|Founded||1 August 1947 as KLM Interinsulair Bedrijf|
|Commenced operations||26 January 1949 as Garuda Indonesian Airways|
|Destinations||133 (60 Domestic and 73 International)|
|Company slogan||The Airline of Indonesia|
|Parent company||Indonesian Ministry of State Owned Enterprises (60.51%)|
|Headquarters||Jalan M1, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia|
|Revenue||US$3.81 billion (2015)|
|Net income||US$77.97 million (2015)|
|Employees||20,000 (March 2016)|
Garuda Indonesia (PT Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk IDX: GIAA) is the national airline of Indonesia. Named after the holy bird Garuda of Hinduism from the national emblem of Indonesia, the airline is headquartered at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, near Jakarta. As of 11 December 2014, the airline is rated as a 5-star airline by the international airline review firm Skytrax. The air carrier was previously known as Garuda Indonesian Airways.
Founded in 1947 as KLM Interinsulair Bedrijf, the airline is now one of the world's leading airlines and the 20th member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. It operates regularly scheduled flights to a large number of destinations in Southeast Asia, East Asia, Australia and Europe from its main hub in Jakarta, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, as well as services to Australia and Asia from Ngurah Rai International Airport (Bali) and a large number of domestic flights from both Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport (Makassar) and Kualanamu International Airport (Medan).
At its peak in the late 1980s up to the mid-1990s, Garuda operated an extensive network of flights all over the world, with regularly scheduled services to Los Angeles, Paris, Rome and other cities in Europe and Asia. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a series of financial and operational difficulties hit the airline hard, which included the in-flight murder of a human rights activist by airline staff, causing it to drastically cut back services. In 2009, the airline undertook a five-year modernization plan known as the Quantum Leap, which overhauled the airline's brand, livery, logo and uniforms, as well as newer, more modern aircraft and facilities and a renewed focus on international markets, and earning the airline awards such as Most Improved Airline and World's Best Cabin Crew.
- 1 History
- 2 Corporate affairs and identity
- 3 Destinations
- 4 Fleet
- 5 Services
- 6 Awards
- 7 Market share
- 8 Incidents and accidents
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The earliest predecessor to Garuda Indonesia was KNILM, Royal Dutch Indies Airways, founded in 1928 during the Dutch colonial period; despite the similar name, it was not a subsidiary of the main Dutch carrier KLM. KNILM was dissolved in 1947, and its assets were transferred to a new KLM subsidiary, KLM Interinsulair Bedrijf (KLM Interinsular Service), which was nationalized in December 1949.
The name "Garuda" was derived from a Dutch poem written by a renowned Javanese scholar and poet Raden Mas Noto Soeroto; "Ik ben Garuda, Vishnoe's vogel, die zijn vleugels uitslaat hoog boven uw eilanden", which means "I'm Garuda, Vishnu's Bird, that spreads its wings high above the Islands". In Hindu mythology, Garuda is the name of Lord Vishnu's mount (vahana). The line was mentioned by Sukarno during the Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference at The Hague, from 23 August to 2 November 1949.
In its current institutional form, Garuda Indonesia had its beginnings in the Indonesian war of independence against the Dutch in the late 1940s, when Garuda flew special transports with a Douglas DC-3. The first aircraft was a DC-3 known as Seulawah (Acehnese: "Gold Mountain", or from Arabic Shalawah, means praise/worship) and was purchased for a sum of 120,000 Malayan dollars, which was provided by the people of Aceh (notably local merchants). The first commercial flight from Calcutta to Rangoon was made on January 26, 1949, using a DC-3 Dakota aircraft with the tail number of “RI 001” and the name “Indonesian Airways”.The 26 January 1949 is generally recognized as the airline's founding date.
A second DC-3 entered service in 1949, which flew its first flight on December 28, carrying President Sukarno on a flight from Jakarta to Yogyakarta, the first flight made under the name of "Garuda Indonesian Airways". Throughout the revolution, Garuda supported national interests, and often carried diplomats on its flights. The Burmese government helped the airline significantly during its beginnings. The country's national airline, Union of Burma Airways, often chartered one of the airline's DC-3s for its own flights. Accordingly, upon Garuda's formal joint incorporation with KLM on 31 March 1950, the airline presented the Burmese government with a DC-3 as a gift.
By the early and mid 1950s, the airline operated a fleet of 38 aircraft, which included 22 DC-3s, 8 Catalina seaplanes, and 8 Convair 240s, and in 1956, the airline operated its first flight to Mecca with Convair aircraft, carrying 40 Indonesian pilgrims.
The airline's fleet continued to grow throughout the 1960s, during which time the airline continued its expansion. It acquired three Lockheed L-188 Electras in 1961, which supplemented its Convair CV-240 fleet, before taking delivery of its first jet aircraft, the Convair 990 Coronado, in 1963, which allowed it to launch flights to Hong Kong.
In 1965, the airline took delivery of its first Douglas DC-8, and grew beyond the Asian market it was focused on, beginning scheduled flights to Amsterdam and Frankfurt via Colombo, Bombay, and Prague. Rome and Paris became the airline's third and fourth European destinations, with flights stopping in Bombay and Cairo to refuel. Flights to the People's Republic of China began that same year, with service to Canton via Phnom Penh, the first Indonesian airline to do so.
During the early 1970s, Garuda Indonesia took delivery of both the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 and Fokker F28 Fellowship for its short and medium-haul operations. The airline went on to take delivery of 62 F28s, holding the title for the largest operator of the F28 in the world. In 1973, the airline took delivery of its first Douglas DC-10, giving it the capability to carry more passengers and fly longer flights, and it replaced the DC-8 and Convair 990 fleet on flights within Asia and to Europe. The DC-10 would become an integral part of the Garuda fleet for the years to come, outlasting the newer McDonnell Douglas MD-11s, before the type was finally retired in 2002. Afterwards, in 1980, the airline took delivery of the first Boeing 747-200, complementing the DC-10 on high-capacity or long-range routes.
On 21 June 1982, Garuda became the launch customer of the Airbus A300B4-220FFCC, which was the first variant of the A300 capable of being operated with two pilots instead of three. By 1984, nine of these were in service, supplemented by 8 Douglas DC-10s, 24 Douglas DC-9s, 45 Fokker F-28s, and 6 Boeing 747-200s. In 1985 under Reyn Altin Johannes Lumenta, who had been CEO since 1984, Garuda made the controversial decision to hire foreign brand consultants Landor Associates to create a new logo, livery and brand for the airline, a project that was regarded as expensive and unnecessary at the time. However, this move was later on applauded as vital for the reputation and corporate identity of Garuda Indonesia as the national airline.
Under Lumenta, Garuda also increased the number of flight frequencies and destinations, reduced ticket prices and collaborated with Merpati Nusantara Airlines, introducing flexible tickets valid for both Indonesian airlines.
In 1990, the airline took delivery of the Douglas MD-11s, which gradually replaced the DC-10 on flights to Europe, and also allowed the airline to launch flights to Los Angeles via Honolulu. During this time, the airline operated a fleet of the aforementioned MD-11s, DC-10s, 747, Airbus A300 and Boeing 737-400, operating it to destinations throughout Asia, Europe and North America. In 1994, the airline took delivery of its first Boeing 747-400 aircraft, which would go on to become a mainstay of its fleet until 2015, operating hajj flights and high density short-haul routes, while the delivery of the first Airbus A330-300 in 1996 allowed more flexibility for the airline, as it was more fuel-efficient than the three and four engined jets. That same year, the airline placed an order for six Boeing 777 aircraft, due for delivery in 2000, however, a new series of challenges and difficulties was about to hit the airline.
The late 1990s and early 2000s would prove to be a turbulent and difficult time for the airline; two separate accidents in 1996 and 1997 added to the problems being caused by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, resulting in a drastic reduction in operations, including the termination of service to the Americas and a massive scaling back of its European operations. Largely due to historical links with the Netherlands, Garuda continued to operate flights to Amsterdam, Frankfurt and London after the initial cutbacks, although these flights were also discontinued on 28 October 2004. The situation was exacerbated by the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S., the Bali bombings, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, and the SARS scare, all of which contributed to a downturn in air travel and Indonesian tourism. As a result, its earlier order for the Boeing 777 was deferred, and so was an order for 18 Boeing 737-800s to replace its ageing 737 Classic fleet.
On 7 September 2004, the situation was worsened when human rights activist Munir Said Thalib, travelling to Amsterdam via Singapore on Garuda Indonesia Flight 974, was assassinated by off-duty pilot Pollycarpus Priyanto, who slipped arsenic into his drink some time before the departure of the flight's second leg to Amsterdam. He was reported to have felt unwell several hours after departure from Singapore, during which time he was checked on by a doctor who happened to be on board, and moved to the business class cabin to sleep. He died approximately two hours before arrival into Amsterdam, sparking an international controversy, during which time Priyanto, along with CEO Indra Setiawan and deputy Rohainil Aini, were all convicted of his murder, although it has been alleged it was under orders from the Indonesian State Intelligence Agency (BIN). The airline was found negligent in failing to perform an emergency landing and was ordered to pay compensation to Munir's widow, but failed to do so. However, by 2005, the airline had largely recovered from its economic problems, swapping its order for six Boeing 777-200ERs for 10 Boeing 787-8 Dreamliners in 2005, but its operational problems would remain.
In June 2007, the EU banned Garuda Indonesia, along with all other Indonesian airlines, from flying into any European countries, following the crash of a Boeing 737-400 earlier that year. With the support of the international aviation industry for all Indonesian airlines, the EU promised to review its ban and sent a team of experts, led by the European Commission's Air Safety Administrator Federico Grandini to Indonesia to consider lifting the ban. In August 2007, the transportation minister of Indonesia announced that the EU would lift its ban hopefully sometime in October, stating that the ban was attributed to communication breakdown between the two parties and that discussions were in progress.
In November 2007, Garuda announced its intention to fly to Amsterdam from Jakarta and Denpasar with either Airbus A330 or Boeing 777 aircraft if the EU lifted its ban, however, on 28 November 2007, the EU stated that the safety reforms already undertaken were a step in the right direction for the EU to consider lifting the ban, but still did not satisfy the EU's aviation safety standards, and thus, did not lift its ban. The ban was lifted in July 2009, after which Garuda began evaluating service to Amsterdam and other European destinations, as well as the United States.
In July 2007, the Deputy of Marketing, Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Indonesia announced that Garuda Indonesia had plans to start service to India, although the date had not been determined. Garuda served flights to India which are all cancelled as of May 2016.
Following the lift of the EU ban against Garuda Indonesia and three other Indonesian carriers, the airline announced in July 2009 an aggressive five-year expansion plan known as the Quantum Leap. The plan involved an image overhaul, including changing the airline's livery, staff uniform and logo, and nearly doubling the size of its fleet from 62 to 116. The Quantum Leap also plans to boost passenger annual numbers to 27.6 million in the same period, up from 10.1 million at the time of program launch through increasing domestic and international destinations from 41 to 62. Route expansions included Amsterdam, with a stopover in Dubai, in 2010. As of 2014, Garuda flies to Amsterdam non-stop five times a week using a Boeing 777-300ER with continuing service to London, with the sixth weekly service to be added by the end of 2015. Other European and American cities such as Frankfurt, Paris, Rome, Madrid and Los Angeles are being considered for reopening.
As part of the Quantum Leap, the airline refreshed its logo and redesigned its iconic livery in 2009, more than 20 years after the last update. New uniforms were introduced in 2010. In 2010, the airline placed a firm order for six additional Airbus A330s at the 2010 Farnborough Airshow, while it opened a new hub at Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport, Makassar, South Sulawesi to increase services to the eastern part of Indonesia on 1 June 2011, its third after Jakarta and Denpasar
During this time period, the airline also added additional frequencies to many of its international routes, including to Singapore, Bangkok, Beijing and Shanghai from Jakarta, while it also added capacity to Denpasar-Seoul. It also re-opened routes, including Jakarta-Taipei in 2012.
At the Paris Air Show 2011, Garuda Indonesia announced a firm order of 25 Airbus A320s with an option for another 25. All 25 Airbus A320s are to be used by their subsidiary, Citilink The airline's earlier order for the Boeing 787, made in 2005, was changed once more, due to the delays in the 787's entry into service, and Garuda opted to sign for 10 Boeing 777-300ERs instead, which it would take delivery of in 2013 to use on long-haul flights to Europe, and medium-haul flights within Asia, such as to Japan, China, Singapore and Saudi Arabia, as well as short-haul domestic routes between Jakarta and Denpasar.
The airline made its debut on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in February 2011, with the government of Indonesia retaining a majority of the shares. PT Trans Airways bought 10.9 percent stake of Garuda Indonesia unsold IPO shares from underwriters on 27 April 2012. The transaction was valued at Rp 1.53 trillion ($166.8 million).
In 2014, the airline became one of seven airlines to earn the prestigious 5 star rating from Skytrax, marking the end of the 5-year Quantum Leap program. Following this announcement, Emirsyah Satar, who had been CEO for the past nine years, announced his resignation and retirement, and promoted budget spin-off Citilink subsidiary Arif Wibowo as CEO.
Following Wibowo's promotion, he began a "Quick Wins" cost-cutting drive to cut down on losses while boosting revenue through various measures, including cancelling unprofitable routes and increasing staff efficiency. Despite this, Wibowo remains committed to continue the airline's international expansion, especially once market conditions, such as the weakening rupiah, improve. This was reaffirmed following the airline's announcement of its intent to order 90 new aircraft, from both Boeing and Airbus, worth $20 billion at list prices at the 2015 Paris Air Show.
Presidents and CEOs
|Dr. E. Konijnenburg||1950||1954|
|Reyn Altin Johannes Lumenta||1984||1988|
Corporate affairs and identity
Branding and livery
Since its establishment, Garuda Indonesia has changed its branding and livery a few times. During the early years, Garuda color scheme was simple logotype "Indonesia Airways" with blue lines and Indonesian flag. In the 1960s, Garuda introduced a red and white color scheme in accordance to the Indonesian national identity and the Indonesian flag. Also in this period "Garuda Indonesian Airways" introduced a bird logo: a triangle stylized eagle-like Garuda with red and white shield. The logo was painted on the vertical stabilizer of Garuda's fleet from 1961 to 1969. In the 1970s, a logotype with a unique font replaced the triangular eagle as Garuda's corporate identity, along with a new color scheme consisting of a red and orange "hockey stick" line running along the aircraft's windows and vertical stabilizer. This livery used from 1969 to 1985.
In 1985, Garuda underwent a complete branding makeover, changing its name into "Garuda Indonesia" along with its color scheme, logo and logotype. The new branding and livery was created by Landor Associates who also created the new iconic bird logo: the Garuda symbol with five bent lines forming its wings. The color scheme was changed completely to a deep royal blue and aqua color, said to be inspired by the nature of Indonesia that was dominated by tropical greenery and seas when viewed from the air. The nationalistic red and white color scheme was no longer used.
In 2009, a new branding initiative was launched through a new image, developed once again by brand consultant Landor Associates, a new spin of the idea called "nature's wing". Garuda has since replaced the old logo painted on its fleet vertical stabilizer with this new "nature's wing" graphic of blue and aqua shades. The "nature's wing" graphic was inspired by the wings of tropical birds as well as the ripples of waves upon the water. The iconic bird symbol designed by Landor 24 years earlier is still maintained as Garuda Indonesia's logo, with minor changes, while the logotype now uses the Myriad Pro font. The new look is expected to be able to "Capture the Spirit of Friendliness and Professionalism of Indonesia".
To celebrate its 62 years of service on 26 January 2011, Garuda Indonesia painted 2 of its Boeing 737-800 aircraft with the retro liveries the airline used in the 1960s and 1970s.
For the company slogan, there are several slogans that were used in the past:
- Garuda Indonesia, Kini Lebih Baik (Now Better)
- Garuda Indonesia, Permata Nusantara (Jewel of The Archipelago)
- Garuda Indonesia, Nusantara Bangsa (The Nation Archipelago)
- Garuda Indonesia, Bangga Bersamanya (Proud of You Together)
- Garuda Indonesia, The Airline of Indonesia
The current slogan is:
- Garuda Indonesia, Look Forward
Garuda Indonesia has its head office at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, near Cengkareng and near Jakarta. The head office is the Garuda Indonesia Management Building, located within the Garuda Indonesia City Center. The about 17,000-square-metre (180,000 sq ft) head office facility is on a 5-hectare (12-acre) plot of land. As of 2009, the head office houses the Garuda management and about 1,000 employees from various units. Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono opened the current Garuda head office in 2009. The previous head office was located in the city center of Jakarta, in Central Jakarta.
Garuda Indonesia had announced that its subsidiary, GMF AeroAsia would be listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008. However, due to financial crisis in 2008, GMF delayed IPO until 2009. The Ministry of State-Owned Companies (Kementrian BUMN) also had announced a plan to privatize Garuda, that opened a possibility to offer its shares publicly. Garuda Indonesia aimed to list on 11 February 2011, for an Initial Public Offering. Government of Indonesia has confirmed the IPO price of Garuda Indonesia at Rp.750 per share and also cut offering size to 6.3 billion shares only from 9.362 billion planned before.
Garuda Indonesia’s subsidiaries include:
|Company||Type||Principal activities||Country||Group's Equity Shareholding|
|GMF AeroAsia||Subsidiary||Aircraft Maintenance||Indonesia||100%|
|PT. Aerofood Indonesia||Subsidiary||Airline catering service||Indonesia||100%|
|PT. Aerowisata||Subsidiary||Travel, hotel, transportation and catering services||Indonesia||100%|
|PT. Abacus Distribution Systems Indonesia||Subsidiary||Computer reservation provider||Indonesia||100%|
|PT. Gapura Angkasa||Subsidiary||Ground handling service||Indonesia||58,75%|
|PT. Aero Systems Indonesia||Subsidiary||IT provider and solutions||Indonesia||100%|
|Cargo Garuda Indonesia||Strategic Business Unit||Cargo||Indonesia||100%|
|Garuda Sentra Medika||Strategic Business Unit||Aircrew health services||Indonesia||100%|
Garuda Indonesia operates flights to 133 destinations in 14 countries, with approximately 500 daily departures from its hubs at Jakarta, Denpasar, Medan and Makassar. The airline serves 3 continents Asia, Australia and Europe with its fleet of 140 aircraft, to destinations such as Singapore, Shanghai, Tokyo, Amsterdam and London, and although it has rapidly expanded its route network since the Quantum Leap began in 2009, the airline still does not fly to several major cities, such as Manila and Mumbai, and despite the airline repeatedly stating its intention to fly to both cities, a time frame has not been given.
On 13 October 2009, the airline announced it would resume flights to Europe for the first time following its removal from the E.U. blacklist. It commenced flights between Jakarta and Amsterdam in June 2010, initially with a refueling stop in Dubai. On 2 December 2012, after agreeing to a codeshare agreement with Etihad Airways, the airline changed the refueling stop to Abu Dhabi. After the delivery of its Boeing 777-300ER aircraft in 2013, the airline removed the Abu Dhabi refueling stop, and commenced non-stop service to Amsterdam, as the longest flight operated by the airline, and consequently ending flights to Abu Dhabi, leaving Etihad as the sole operator between Jakarta and Abu Dhabi. On 8 September that year, the airline extended its Amsterdam flight with continuing service to London Gatwick.
In 2011, Garuda flew 17.1 million passengers up 39% from the previous year, while the total revenue jumped 38% to Rp27.1 trillion ($2.95 billion). Composition of passengers on domestic routes and international routes was 81% versus 19% respectively.
On 31 March 2016, Garuda Indonesia inaugurated its first flight from Singapore Changi Airport to London Heathrow, using Boeing 777-300ER.
On 12 September 2016, Garuda Indonesia announced its intention to resume service to Los Angeles via Tokyo-Narita using a B777-300ER from Jakarta. This is slated to start in April 2017. The last time Los Angeles was served was in 1997.
In mid 2016, Garuda announced its intention to serve Chengdu from Denpasar or Jakarta five times a week. Garuda plans to open this service in 2017.
Codesharing has allowed Garuda Indonesia to expand services into Western Europe and the Middle East. In 2009, Garuda Indonesia expressed an interest in joining the SkyTeam airline alliance, which would make it the second airline in Southeast Asia to join after Vietnam Airlines. Membership would open SkyTeam's network to Indonesian, Australian, and New Zealand markets, which it lacked connectivity to. In December 2009, three SkyTeam members – Korean Air, KLM, and Delta Air Lines (China Airlines joined as fourth member to support Garuda after its 2011 SkyTeam inclusion) – committed to supporting Garuda Indonesia to join SkyTeam. This made Garuda Indonesia eligible to apply for membership in the alliance. On 23 November 2010, Garuda Indonesia signed an agreement to join SkyTeam. The airline became the 20th member of the alliance on 5 March 2014.
Inside the SkyTeam alliance, Garuda also codeshares with member alliances for select routes:
Garuda Indonesia offers flights to 28 other international destinations through codeshare agreements with a large number of airlines not in the SkyTeam alliance. The following list is as of November 2015:
- On 19 June 2007, Garuda Indonesia and Hainan Airlines began codesharing in a bid to strengthen both airlines' marketing positions in Indonesia and People's Republic of China. In this agreement, Garuda Indonesia will be the operating partner on the Jakarta-Beijing (vv) service, flying five times a week using a new A330-200.
- An interline agreement between Garuda Indonesia and Australian airline Virgin Blue was confirmed in November 2007. This facilitates travel for passengers connecting from a Virgin Australia domestic flight to a Garuda Indonesia international service departing from either Sydney, Melbourne or Perth.
- In June 2008, it was announced that Garuda Indonesia would increase services between Australia and Bali. From 25 June, Garuda Indonesia added an extra flight between Darwin and Denpasar, bringing the total number of services to three per week. Additionally, a fourth flight from Melbourne to Denpasar began on 22 July. On 2 September, another extra service departed from Melbourne to bring the total number of flights per week to five, and a sixth flight left from Sydney. This extra capacity was in response to an increase in the number of Australians who traveled to Bali in the first quarter of 2008, marking a resurgence in Balinese tourism, which was hit hard by the 2002 and 2005 Bali bombings.
- In August 2008, a codeshare agreement between Singapore Airlines and the airline on route between Singapore and Denpasar was established. Singapore Airlines is the operating carrier.
- A partnership agreement with Etihad Airways was announced on 16 October 2012. The partnership includes a codeshare agreement for a total of 36 flights between the two airlines; subject to Government Regulatory Approval. Reciprocal Frequent Flyer programmes were also part of the agreement, allowing passengers to earn miles flying both Garuda Indonesia and Etihad Airways. Garuda Indonesia subsequently shifted its Dubai operations to Abu Dhabi as to compliment the agreement.
- During the APEC summit on 7 October 2013, a codeshare agreement between Garuda Indonesia and Aeroméxico was announced, allowing passengers to travel from Jakarta to Mexico City via Tokyo and vice versa. Under the codeshare agreement, Aeromexico would place its flight numbers on Garuda Indonesia's Jakarta-Tokyo flights while Garuda Indonesia would place its flight numbers on Aeromexico's Tokyo-Mexico City flights.
- On 19 November 2013, a codeshare agreement was announced between Garuda Indonesia and Jet Airways of India. Under the codeshare agreement, Jet Airways would place its flight numbers on Garuda Indonesia flights between Jakarta and Singapore while Garuda Indonesia would place its flight numbers on Jet Airways flights between Singapore and Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai. The two airlines also announced a reciprocal Frequent Flyer programme partnership, allowing passengers to earn miles flying both Garuda Indonesia and Jet Airways.
- On 19 December 2013, Garuda Indonesia and Japan's All Nippon Airways announced a partnership agreement encompassing codeshare flights as well as reciprocal Frequent Flyer programmes. Under the codeshare agreement, ANA passengers arriving in Jakarta would be able to transfer to 10 destinations in Indonesia on board Garuda Indonesia flights, while Garuda Indonesia passengers arriving in Tokyo or Osaka would be able to transfer to 11 destination in Japan on board ANA flights.
Explore and Explore-jet sub-brands
As Indonesia's flag carrier, Garuda Indonesia tries to connect many parts of Indonesia to support the government's "Indonesian Interconnectivity" program. However, there are many remote and smaller airports that cannot be reached by Garuda Indonesia's fleet of Boeing 737-800s. This is caused by the lack of airport infrastructure in smaller cities and remote areas, such as insufficient runway length that mostly less than 1,600 meters.
In line with its Quantum Leap plan, Garuda Indonesia ordered brand-new Bombardier CRJ1000 and ATR 72 to reach smaller airports from Garuda's hub like Ngurah Rai International Airport, Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport, and Kualanamu International Airport. On 25 November 2013, Garuda Indonesia has launched its new sub-brands "Explore" and "Explore-jet", for servicing perintis ("pioneer") lines traditionally served by other airlines — (dormant) Merpati Nusantara Airlines and also its competitor Wings Air.
On 5 March 2014, Garuda Indonesia officially joined the SkyTeam alliance and became its 20th member. The inclusion of Garuda Indonesia adds 40 new destinations to SkyTeam’s global network and strengthens the alliance presence in Southeast Asia and Australia. To commemorate the event, the airline repainted an Airbus A330-300 (PK-GPF) a Boeing 737-800 (PK-GMH), a Boeing 777-300ER (PK-GII), and a Bombardier CRJ1000 NextGen (PK-GRA) with the "SkyTeam" Grey livery. With the arrival of Garuda Indonesia to SkyTeam, a variety of facilities are given as including SkyPriority, as well as changing its current frequent flyer membership into GarudaMiles. In addition, Garuda was connected with 140 new destinations and also teamed up with the world's major airlines, such as KLM, Air France, Delta Air Lines, Aeroflot, China Airlines, Aeroméxico and Saudia, as well as XiamenAir.
All of Garuda Indonesia's aircraft are maintained by GMF AeroAsia. The Boeing customer code for Garuda Indonesia is U3, which appears in their aircraft designation as a suffix, such as 737-8U3, 747-4U3 and 777-3U3ER.
The airline utilizes the Boeing 777-300ER on flights from Jakarta to Jeddah, Singapore, Amsterdam, London, Denpasar and Shanghai and from Denpasar to Tokyo; the Airbus A330-200 on flights from Jakarta to Osaka, Seoul, Australia, Hong Kong, Denpasar to Osaka and other Indonesian destinations; the larger Airbus A330-300 for medium-haul flights from Denpasar/Bali except for flights to/from Osaka as well as from Jakarta to Tokyo and Beijing and Surabaya to Jeddah; the Boeing 737-800 on most domestic and regional routes and long-haul flights from Jakarta to Perth, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Guangzhou and Hong Kong and flights from Denpasar, Surabaya and Medan to Singapore and from Denpasar to Guangzhou; and the Bombardier CRJ1000 NextGen on regional flights to airports incapable of handling the newer 737-800, replacing the older Boeing 737 Classic aircraft. The ATR 72-600 turboprop entered service at the end of 2013, serving new inter-island routes to airports in the eastern part of Indonesia that cannot handle jet aircraft, routes that are traditionally served by other airlines. The airline also owns two Boeing 747-400 aircraft that are used for charter, Umrah and Hajj flights and when additional capacity is needed.
Garuda plans to retire and return its oldest Boeing 737-800 planes (PK-GEx registration, totalling 6) to their lessors by mid-2017, while its original six A330 aircraft (PK-GPA, C-G) have been refitted in an all-economy configuration for high density domestic, international and Hajj routes. The airline has plans to take delivery of more new aircraft in the future, with an order for 50 Boeing 737 MAX 8 aircraft (46 new, 4 conversions from existing -800 order) announced on 12 October 2014, and signing a Letter of Intent (LoI) to purchase 90 new aircraft from Boeing and Airbus (30 737 MAX 8, 30 A350-900 XWB, 30 787-9 Dreamliner) worth $20 billion at list prices at the Paris Air Show 2015. Garuda has also reportedly signed on the dotted line for 14 Airbus A330-900neo aircraft with 7 A330-300 cancellations, first reported during the Singapore Airshow, although the 14-aircraft order remains to be confirmed. On April 19, 2016, Garuda confirmed their order for 14 A330-900neo aircraft.
|ATR 72–600||15||15||—||—||70||70||Operated as Garuda Indonesia sub-brand "Explore"|
|Airbus A330–200||7||—||—||36||186||222||1 early aircraft features Thales i4000 IFE, while 6 newer aircraft features Panasonic eX2 IFE.|
|Airbus A330–300||17||—||—||—||360||360||Older A330-300 aircraft (delivered between 1996 and 1997) are in all-economy configuration, while newer aircraft (delivered between 2013 and 2015) are in 36/215 configuration with fully flat seats in Business Class.
Newly delivered A330s from 2016 onwards are fitted in a 24/263 configuration with 1-2-1 Super Diamond Business Class seats.
PK-GPF in Skyteam livery.
||First delivery in 2019.|
|Boeing 737–800||75||—||—||12||150||162||5 aircraft (PK-GEx series aircraft) do not have in-seat AVOD and use overhead TVs, to be returned by mid-2017 after lease period ends.
PK-GMH in SkyTeam livery, PK-GFM in 1949-1966 livery, PK-GFN in 1966-1985 livery. 36 aircraft features Boeing Sky Interior.
|Boeing 737 MAX 8||—||50||
||Replacing older 737-800.
First delivery in 2017.
|Boeing 747–400||2||—||—||22||435||457||Used on charter flights and Hajj flights.|
|Boeing 777–300ER||10||—||8||42||268||318||6 aircraft are used on long haul flights and some short haul flights (Jakarta to Denpasar/Bali). 4 other aircraft are delivered in a 2-class configuration.
PK-GII in SkyTeam livery.
|Bombardier CRJ1000 NextGen||18||—||—||—||96||96||Operated as Garuda Indonesia sub-brand "Explore-Jet". Business Class service removed.
PK-GRA in SkyTeam livery.
|Airbus A300B4-200FF||1982||2002||Launch customer.
One crashed at Medan.
|Boeing 737–300||1989||June 2015||Replaced by Boeing 737-800 and Bombardier CRJ1000 NextGen.|
|Boeing 737–400||1992||2012||Replaced by Boeing 737-800. Two sold to the air force as VIP transport aircraft.
One was written off in Yogyakarta.
|Boeing 737–500||1997||January 2016||Replaced by Boeing 737-800 and Bombardier CRJ1000 NextGen. Last aircraft sold to the air force as VIP transport aircraft.|
|Boeing 747–200||1980||2002||Replaced by Boeing 747-400.|
|Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina||1950||1953|
|Convair 340||1952||1968||The first Hajj flight was operated by this aircraft.|
|Convair 990||1962||1975||First jet aircraft in fleet.
One crashed at Mumbai.
|de Havilland Heron||1952||1956||Launch customer.|
|Douglas DC-3||1949||1970||First aircraft model in the fleet.|
|Fokker F27-200||1967||1975||One crashed at Lampung.|
|Fokker F28 Mk-1000||1969||1983||Replaced by Fokker F28 Mk-3000.
3 crashed in 1975-1982.
|Fokker F28 Mk-3000||1973||1998||Launch customer.|
|Fokker F28 Mk-4000||1978||2001|
|Lockheed L-188 Electra||1960||1977||One crashed at Manado.|
|McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30||1970||1993||Replaced by Boeing 737s. One hijacked.
One preserved for display use.
|McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30||1973||2005||One written-off in Fukuoka. Currently stored in Jakarta.|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-11||1990||1998|
Garuda Indonesia is a full-service airline featuring economy, business (branded as 'executive') and first classes. The airline began to introduce new premium products and services with the arrival of the Airbus A330-200 and Boeing 737-800 aircraft. First class cabins were introduced in 2013 on board the Boeing 777-300ER with Wi-Fi and telecommunication services on board.
First class is available on 6 Boeing 777-300ERs, featuring 8 suites arranged in a 1-2-1 configuration. The first class suites are fitted with 24" AVOD screen and seats that converts into a bed, as well as a touchscreen seat controller. A new chef-on-board service will enhance the dining experience. First Class passengers can use in-flight Wi-Fi connectivity at no cost. It has a seat pitch of 82 inches and a seat width of 22 inches.
- Executive Class
The new Executive Class cabin on-board Garuda's Boeing 777-300ERs are fitted with EADS Sogerma flat-bed seats arranged in a staggered 1-2-1 configuration; allowing for direct aisle access to all Executive Class passengers. These seats feature a 74" seat pitch, 15" AVOD screen, USB ports, in-seat laptop power supply, and personal reading light. Turndown service is also offered.
Factory fresh Airbus A330-300 delivered from 2016 onwards will feature a new-generation business class based on the B/E Super Diamond seat, featuring all-aisle access, a 180 degree recline, more storage space, a new 16 inch touch-enabled entertainment screen, and touchscreen seat controls, along with an all new Panasonic eX3 inflight entertainment system. However, the seat count decreases from 36 to 24.
On-board other Airbus A330s, the Executive Class cabin feature fully flat-bed seats on all -200s and 7 -300s (delivered between 2013 and 2015). However, there are no Executive Class seats onboard 6 older A330-300s. The flat bed seats feature fully flat beds with up to 74" seat pitch. Seats are equipped with personal AVOD In-Flight Entertainment System (IFE), USB ports, in-seat laptop power supply, and personal reading light. Executive Class seats onboard these are configured in a 2-2-2 configuration, allowing for either a window seat or an aisle seat.
Garuda's newer Boeing 737-800 aircraft also features a reclining Executive Class product with 42" seat pitch in a 2-2 layout, equipped with an in-seat laptop power supply, personal 9-inch touch-screen & handset activated AVOD In-Flight Entertainment, and personal reading light.
Garuda's Boeing 747-400 aircraft feature refurbished older Executive Class seats in new colors. Executive Class seats of Garuda's Boeing 747-400 feature 46" - 48" seat pitch and 19" seat width.
A range of hot and cold beverages are available, along with snacks and/or meals, depending on the length of the flight. Wine and beers are also offered on international flights. In July 2011, Garuda Indonesia launched the Indonesian Rijsttafel service in Executive Class as part of its signature in-flight services. This signature dining service introduces the passengers to a wide array of Indonesian cuisine in a single setting, as part of the Garuda Indonesia experience. This in-flight Indonesian Rijsttafel includes varieties of Indonesian signature dishes; choices of nasi kuning or regular steamed rice, accompanied with choices of dishes such as satay, rendang, gado-gado grilled chicken rica, red snapper in yellow acar sauce, fried shrimp in sambal, potato perkedel and tempeh, along with krupuk or rempeyek crackers.
Economy Class seat is available on all Garuda Indonesia aircraft. Their ATR 72-600 and Bombardier CRJ1000 aircraft has 2-2 seat configuration, Boeing 737-800 with 3-3 configuraton, Airbus A330 in 2-4-2 configuration, Boeing 777 with 3-3-3 configuration and Boeing 747 with 3-4-3 configuration in main deck and 3-3 configuration on the upper deck. Seat widths range from 17 inches onboard all 737, 747, ATR72 and CRJ1000, to over 18 inches onboard the A330 and 777. Seat-back inflight entertainment is offered on most 737s and all A330s and 777s. With the exception of four newest A330 aircraft (which features an 11.1 inch touchscreen), every seat has a 9 inch seat-back touchscreen.
In-Flight Entertainment (IFE) is available on board most Garuda Indonesia aircraft: all A330, all 777 and all but 5 737-800s.
Garuda's Boeing 777-300ER, Airbus A330s, and newer Boeing 737-800 aircraft are equipped with Audio video on demand In-Flight Entertainment System in all classes. The Economy Class on these aircraft features a 9-inch LCD touch-screen, while the Executive Class features a 9-inch, 11-inch and 15-inch touch-screen LCD in Garuda's Boeing 737-800, older Airbus A330-200, and all remaining Airbus A330 series and 777 aircraft respectively. In Executive Class on board the Airbus A330-300 and newer A330-200 aircraft, the screens are located on the seat backs or in the armrest of bulkhead rows, while in the older Airbus A330-200 aircraft and Boeing 737-800s, the screens are stowed in the armrest. In Economy Class, they are on the seat back.
Garuda introduced a new intuitive IFE user interface onboard their factory fresh A330s from 2016 onwards. These come with an 11-inch touchscreen in Economy with a touchpad controller, and a 16-inch touchscreen in Business with a 4.7-inch touchscreen remote.
Garuda's Boeing 747-400 aircraft are equipped with cabin screens that shows Airshow (a moving map system to allow passengers to track the progress of their flight), as well as featured films and short movies. Audio programmings are also available. Passengers in Executive Class can order portable media players (AVOD system) from flight attendants.
Immigration On-Board (IoB)
Immigration on Board (IoB) is a special service created by Garuda Indonesia to provide more convenience for their passengers traveling to Indonesia. With this service, in cooperation with the Directorate General of Immigration, an agency under Indonesian Ministry of Law and Human Rights, Garuda Indonesia passengers on certain long haul flights can complete their immigration process on-board before landing and disembarking.
By utilizing this service, Garuda Indonesia passengers will no longer have to queue at the immigration counter upon arrival at Ngurah Rai International Airport in Denpasar or Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Jakarta, affording passengers the benefit of saving their time.
A Jakarta-based 24-hour call center is available for local customer access where payment can be made by credit cards, internet/mobile banking or transfer via ATM. Recently online booking from their website is also possible with payment can be made online with credit cards from select countries.
In April 2011, Garuda Indonesia announced plans to develop online sales. Garuda Indonesia had cooperated with Visa and MasterCard to develop an online credit card payment system, allowing customers to use PayPal. Debit card payments may be processed with Bank Mandiri, BCA or BII.
Garuda Frequent Flyer, Garuda Indonesia's frequent-flyer program was launched in September 1999. In 2005, Garuda Indonesia relaunched its Garuda Frequent Flyer (GFF) with a new look, benefits and services. The new program allows members to earn miles on domestic and international flights and has four tiers of membership covering GFF Junior, Blue, Silver, Gold, and Platinum status levels. Since June 2011 Garuda Indonesia launched a joint frequent flyer program with Korean Air. Members of the Garuda Frequent Flyer (GFF) program and Korean Air’s SkyPass program will benefit from the cooperation by accruing mileage for flying both Korean Air and Garuda or any Garuda–Korean Air code share flights.
From 27 March 2014, due to joining SkyTeam, Garuda Indonesia announced that Garuda Frequent Flyer renamed as GarudaMiles. Currently, GFF Gold and Platinum members whose membership expires in February, are being sent their new card under GarudaMiles, with other GFF members following soon. Before joining SkyTeam, GFF members could earn/redeem their miles with (besides Garuda & Citilink) Korean Air, Etihad Airways, Air France-KLM (Flying Blue), and Jet Airways. They do also operated another Frequent Flyer which is Flying Blue since 2015.
The Garuda Executive Lounge is open to passengers travelling in Executive Class, as well as those holding a Gold or Platinum Garuda Frequent Flyer card. Starting in 2011, passengers with an Executive Card Plus card or Garuda Indonesia Citibank credit card can no longer gain access to the lounge. Lounges are located at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport and throughout Indonesia, offering food and drinks, wireless internet, showers, meeting rooms and business services.
Garuda Indonesia was the official sponsor of the 2011 Southeast Asian Games and 2018 Asian Games. Garuda Indonesia also support the "Wonderful Indonesia" tourism campaign by placing the "Wonderful Indonesia" logo in their promotion materials as well as on the hull of their fleet.
In July 2012, Garuda Indonesia signed a 3-year sponsorship deal with Premier League club Liverpool FC. The agreement gives Garuda Indonesia the right to be the Official Partner of Liverpool Football Club and the Official Global Airline Partner of Liverpool Football Club. In addition, a six-minute advertisement video of Garuda Indonesia will be broadcast during matches held at the Liverpool FC home ground, Anfield, for the 2012-2014 season.
In 2010, the Center for Asia-Pacific Aviation (CAPA) named Garuda Indonesia as Asia's leading service quality airline. Skytrax awarded the airline the World's Most Improved in 2012. This is the beginning of a string of accolades recognizing the success of the airline Quantum Leap program. Roy Morgan survey named Garuda Indonesia the Best International Airline surpassing several distinguished airlines, such as: Singapore Airlines, Emirates and Air New Zealand with 91% of respondents gave a 'very satisfied' rating. The airline achieved Platinum level recognition from the League of American Communications Professionals (LACP) on its annual report. In July 2012, Garuda Indonesia was recognized as the World’s Best Regional Airline by the global airline review and ranking consultancy, Skytrax.
In 2013, Skytrax awarded Garuda Indonesia the world's best economy class for its service and product at the Paris Airshow 2013. For the first time, Garuda Indonesia ranked 8th in the Skytrax "The World’s Top 10 Airlines". During the "Passenger Choice Award 2013" held in September 2013 in Anaheim, California, organized by "Airline Passenger Experience Association (APEX)", Garuda Indonesia was distinguished as the "Best in Region: Asia and Australasia".
In July 2014, Skytrax awarded Garuda Indonesia "The World’s Best Cabin Staff" recognition. The award was based on a global customer satisfaction survey conducted on 18 million passengers between the period of August 2013 and May 2014. The recently launched First Class, on Boeing 777-300ER, was ranked the 9th world's best first class, the 6th world's best first class seat, and the 3rd world's best first class amenity kits by Skytrax in 2014. Overall, Garuda Indonesia was ranked 7th on the 2014 Skytrax "Best Airlines Awards", an improvement from the 8th position in 2013.
In September 2014, APEX (Airline Passenger Experience Association) awarded Garuda Indonesia as "Best Airline in Asia & Australasia" at the 2014 Passenger Choice Award; along with Cathay Pacific, EVA Air, Korean Air, and Singapore Airlines. In the same month, Garuda Indonesia also got Gold Award from the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), for their immigration on board (IOB) service and their service quality and it is called as "Garuda Indonesia Experience".
In December 2014, Garuda Indonesia was awarded as a "5-Star Airline" by Skytrax; along with Singapore Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Qatar Airways, Hainan Airlines, Asiana Airlines, and All Nippon Airways.
In June 2015, Garuda Indonesia was awarded with "The World's Best Cabin Crew" by Skytrax for the second time.
In July 2016, Garuda Indonesia was awarded with "The World's Best Cabin Crew" by Skytrax for the third consecutive year.
In August 2016, the airlines was awarded by Sktrax as "The Most Loved Airline", with score of 85% customer satisfaction.
For most of modern Indonesian history, Garuda Indonesia has dominated the Indonesian air travel market share. However, started in 2000, Lion Air started to grow and become a serious rival in domestic air travel in Indonesia. By mid 2015, Lion Air rules Indonesia's domestic air travel market share by 41.6 percent, while Garuda Indonesia came in second with 23.5 percent share. Sriwijaya Air came in third with a market share of 10.4 percent, followed by Garuda's low-cost subsidiary Citilink (8.9 percent) and Lion Air's regional flight service Wings Air (4.7 percent). Indonesia AirAsia, a unit of the Malaysian budget airline, had a 4.4 percent market share.
Overall, Indonesian domestic air travel business is overwhelmingly ruled by two groups; Lion Air group and Garuda Indonesia group. By mid 2015, Lion Air group accounted for 43.17 percent of market share, while Garuda Indonesia group had a 37.08 percent market share.
For international routes, Garuda Indonesia has identified four airlines that became the benchmark to improve their service and to compete to be the world's best airline. The serious rivals for Garuda Indonesia's international routes are Singapore Airlines, Qatar Airways, Emirates and Cathay Pacific.
Incidents and accidents
- On 3 February 1961, a Douglas DC-3 operating flight 542 went missing while flying over the Java Sea. All 5 crew and 21 passengers on board were believed to have perished.
- On 16 February 1967, Garuda Indonesia Flight 708 crashed on landing at Manado, capital of the North Sulawesi province, killing 22 out of 84 passengers.
- On 28 May 1968, a Convair 990 bound for Karachi, Pakistan crashed into the sea shortly after taking off from Bombay Santa Cruz airport. All 29 people on board (15 passengers and 14 crew members) died. In addition, there was one casualty on the ground.
- On 7 September 1974, a Fokker F-27 crashed on approach to Tanjung Karang-Branti Airport. The aircraft crashed short of the runway while on approach in limited visibility . The aircraft eventually struck buildings near the runway and caught fire. 33 out of 36 people on board perished.
- On 24 September 1975, Garuda Indonesia Flight 150 crashed on approach to Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Airport. The accident, which was attributed to poor weather and fog, killed 25 out of 61 passengers and one person on the ground.
- On 11 July 1979, a Fokker F-28 on a domestic flight hit a volcano on approach to Medan Airport, Indonesia. All 61 people on board were killed.
- On 28 March 1981, Garuda Indonesia Flight 206, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, PK-GNJ "Woyla", was hijacked on a domestic flight from Palembang to Medan by five heavily armed hijackers. The hijackers diverted the flight to Penang, and then to Bangkok. The hijackers demanded the release of 84 political prisoners in Indonesia. On the third day of the hijacking (31 March 1981) the airplane parked in Bangkok Don Muang International Airport was stormed by Indonesian commandos One of the commandos was shot, probably by his comrades, as was the pilot, also probably by Indonesian commandos. The rest of the hostages were released unharmed. Two of the hijackers surrendered to the Thai commandos, but they were killed by the Indonesian commandos on the plane taking them back to Jakarta.
- On 20 March 1982, a Fokker F-28 on a domestic flight overran the runway at Tanjung Karang-Branti Airport in bad weather. The aircraft subsequently burst into flames killing all 27 people on board.
- On 30 December 1984, a DC-9-30 on a domestic flight touched down 1800m down the runway and overran through a ditch, trees and a fence at Ngurah Rai International Airport. The aircraft broke in 3 and caught fire.
- On 4 April 1987, Garuda Indonesia Flight 035 hit a pylon and crashed on approach to Polonia International Airport in bad weather. 24 people were killed.
- On 13 June 1996, Garuda Indonesia Flight 865 overran the runway at Fukuoka Airport, Japan after aborting takeoff well above rotation speed. The number-3 engine fuel line was severed, resulting in a massive fire and the total destruction of the rear end of the aircraft. Three of the 275 people on board were killed.
- On 26 September 1997, Garuda Indonesia Flight 152, an Airbus A300B4-220 flying from Jakarta to Medan, crashed in Sibolangit, 18 miles (29 km) short of Medan airport in low visibility, killing all 234 people on board. It is the deadliest aviation incident in Indonesia.
- On 16 January 2002, Garuda Indonesia Flight 421 en route from Lombok to Yogyakarta was forced to make an emergency landing in poor weather on the Solo River, due to an engine flameout caused by water and hail ingestion. One person, a stewardess, was killed in the accident.
- On 7 September 2004, human rights activist Munir Said Thalib was murdered on Garuda Indonesia Flight 974, bound for Amsterdam. Garuda's CEO at the time, Indra Setiawan, his deputy Rohainil Aini, and pilot Pollycarpus Priyanto were all convicted of his murder. Garuda was found negligent in refusing to perform an emergency landing and was ordered to pay compensation to Munir's widow, but failed to do so.
- On 7 March 2007, Garuda Indonesia Flight 200, a Boeing 737-400 flying from Jakarta to Yogyakarta, crashed and burst into flames on landing at Adisucipto International Airport, Yogyakarta. 21 people were killed.
- Tourism in Indonesia
- Aviation in Indonesia
- List of airlines of Indonesia
- List of airports in Indonesia
- List of companies of Indonesia
- Transport in Indonesia
- "Contact Us". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- "Garuda Indonesia is to be confirmed as the world's newest 5-Star Airline". Skytrax. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "Garuda Indonesia Corporate Profile". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "1995/96: Garuda Indonesia International Network". airlineroute.net.
- Spaeth, Anthony (6 December 2004). "Death in Flight 974: Who was responsible for the poisoning of one of Indonesia's bravest human rights advocates?". Time: 28.
- "Citilink officially separates from Garuda today". The Jakarta Post. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Casius, Gerard; Postma, Thijs (1986). 40 jaar luchtvaart in Indië (in Dutch). Alkmaar. ISBN 9060139445.
- Monument Ri Seulawah Archived 9 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- "About Garuda Indonesia". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "About". garuda-indonesia.com.
- "Reyn Altin Johannes Lumenta", Apa dan Siapa (What and Who), Pusat Data dan Analisa (Centre of Data and Analysis), Tempo Indonesia
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 28 April 1979. 1377.
- "Aviation reports news and data on a single platform". Flightglobal.com.
- "WikiLeaks US Cables Point to BIN Role in Munir Murder".
- "Pilot guilty of activist murder". BBC. 25 January 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Denied letter, activists to push to reopen Munir case". Jakarta Post. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Judicial Commission tells Garuda to pay". Jakarta Post. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Court summons Garuda over Munir death compensation". Jakarta Post. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Garuda Indonesia – Company History. Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- Clark, Nicola (28 June 2007). "EU set to ban flights of Indonesia carriers". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- "Indonesian carriers banned from EU". United Press International. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- "EU to audit Indonesian airlines with focus on safety, procedures". thejakartapost.com.
- "e-Travel Blackboard". e-Travel Blackboard. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Indonesian president delays European visit after flight ban: Asia World". Earthtimes.org. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Sukarsono, Achmad. (15 July 2009) Garuda Indonesia May Fly to Europe After EU Lifts Ban (Update2). Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- As Ban Is Lifted, Garuda Launches Expansion Plan | Embassy of Indonesia Ottawa. Indonesia-ottawa.org (15 July 2009). Retrieved 25 November 2010. Archived 13 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Garuda to fly into India". Business Line. 29 July 2003. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- ""Quantum Leap" planned for post-EU ban Garuda". eTurbo News. 23 July 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
- Primastuti Handayani (6 March 2010). "Garuda says Schipol first step to 'Quantum Leap'". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
- http://www.btimes.com.my/Current_News/BTIMES/articles/garudaleap/Article/. Retrieved 1 August 2009. Missing or empty
- Progam [sic] "Quantum Leap", Garuda Kejar Laba Rp 3,7 Triliun – KOMPAS.com. Bisniskeuangan.kompas.com. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- Quantum Leap Ekspansi Agresif Garuda Indonesia. Mediaindonesia.com (23 February 2009). Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- Garuda Indonesia revitalises (Updated) – Business Traveller Asia. Asia.businesstraveller.com (23 July 2009). Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- "The man who turned Garuda around" The Malaysian Insider 26 August 2009
- Garuda Indonesia | Refresh | Indonesia – The Work – Creativity – Campaign Asia-Pacific. Brand Republic.asia (28 July 2009). Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- Fresh look. The Jakarta Post (29 May 2010). Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- "FARNBOROUGH: Garuda orders six A330s". Retrieved 21 July 2010.
- "Garuda to open third hub in Makassar". The Jakarta Post. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Garuda, Sriwijaya ink purchase deals in Paris". The Jakarta Post. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Garuda Indonesia finalises order for 25 A320 Family aircraft Citilink A320neo – INTERNATIONAL AVIATION NEWS". Aviationnews.eu. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Garuda IPO Lost Altitude on Poor Planning, Analyst Says". Jakarta Globe. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Trans Airways buys 10.9% stake in Garuda". 28 April 2012.
- "Garuda Indonesia is to be confirmed as the world's newest 5-Star Airline". Airlinequality.com. 11 December 2014.
- "Garuda Indonesia unveils 'Quick Wins' cost-cutting drive".
- "Paris Air Show spending spree begins with big Garuda order". The Independent.
- "Asia's leading airline industry gathering - Aviation Outlook Asia 2014". terrapinn.com.
- "Garuda Indonesia". Landor Associates. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- "Organization & Group." Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 22 June 2009. "Having a Head Office at the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport," Archived 26 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Soekarno-Hatta must be expanded to meet passenger demand." The Jakarta Post. Wednesday 1 September 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010. "In this August, 2010 file photo passengers crowd the domestic terminal at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, Banten."
- "Garuda Indonesia Head Office." Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 6 June 2013. "Jl. M1. Area Perkantoran Gedung Garuda City Center, Soekarno-Hatta Internasional Airport Cengkareng 19120-Indonesia P.O.Box 1004"
- "PRESIDENT SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO OFFICIALLY OPENS NEW HEAD OFFICE AND THE UNVEILING OF NEW GARUDA INDONESIA CONCEPT OF SERVICE." Garuda Indonesia. Thursday 23 July 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 3–9 April 1996. 60. "jl Merdeka Selatan 13, Jakarta 10110, Indonesia"
- "Detail News." Garuda Indonesia. 11 October 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2010. "The Auction Committee PT. Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Gedung Garuda Indonesia, M Floor, Jl. Medan Merdeka Selatan 13, Jakarta Pusat, "
- "UPDATE 1-Garuda $500 mln IPO kicks off busy yr in Indonesia". Reuters. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "UPDATE 1-Garuda Indonesia IPO to raise $526 mln, retail may lift debut". Reuters. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Garuda Indonesia". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Garuda Indonesia". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Garuda Buys Stake in Gapura Angkasa to Become Majority Owner". The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Garuda Indonesia Incar Tiga Rute Internasional Baru | Indo-Aviation | Aviation News Portal". Indo-Aviation. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- Indonesia's Garuda airline to return to Europe next year. The Nation (Thailand).com (12 November 2009). Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- Majumdar, Anne (17 October 2012). "Garuda to codeshare with Etihad". Travel Weekly. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "Garuda Indonesia The Airline of Indonesia". Garuda-indonesia.com. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Garuda launches Jakarta-London service". The Jakarta. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- JL (2014-03-17). "Garuda Indonesia S14 European Operation Changes". Airline Route. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Garuda Indonesia ends 2011 flying high". 13 January 2012.
- "Garuda Indonesia Becomes 20th Member of SkyTeam" (Press release). SkyTeam. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- "Aeromexico Announces codeshare agreement with Garuda Indonesia". Aviation Tribune. October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
- "Air Europa / Garuda Indonesia launches codeshare service from Aug 2016". airlineroute. 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2016-08-04.
- "Garuda Indonesia Fokus Kembangkan Pasar Penerbangan di China | Indo-Aviation | Aviation News Portal". Indo-Aviation. 2014-03-15. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Garuda Indonesia Signs Code Share Deal with Myanmar Airways International". nz.finance.yahoo.com. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
- "Oman Air Partners with Garuda for New Codeshare Agreement". AviationPros.com.
- Garuda Indonesia-News Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- MICEBTN Archived 11 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Blackboard news". Etravelblackboard.com. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Etihad & Garuda Berbagi Rute ke Eropa, Timur Tengah, dan Australia". 26 February 2013.
- "Garuda Indonesia & Aeromexico poised to become first Southeast Asia-Latin America codeshare partner | CAPA". Centre for Aviation. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- "Jet Airways signs codeshare pact with Garuda Indonesia | News". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
- Friday, 25 April 2014 (2013-12-19). "ANA and Garuda Indonesia announce comprehensive partnership pact". Business Standard. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Garuda Indonesia Becomes 20th Member of SkyTeam Alliance". Skyteam. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- "SkyTeam welcomes Garuda Indonesia as its 20th member". eTurboNews.com. 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Client Base".
- "ATR 72-600 Garuda Indonesia Terbang Perdana ke Labuan Bajo dan Bima".
- "Garuda Indonesia Orders MAX 8s". Airliner World: 17. December 2014.
- "Orders Announced On Day 1 Of The Paris Air Show".
- "Garuda Indonesia Fleet structure" (PDF).
- "Garuda Indonesia Fleet Details and History". Planespotters.net. 3 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
- "Fleet Revitalization - Garuda Indonesia".
- "Boeing, Garuda Indonesia Announce The Airline's Intent To Purchase 30 787-9s And Up To 30 737 MAX 8s". garuda-indonesia.com.
- "Garuda to open China-Indonesia chartered flights". www.antaranews.com. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- "Empat Boeing 777-300ER Garuda Akan Dikonfigurasi Dalam Dua Kelas". Indo-Aviation.com.
- "Garuda Indonesia". Garuda Indonesia. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Garuda PK-GIB (McDonnell Douglas DC-10 - MSN 46919) | Airfleets aviation". www.airfleets.net. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- "Terbang Bersama Pesawat Garuda A330 Bisa Terhubung WiFi". 19 December 2013.
- "Garuda Indonesia". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Yuk, Jajal Layanan First Class Garuda Indonesia". 3 July 2013.
- "The First Class Experience With Garuda Indonesia". Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- "Fleet Revitalization". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- Flynn, David (2 February 2016). "Garuda gets new business class for Airbus A330s". Australian Business Traveller. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- New TV Commercial : Discover our Signature In-flight Service with Revitalized Fleet Archived 16 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Bondan Winarno - detikFood. "Rijsttafel di".
- "In-flight Entertainment". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "In-Flight Service". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "In-Flight Connectivity". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Immigration on Board". Garuda Indonesia. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Flight test: Garuda's onboard immigration service - Flights | hotels | frequent flyer | business class - Australian Business Traveller". Ausbt.com.au. 2013-09-04. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Garuda Indonesia targets online sales". The Jakarta Post. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Garuda, BII ink deal on online payment". The Jakarta Post. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- detikcom: Penjelasan Pengenaan Biaya Garuda Free Flight. Suarapembaca.detik.com (3 September 2008). Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- "Garuda teams with Korean Air on frequent flyer program". Jakarta Post. 27 June 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Beranda". GarudaMiles. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Layanan "GarudaMiles" Resmi Diluncurkan Garuda Indonesia | Indo-Aviation | Aviation News Portal". Indo-Aviation. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- Roy Adi. "Beranda » GarudaMiles". Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Garuda Frequent Flyer". Gff.garuda-indonesia.com. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- Garuda on the ground Archived 4 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Garuda Indonesia Dukung "Wonderful Indonesia"" (in Indonesian). Kompas.com. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Garuda forms partnership with Liverpool FC". 11 July 2012.
- "Garuda Indonesia signs with LFC". Liverpool FC. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "March 6, 2012 - Garuda named "best airline in the world"".
- "Garuda Indonesia Sabet Platinum LACP AS". 27 April 2012.
- Nurfika Osman (12 July 2012). "Garuda named world's best regional airline by Skytrax". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- Melvin Winata (23 July 2014). "Garuda Indonesia Awarded "The World's Best Cabin Staff" by Skytrax at the Farnborough International Airshow".
- ri-Maular lar (16 July 2014). "Garuda Achieves Best Cabin Crew Award".
- "Current Award Winners". apex.aero. Airline Passenger Experience Association. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Garuda named "best airline in Australasia" for second successive year". 19 September 2014.
- Eris Estrada (29 December 2014). "AirAsia dan MAS Anjlok, Ini Daftar Pesawat Terbaik World Airline".
- "Garuda Indonesia Cabin Crew Once Again Voted World's Best Cabin Crew 2015". ACN news wire. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Garuda Indonesia Awarded the World's Best Cabin Crew for the Third Consecutive Year". July 14, 2016.
- "The Most Loved Airlines on Skytrax". Skytrax. 8 August 2016.
- Safyra Primadhyta & Gentur Putro Jati (2015-06-04). "Garuda Indonesia Gerus Pangsa Pasar Penumpang Domestik Lion". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian).
- "Empat Maskapai Ini Dianggap Sebagai Pesaing Utama Garuda Indonesia". indo-aviation.com (in Indonesian).
- "Accident description". Aviation Saftety Network. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- Conboy, Ken (2004). Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces. Equinox Publishing. pp. 277–278. ISBN 9799589886.
- "Hijacking description : Saturday, 28 March 1981". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
-  Aviation-Safety Net
-  Aviation-Safety Net
- Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
- "Air Disasters – 1996 Crash". Airdisaster.com. 13 June 1996. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Air Disasters – 1997 Crash". Airdisaster.com. 26 September 1997. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Air Disasters – 2002 Crash". Airdisaster.com. 16 January 2002. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Daily Telegraph March 2007 Crash Archived 1 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Garuda Indonesia.|