his reputation in Cleveland for his skill at fixing things.
In 1907, Morgan with nearly a decade of experience with sewing machines, finally opened up his own sewing machine and shoe repair shop. It was the first of several businesses he would own. In 1908, Morgan became more conscious of his heritage and helped found the Cleveland Association of Colored Men. In 1909, he and his wife Mary Anne expanded their business ventures by opening a shop called Morgan's Cut Rate Ladies Clothing Store. The shop had 32 employees, and made coats, suits, dresses, and other clothing.
Circa 1910 his interest in repairing other people's inventions waned, and he became interested in developing some of his own. The smoke hood was completed circa 1912. He received his patent for it that year as well. The successful invention of the smoke hood precipitated the launch of the National Safety Device Company in 1914. It is unknown if the smoke hood brought him any commercial success. No sales figures have been found but his use of guerrilla marketing, going to different venues and demonstrating his smoke hood by strapping it on and entering a smoke filled teepee, certainly demonstrated his faith in his own invention. In 1913 he incorporated hair care products into his growing list of patents and launched the G. A. Morgan Hair Refining Company, which sold hair care products, including his patented hair straightening cream, a hair dye, and a hair straightening comb invented by Morgan.
Later in life he developed glaucoma and by 1943 was functionally blind. He would have poor health the rest of his life. Even so—in ill health and nearly blind—he continued to work on his inventions. One of his last was a self-extinguishing cigarette, which used a small plastic pellet filled with water placed just before the filter. He died on July 27, 1963 at the age of 86 and is buried at Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland.
Products and inventions
Hair care products
Morgan experimented with a liquid that gave sewing machine needles a high polish that prevented the needle from scorching fabric as it sewed. In 1905, Morgan accidentally discovered that the liquid could also straighten hair. He made the liquid into a cream and launched the G. A. Morgan Hair Refining Company to market it. He also made a black hair oil dye and invented a curved-tooth comb for hair straightening in 1910.
Garrett Morgan invented a safety hood smoke protection device after seeing firefighters struggling from the smoke they encountered in the line of duty. His device used a wet sponge to filter out smoke and cool the air. It also took advantage of the way smoke and fumes tend to rise to higher positions while leaving a layer of more breathable air below, by using an air intake tube that dangled near the floor. The safety hood used a series of tubes to draw clean air off the lowest level the tubes could extend to. Smoke, being hotter than the air around it, rises, and by drawing air from the ground, the Safety Hood provided the user with a way to perform emergency respiration. He filed for a patent on the device in 1912, and founded a company called the National Safety Device Company in 1914 to market it. He was able to sell his invention around the country, sometimes using the tactic of having a hired white actor take credit rather than revealing himself as its inventor. For demonstrations of the device, he sometimes adopted the disguise of "Big Chief Mason", a purported full-blooded Indian from the Walpole Island Indian Reserve in Canada. He would demonstrate the device by building a noxious fire fueled by tar, sulfur, formaldehyde and manure inside an enclosed tent. Disguised as Big Chief Mason, he would enter the tent full of black smoke, and would remain there for 20 minutes before emerging unharmed.
His safety hood device was simple and effective, whereas the other devices in use at the time were generally difficult to put on, excessively complex, unreliable, or ineffective. It was patented and awarded a gold medal two years later by the International Association of Fire Chiefs. Morgan's safety hood was used to save many lives during the period of its use. By World War I, his breathing device was refined to carry its own air supply, making it a gas mask which, by 1917, was standard equipment in the United States Army.
His invention became known nationally when he led a rescue that saved several men's lives after a July 24, 1916 tunnel explosion under Lake Erie. Before Morgan arrived, two previous rescue attempts had failed. The attempted rescuers had become victims themselves by entering the tunnel and not returning. Morgan was roused in the middle of the night after one of the members of the rescue team who had seen a demonstration of his device sent a messenger to convince him to come and to bring as many of his hoods as he could. He arrived on the scene still wearing his pajamas, and brought his brother Frank and four of the hoods with him. Most of the rescuers on the scene were initially skeptical of his device, so he and his brother personally went into the tunnel along with two other volunteers, and succeeded in pulling out two men from the previous rescue attempts. He emerged carrying a victim on his back, and his brother followed just behind with another. Others joined in after his team succeeded, and rescued several more. His device was also used to retrieve the bodies of the victims that did not survive. Morgan personally made four trips into the tunnel during the rescue, and his health was affected for years afterward from the fumes he encountered there. Cleveland's newspapers and city officials initially ignored Morgan's act of heroism as the first to rush into the tunnel for the rescue and his key role as the provider of the equipment that made the rescue possible, and it took years for the city to recognize his contributions. City officials requested the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission to issue medals to several of the men involved in the rescue, but excluded Morgan from their request. He believed that the omission was racially motivated. Later, in 1917, a group of citizens of Cleveland tried to correct for the omission by presenting him with a diamond-studded gold medal. After the heroic rescue Morgan's company received order request from fire departments all over the country.
The first American-made automobiles were introduced to consumers just before the turn of the twentieth century, and pedestrians, bicycles, animal-drawn wagons and motor vehicles all had to share the same roads. To deal with the growing problem of traffic accidents, a number of versions of traffic signaling devices began to be developed, starting around 1913.
Morgan had witnessed a serious accident at an intersection, and he filed a patent for traffic control device in 1922.
In 1923, the US Patent Office granted Patent No. 1,475,024 to Garrett Morgan for his three-position traffic signal. Though Morgan's was not the first traffic signal (that one had been installed in London in 1868), it was an important innovation nonetheless. By having a third position besides just "Stop" and "Go," it regulated crossing vehicles more safely than earlier signals had.
In 1908, he helped found the Cleveland Association of Colored Men, a group founded to help improve economic and social conditions for the black community (which later merged with the NAACP). He also served as its treasurer. He was a member of the NAACP and donated money to Negro colleges.
Morgan was a member of the Prince Hall Freemason fraternal organization, a predominantly black Freemason group (Excelsior Lodge No. 11 of Cleveland, Ohio). He was a member of Antioch Baptist Church.
In 1931, motivated by his view that the city was not properly addressing the needs of the black community, he (unsuccessfully) ran for a seat on the Cleveland City Council as an independent candidate.
He married his first wife, Madge Nelson, in 1896, but that marriage ended in divorce. In 1908, he married his second wife, Mary Anne Hassek. Together they had three sons.
Awards and recognitions
Garrett Morgan's refined replica of his smokehood and protector was used by the United States Army in World War I. A gold medal was awarded to Morgan by the International Association of Fire Chiefs for this safety device.
In the Cleveland, Ohio area, the Garrett A. Morgan Cleveland School of Science and the Garrett A. Morgan Water Treatment Plant have been named in his honor. An elementary school in Chicago was also named after him. An elementary school bearing his name is scheduled to open fall of 2016 in Lexington, Kentucky. In Prince George's County, Maryland, there is a street named Garrett A. Morgan Boulevard (formerly Summerfield Boulevard until 2002) and the adjacent Metro stop (Morgan Boulevard) also bears his name.
- "Many workmen killed in tunnel explosion". The Evening Independent (Volume IX). St. Petersberg, Pinellas County, Florida. July 25, 1916. p. 1. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- Who Made America? Pioneers: Garrett Augustus Morgan PBS.org.
- "Claysville and Other Neighborhoods (Paris, KY)". Notable Kentucky African Americans Database. University of Kentucky. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Morgan, Garrett A.". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland. A joint effort by Case Western University and the Western Reserve Historical Society. February 23, 2005. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- Bianco, David (1992). "Morgan, Garrett 1877-1963". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- Cleveland Association of Colored Men, Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, Case Western Reserve University.
- Garrett Morgan, Cleveland Inventor, ClevelandAreaHistory.com
- Sisson, Mary (2008). "Garrett Morgan". In Cavendish, Marshall. Inventors and Inventions. Volume 4. pp. 1101–1107. ISBN 978-0-7614-7767-9. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
Later designs would include an air bag containing about 15 minutes' worth of fresh air.
- Garrett Morgan, Black Inventor Museum.
- "Garrett A. Morgan". Engineering and Technology History Wiki. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- Inventor of the Week: Garrett A. Morgan: The Safety Hood, MIT, February 1997. Archived April 15, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
- Morgan, Garrett A. (March 24, 1914), Breathing device., retrieved May 23, 2016
- Time-Life Editors (1991). Inventive Genius. New York: Time-Life Books. p. 40. ASIN B003YEPS0Q. ISBN 0-8094-7699-1.
- Morgan, Garrett A. (October 13, 1914), Breathing device., retrieved 2016-05-23
- "Garrett Morgan 1877-1963". About.com Famous Inventors.
Two years later, a refined model of his early gas mask won a gold medal at the International Exposition of Sanitation and Safety, and another gold medal from the International Association of Fire Chiefs.
- Gates Jr, Henry Louis; Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks (2004-04-29). African American Lives. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199882861.
By World War I, Morgan had modified the mask to carry its own air supply, creating the first gas mask, which by 1917 was standard equipment for the U.S. Army.
- "Garrett Augustus Morgan". PBS Who Made America?.
He sold the hoods to the U.S. Navy, and the Army used them in World War I.
- "Morgan, Garrett 1877-1963". Encyclopedia.com Contemporary Black Biography.
Morgan would later perfect his "breathing device" into a gas mask that was used extensively in World War I.
- "Garrett Morgan Biography". Biography.com People.
Morgan's breathing device became the prototype and precursor for the gas masks used during World War I, protecting soldiers from toxic gas used in warfare.
- "22 Men Killed Under Lake Fire" (On-Line Google News Archive). Lawrence Journal-World. Vol. LX. Lawrence, Kansas. July 25, 1916. p. 1. Retrieved October 1, 2013. Note: This source for the tunnel fire makes no mention of Morgan by name, save "The second [rescue expedition] saved one of first rescue expedition"
- "Inventions that Shook the World: The 1910s". Discovery Channel. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
- A, Morgan Garrett (November 20, 1923), Traffic signal, retrieved 2016-05-23
- "Garrett Morgan patents three-position traffic signal". history.com. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "The Cleveland Call & Post". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- Gray, David (2012). The History of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio F&AM 1971–2011: The Fabric of Freemasonry. Columbus, Ohio: Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio. p. 157. ISBN 978-0615632957.
- "Chicago Names School for Inventor Garrett A. Morgan". Jet. May 31, 1973. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- Garrett Morgan Elementary website.
- Asante, Molefi Kete (2002), 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
- "Prominent Members of Alpha". Alpha Phi Alpha. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
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