|29th Governor of New Mexico|
January 1, 1995 – January 1, 2003
|Preceded by||Bruce King|
|Succeeded by||Bill Richardson|
|Born||Gary Earl Johnson
January 1, 1953
Minot, North Dakota, U.S.
|Political party||Libertarian (2011–present)|
|Republican (before 2011)|
(m. 1977; div. 2005)
|Domestic partner||Kate Prusack (engaged 2009)|
|Alma mater||University of New Mexico, Albuquerque|
Governor of New Mexico
Gary Earl Johnson (born January 1, 1953) is an American businessman, author, and politician. He was the 29th Governor of New Mexico from 1995 to 2003 as a member of the Republican Party. He was also the Libertarian Party nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 and 2016 elections.
Johnson founded one of New Mexico's largest construction companies. He entered politics for the first time by running for Governor of New Mexico in 1994 on a low-tax, anti-crime platform, promising a 'common sense business approach'. He beat incumbent Democratic governor Bruce King by 50% to 40%. He cut the 10% annual growth in the budget, in part due to his use of the gubernatorial veto 200 times during his first six months.
Johnson sought re-election in 1998, winning by 55% to 45%. In his second term, he concentrated on the issue of school voucher reforms as well as campaigning for cannabis decriminalization. During his tenure as governor, Johnson adhered to an anti-tax policy, setting state and national records for the number of times he used his veto power: more than the other 49 contemporary governors put together. Term-limited, Johnson retired from front-line politics in 2003.
Johnson ran for president in 2012, initially as a Republican on a libertarian platform emphasizing the United States public debt and a balanced budget, protection of civil liberties, military non-interventionism, replacement of income tax with the FairTax, and opposition to the War on Drugs. In December 2011, he withdrew his candidacy for the Republican nomination and stood for the Libertarian nomination instead, winning the nomination in May 2012. Johnson received 1.3 million votes (0.99%), more than all other minor candidates combined.
Johnson ran again in 2016, winning the Libertarian nomination and naming former Republican Governor of Massachusetts William Weld as his running mate. Johnson received 4.4 million votes (roughly 3.3% of the total vote), which is most for a third party presidential candidate since 1996 and the highest national vote share for a Libertarian nominee in history.
- 1 Early life and career
- 2 Governor of New Mexico
- 3 2012 presidential campaign
- 4 2012–2016
- 5 2016 presidential campaign
- 6 Political positions
- 7 Personal life
- 8 Electoral history
- 9 Books
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Early life and career
Johnson was born on January 1, 1953, in Minot, North Dakota, the son of Lorraine B. (née Bostow), who worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and Earl W. Johnson, a public school teacher. In 1971, Johnson graduated from Sandia High School in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where he was on the school track team. He attended the University of New Mexico from 1971 to 1975 and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in political science. While at UNM, he joined the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. It was there that he met his future wife, Denise "Dee" Simms.
While in college, Johnson earned money as a door-to-door handyman. His success in that industry encouraged him to start his own business, Big J Enterprises, in 1976. When he started the business, which focused on mechanical contracting, Johnson was its only employee. His firm's major break came when he received a large contract from Intel's expansion in Rio Rancho, which increased Big J's revenue to $38 million.
To cope with the growth of the company, Johnson enrolled in a time management course at night school, which he credits with making him heavily goal driven. He eventually grew Big J into a multimillion-dollar corporation with over 1,000 employees. By the time he sold the company in 1999, it was one of New Mexico's leading construction companies.
Governor of New Mexico
Johnson entered politics in 1994 with the intention of running for governor and was advised by "Republican Elders" to run for the State Legislature instead. Despite their advice, Johnson spent $500,000 of his own money and entered the race with the intent of bringing a "common sense business approach" to the office. Johnson's campaign slogan was "People before Politics". His platform emphasized tax cuts, job creation, state government spending growth restraint, and law and order. He won the Republican nomination, defeating state legislator Richard P. Cheney by 34% to 33%, with John Dendahl and former governor David F. Cargo in third and fourth. Johnson subsequently won a plurality in the three-way general election, defeating the incumbent Governor Bruce King (a relatively conservative Democrat) and the former Lieutenant Governor Roberto Mondragón (who ran as a Green) with just under 50% of the vote. Johnson was elected in a nationally Republican year, although party registration in the state of New Mexico at the time was 2-to-1 Democratic.
As governor, Johnson followed a strict small-government approach. According to former New Mexico Republican National Committee member Mickey D. Barnett, "Any time someone approached him about legislation for some purpose, his first response always was to ask if government should be involved in that to begin with." He vetoed 200 of 424 bills passed in his first six months in office—a national record of 47% of all legislation—and used the line-item veto on most remaining bills. In office, Johnson fulfilled his campaign promise to reduce the 10% annual growth of the state budget. In his first budget, Johnson proposed a wide range of tax cuts, including a repeal of the prescription drug tax, a $47 million income tax cut, and a 6-cents-per-gallon gasoline tax cut. However, of these, only the gasoline tax cut was passed. During the November 1995 federal government shutdown, he joined 20 other Republican governors who called on the Republican leadership in Congress to stand firm against the Clinton administration in budget negotiations; in the article reporting on the letter and concomitant news conference he was quoted as calling for eliminating the budget deficit through proportional cuts across the budget. Although Johnson worked to reduce overall state spending, in his first term he raised education spending by nearly a third. When drop-out rates and test scores showed little improvement, Johnson changed his tactics and began advocating school vouchers—a key issue in budget battles of his second term as governor.
In 1998, Johnson ran for re-election as governor against Democratic Albuquerque Mayor Martin Chávez. In his campaign, Johnson promised to continue the policies of his first term: improving schools; cutting state spending, taxes, and bureaucracy; and frequent use of his veto and line-item veto power. Fielding a strong Hispanic candidate in a 40% Hispanic state, the Democrats were expected to oust Johnson, but Johnson won by a margin of 55% to 45%, making him the first governor of New Mexico to serve two successive four-year terms after term limits were expanded to two terms in 1991. Johnson made the promotion of a school voucher system a "hallmark issue" of his second term. In 1999, he proposed the first statewide voucher system in America, which would have enrolled 100,000 students in its first year.
That year, he vetoed two budgets that failed to include a voucher program and a government shutdown was threatened, but ultimately yielded to Democratic majorities in both houses of the New Mexico Legislature, who opposed the plan. Johnson signed the budget, but line-item vetoed a further $21 million, or 0.5%, from the legislative plan. In 1999, Johnson became one of the highest-ranking elected officials in the US to advocate the legalization of marijuana. Saying the War on Drugs was "an expensive bust", he advocated the decriminalization of marijuana use and concentration on harm-reduction measures for all other illegal drugs. He compared attempts to enforce the nation's drug laws with the failed attempt at alcohol prohibition. In remarks in 2011, he noted: "Half of what government spends on police, courts and prisons is to deal with drug offenders." He suggested that drug abuse be treated as a health issue, not as a criminal issue. His approach to the issue garnered supportive notice from conservative icon William F. Buckley, as well as the Cato Institute and Rolling Stone.
In 2000, Johnson proposed a more ambitious voucher program than he had proposed the year before, under which each parent would receive $3,500 per child for education at any private or parochial school. The Democrats sought $90m extra school funding without school vouchers, and questioned Johnson's request for more funding for state-run prisons, having opposed his opening of two private prisons. Negotiations between the governor and the legislature were contentious, again nearly leading to a government shutdown. In 2000, New Mexico was devastated by the Cerro Grande Fire. Johnson's handling of the disaster earned him accolades from The Denver Post, which observed that:
Johnson.....was all over the Cerro Grande Fire last week. He helped reporters understand where the fire was headed when low-level Forest Service officials couldn't, ran herd over the bureaucratic process of getting state and federal agencies and the National Guard involved, and even helped put out some of the fire with his feet. On a tour of Los Alamos last Wednesday, when he saw small flames spreading across a lawn, he had his driver stop his car. He jumped out and stomped on the flames, as did his wife and some of his staffers.
Johnson's leadership during the fire was praised by Democratic Congressman Tom Udall, who said: "I think the real test of leadership is when you have circumstances like this. He's called on his reserves of energy and has just been a really excellent leader under very difficult circumstances here." Johnson rebuffed efforts by the Libertarian Party to draft him in the 2000 presidential election, stating himself to be a Republican with no interest in running for president.
According to anonymous sources, Governor Johnson was known for a lack of interest in policy details and those who worked with Johnson at the time "recall a chief executive who would speed through meetings and often preferred to discuss his fitness routine than focus on the minutiae of policymaking." In his first term, he frequently clashed with the legislature, but in the second term, he "became more comfortable with the limits of his executive power" and took a more conciliatory approach.
Commentator Andrew Sullivan quoted a claim that Johnson "is highly regarded in the state for his outstanding leadership during two terms as governor. He slashed the size of state government during his term and left the state with a large budget surplus." In an interview in Reason magazine in January 2001, Johnson's accomplishments in office were described as follows: "no tax increases in six years, a major road building program, shifting Medicaid to managed care, constructing two new private prisons, canning 1,200 state employees, and vetoing a record number of bills." According to one New Mexico paper, "Johnson left the state fiscally solid" and was "arguably the most popular governor of the decade… leaving the state with a $1 billion budget surplus." The Washington Times reported that when Johnson left office, "the size of state government had been substantially reduced and New Mexico was enjoying a large budget surplus."
According to a profile of Johnson in the National Review, "During his tenure, he vetoed more bills than the other 49 governors combined—750 in total, one third of which had been introduced by Republican legislators. Johnson also used his line-item-veto power thousands of times. He credits his heavy veto pen for eliminating New Mexico's budget deficit and cutting the growth rate of New Mexico's government in half." According to the Myrtle Beach Sun News, Johnson "said his numerous vetoes, only two of which were overridden, stemmed from his philosophy of looking at all things for their cost–benefit ratio and his axe fell on Republicans as well as Democrats."
While in office, Johnson was criticized for opposing funding for an independent study of private prisons after a series of riots and killings at the facilities. Martin Chavez, his opponent in the 1998 New Mexico gubernatorial race, criticized Johnson for his frequent vetoing of programs, suggesting that it resulted in New Mexico's low economic and social standing nationally. Journalist Mark Ames described Johnson as "a hard-core conservative" who "ruled the state like a right-wing authoritarian" and only embraced marijuana legalization in his second term for populist gain. This was mainly in reference to a commercial from Johnson's reelection campaign featuring Johnson saying that a felon in New Mexico would serve "every lousy second" of their prison sentence. Johnson insisted, however, that the commercial was directed at "the guy who's got his gun out" rather than nonviolent drug offenders.
Johnson was term limited and could not run for a third consecutive term as governor in 2002. In the 2008 presidential election campaign, Johnson endorsed Ron Paul for the Republican nomination, "because of his commitment to less government, greater liberty, and lasting prosperity for America." Johnson spoke at Paul's "Rally for the Republic" on September 2, 2008.
As of April 2011[update], he serves on the board of directors of Students For Liberty, a nonprofit libertarian organization. His first book, Seven Principles of Good Government, was published on August 1, 2012.
2012 presidential campaign
In 2009, Johnson began indicating interest in running for president in the 2012 election. In the April 20, 2009 edition of The American Conservative magazine, Bill Kauffman told readers to "keep an eye out" for a Johnson presidential campaign in 2012, reporting that Johnson had told him that "he was keeping his options open for 2012" and that "he may take a shot at the Republican presidential nomination in 2012 as an antiwar, anti-Fed, pro-personal liberties, slash-government-spending candidate—in other words, a Ron Paul libertarian". During a June 24, 2009 appearance on Fox News's Freedom Watch, host Judge Andrew Napolitano asked Johnson if he would run for president in 2012, to which Johnson responded that he thought it would be inappropriate to openly express his desires before President Obama is given the opportunity to prove himself, but he followed up that statement by saying "it appears personal freedoms are being shoveled out the window more and more."
In an October 26, 2009, interview with the Santa Fe New Mexican's Steve Terrell, Johnson announced his decision to form an advocacy committee called the Our America Initiative to help him raise funds and promote small government ideas. In December 2009, Johnson asked strategist Ron Nielson of NSON Opinion Strategy, who has worked with Johnson since 1993 when he ran his successful gubernatorial campaign, to organize the Our American Initiative as a 501(c)(4) committee. Nielson serves as a senior advisor to Our America Initiative. The stated focus of the organization is to "speak out on issues regarding topics such as government efficiency, lowering taxes, ending the war on drugs, protecting civil liberties, revitalizing the economy and promoting entrepreneurship and privatization". The move prompted speculation among media pundits and Johnson's supporters that he might be laying the groundwork for a 2012 presidential run. Throughout 2010, Johnson repeatedly deflected questions about a 2012 presidential bid by saying his 501(c)(4) status prevented him from expressing a desire to run for federal office on politics. However, he was outspoken about the issues affecting the country, particularly "the size and cost of government" and the "deficits and debt that truly threaten to consume the U.S. economy, and which represent the single greatest threat to our national security."
In February 2011, Johnson was a featured speaker at both the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) and the Republican Liberty Caucus. At CPAC, "the crowd liked him—even as he pushed some of his more controversial points." Johnson tied with New Jersey Governor Chris Christie for third in the CPAC Straw Poll, trailing only Ron Paul and Mitt Romney (and ahead of such notables as former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, former Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty, Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels and former Alaska Governor and 2008 vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin). David Weigel of Slate called Johnson the second-biggest winner of the conference, writing that his "third-place showing in the straw poll gave Johnson his first real media hook … He met tons of reporters, commanded a small scrum after the vote, and is a slightly lighter shade of dark horse now."
Republican presidential candidacy
On April 21, 2011 Johnson announced via Twitter, "I am running for president." He followed this announcement with a speech at the New Hampshire State House in Concord, New Hampshire. He was the first of an eventually large field to announce his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination. Johnson again chose Ron Nielson of NSON Opinion Strategy a director for both of his New Mexico gubernatorial campaigns, as his presidential campaign manager and senior advisor. The campaign was headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, where Nielson's offices are located. Johnson's economics advisor was Harvard economics professor Jeffrey Miron. Initially, Johnson hoped Ron Paul would not run for president so that Johnson could galvanize Paul's network of libertarian-minded voters, and he even traveled to Houston to tell Paul of his decision to run in person, but Paul announced his candidacy on May 13, 2011.
Johnson participated in the first of the Republican presidential debates, hosted by Fox News in South Carolina on May 5, 2011, appearing on stage with Herman Cain, Ron Paul, Tim Pawlenty, and Rick Santorum. Mitt Romney and Michele Bachmann both declined to debate. Johnson was excluded from the next three debates on June 13 (hosted by CNN in New Hampshire), August 11 (hosted by Fox News in Iowa), and September 7 (hosted by CNN in California). After the first exclusion, Johnson made a 43-minute video responding to each of the debate questions, which he posted on YouTube. The first exclusion, which was widely publicized, gave Johnson "a little bump" in name recognition and produced "a small uptick" in donations. But "the long term consequences were dismal." For the financial quarter ending June 30, Johnson raised a mere $180,000. Fox News decided that because Johnson polled at least 2% in five recent polls, he could participate in a September 22 debate in Florida, which it co-hosted with the Florida Republican Party (the party objected to Johnson's inclusion). Johnson participated, appearing on stage with Michele Bachmann, Herman Cain, Newt Gingrich, Jon Huntsman, Ron Paul, Rick Perry, Mitt Romney, and Rick Santorum. During the debate, Johnson delivered what many media outlets, including the Los Angeles Times, and Time, called the best line of the night: "My next-door neighbor's two dogs have created more shovel ready jobs than this administration." Entertainment Weekly opined that Johnson had won the debate.
Libertarian presidential nomination and campaign
Although Johnson had focused the majority of his campaign activities on the New Hampshire primary, he announced on November 29, 2011 that he would no longer campaign there due to his inability to gain traction with less than a month until the primary. There was speculation in the media that he might run as a Libertarian Party candidate instead. Johnson acknowledged that he was considering such a move. In December, Politico reported that Johnson would quit the Republican primaries and announce his intention to seek the Libertarian Party nomination at a December 28 press conference. He also encouraged his supporters to vote for Ron Paul in 2012 Republican presidential primaries.
On December 28, 2011, Johnson formally withdrew his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination, and declared his candidacy for the 2012 presidential nomination of the Libertarian Party in Santa Fe, New Mexico. On May 5, 2012, at the 2012 Libertarian National Convention, Johnson received the Libertarian Party's official nomination for president in the 2012 election, by a vote of 419 votes to 152 votes for second-place candidate R. Lee Wrights. In his acceptance speech, Johnson asked the convention's delegates to nominate as his running mate Judge Jim Gray of California. Gray subsequently received the party's vice-presidential nomination on the first ballot.
Johnson spent the early months of his campaign making media appearances on television programs such as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and Red Eye w/Greg Gutfeld. Starting in September 2012, Johnson embarked on a three-week tour of college campuses throughout the US. On October 23, 2012, Gary Johnson participated in a third-party debate that was aired on C-SPAN, RT America, and Al Jazeera English. A post-debate online election allowed people to choose two candidates from the debate they thought had won to face each other head to head in a run-off debate. Gary Johnson and Jill Stein won the poll. They debated in Washington, D.C., on November 5, 2012.
Johnson stated that his goal was to win at least 5 percent of the vote, as winning 5 percent would allow Libertarian Party candidates equal ballot access and federal funding during the next election cycle. In a national Gallup poll of likely registered voters conducted June 7 through June 10, 2012, Johnson took 3% of the vote, while a Gallup poll conducted September 6 through September 9, 2012, showed Johnson taking 1% of likely voters.
The final results showed Johnson received 0.99% of the popular vote, a total of 1,275,971 votes. This was the best result in the Libertarian Party's history by raw vote number, though under the 1.1 percentage of the vote won by Ed Clark in 1980. Despite falling short of his stated goal of 5%, Johnson stated, "Ours is a mission accomplished." In regards to a future presidential bid, he said "it is too soon to be talking about 2016".
Since the 2012 elections, Johnson has continued to criticize the Obama administration on various issues. In an article for The Guardian, Johnson called on United States Attorney General Eric Holder to let individual states legalize marijuana. In a Google Hangout hosted by Johnson in June 2013, he criticized the US government's lack of transparency and due process in regards to the NSA's domestic surveillance programs. He also said that he would not rule out running as a Republican again in the future.
Our America Initiative PAC
In December 2013, Johnson announced the founding of his own Super PAC, Our America Initiative PAC. The Super PAC is intended to support libertarian-minded causes. “From the realities of government-run healthcare setting in to the continuing disclosures of the breadth of NSA’s domestic spying, more Americans than ever are ready to take a serious look at candidates who offer real alternatives to business-as-usual,” the release announcing the PAC said.
CEO of Cannabis Sativa Inc.
In July 2014, Johnson was named president and CEO of Cannabis Sativa Inc., a Nevada-based company that aims primarily to sell medical cannabis products in states where medicinal and/or recreational cannabis is legal.
2016 presidential campaign
In an April 2014 "Ask Me Anything" session on Reddit, Johnson stated that he hoped to run for president again in 2016. On whether he would run as a Libertarian or a Republican, he stated that "I would love running as a Libertarian because I would have the least amount of explaining to do."
In November 2014, Johnson affirmed his intention to run for the 2016 Libertarian nomination. In July 2015, Johnson reiterated his intentions for a presidential campaign but stated he was not announcing anything imminently: "I just think there are more downsides than upsides to announcing at this point, and, look, I don’t have any delusions about the process. In retrospect, 90 percent of the time I spent [trying to become president] ended up to be wasted time."
In January 2016, Johnson resigned from his post as CEO of Cannabis Sativa, Inc., to pursue political opportunities, hinting to a 2016 presidential run.
On January 6, 2016, Johnson declared that he would seek the Libertarian nomination for the presidency. On May 18, Johnson named former Massachusetts Governor William Weld as his running mate. On May 29, 2016, Johnson received the Libertarian nomination on the second ballot. Johnson is on the ballot in all 50 states.
On September 8, Johnson drew widespread negative attention when he appeared on MSNBC's Morning Joe and was asked by panelist Mike Barnicle, "As president, what would you do about Aleppo?" Johnson responded, "And what is Aleppo?" After a clarification from Barnicle, Johnson answered that he favored greater diplomacy with Russia and criticized U.S. support for the Free Syrian Army and Kurdish forces as well as U.S.-supported "regime change." Johnson's "what is Aleppo?" question prompted widespread criticism. In response to charges that he was uninformed, Johnson said that he had "blanked," that he did "understand the dynamics of the Syrian conflict," and that he had thought that Barnicle's reference to "Aleppo" was in relation to "an acronym, not the Syrian conflict."
On September 23, in a MSNBC interview with Kasie Hunt, Gary Johnson noted the benefits of being invited to the 2016 Presidential Debates. While discussing this topic, Johnson stuck out his tongue through his teeth at the reporter while explaining that he could win a three-way debate, and ultimately the Presidency, versus Clinton and Trump while speaking in that manner. Johnson's spokesperson, John LaBeaume, later stated, "He was just having fun" and that it was "lighthearted".
On September 28, in a CNN Town Hall, Johnson was asked by Chris Matthews to name a world leader he respected, he tried to name Vicente Fox, a former President of Mexico, but could not remember his name. The following day, he tweeted, "It's been almost 24 hours...and I still can't come up with a foreign leader I look up to." Later in a CNN interview, he expanded upon his reluctance to endorse political leaders, "I held a lot of people in this country on pedestals and then I get to meet them up front and personal and I find out that they're all about getting re-elected, that they're not about issues, a lot of empty suits that I held up on pedestals."
Johnson was not invited to participate in the presidential debates because he did not meet the criteria of 15% support in five polls set by the Commission on Presidential Debates. In 2015, Johnson and Green Party nominee Jill Stein filed a lawsuit against the commission, arguing that the commission and its rules violated antitrust law and the First Amendment. In August 2016, the lawsuit was dismissed. Johnson's poll numbers have been averaging between 7 and 9 percent. Johnson's campaign manager Ron Nielson argues for Johnson's inclusion, citing Ross Perot's admission to the debates in the 1992 debates, when Perot was polling at 8 percent.
A Washington Post-SurveyMonkey 50-state poll, conducted online between August 9 and September 1 found Gary Johnson polling at 10% or higher in 42 states, and at 15% or higher in 15 states (Johnson received 25% in his home state of New Mexico and 23% in Utah). Another poll conducted in mid-August by the Pew Research Center found Johnson supported by about 10% of registered voters. Of Johnson supporters, more than 60% identified as independent and more than 70% were younger than fifty years old. Johnson's supporters were evenly divided between men and women.
Johnson's views have been described as fiscally conservative and socially liberal with a philosophy of limited government and military non-interventionism. Johnson spoke at the 2016 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), a forum for conservative politicians. He has identified as a classical liberal. He would repeal Obamacare. Johnson has said he favors simplifying and reducing taxes. During his governorship, Johnson cut taxes fourteen times and never increased them. Due to his stance on taxes, political pundit David Weigel described him as "the original Tea Party candidate." Johnson has advocated the FairTax as a template for tax reform. This proposal would abolish all federal income, corporate and capital gains taxes, and replace them with a 23% tax on consumption of all non-essential goods, while providing a regressive rebate to households according to household size, regardless of income level. He has argued that this would ensure transparency in the tax system and incentivize the private sector to create "tens of millions of jobs." In June 2016, Johnson said that he supported the Trans-Pacific Partnership, stating that he previously was skeptical "because these trade agreements are just laden with crony capitalism," but is now informed it, in fact, fosters free trade.
Despite acknowledging the possibility that humans may be partially responsible for climate change, Johnson rejects government action to control or limit it - including cap and trade - as ineffective. "When you look at the amount of money we are looking to spend on global warming — in the trillions — and look at the result, I just argue that the result is completely inconsequential to the money we would end up spending," he said. "We can direct those moneys to other ways that would be much more beneficial to mankind." Johnson has signed the Western Governors' Association resolution, which aims at "collaborative, incentive driven, locally-based solutions," and has advocated for free market solutions to environmental problems. He has stated that he will not "compromise when it comes to clean air, clean land, or clean water." Johnson supports nuclear energy and fossil fuels, but has stated that the government has a role to protect Americans against businesses that would harm human health or property, including environmental harm. 
Unlike Bernie Sanders and Hillary Clinton, Johnson supports the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Citizens United v. FEC, allowing unlimited corporate independent expenditures on political campaigns. Johnson supports, however, full disclosure of such expenditures. Johnson has said that he would immediately balance the federal budget, and would demand a balanced budget amendment. He has stated he supports "slashing government spending", including Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security, which would involve cutting Medicare and Medicaid by 43 percent and turning them into block grant programs, with control of spending in the hands of the states to create, in his words, "fifty laboratories of innovation." He has referred to Social Security as a pyramid scheme. He has advocated passing a law allowing for state bankruptcy and expressly ruling out a federal bailout of any states. Johnson has expressed opposition to the Federal Reserve System, which he has cited as massively devaluing the strength of the U.S. dollar, and would not veto legislation to eliminate it - although he has stated that no such bill is likely to come out of Congress during his administration. He has also supported an audit of the central bank, and urged Members of Congress in July 2012 to vote in favor of Ron Paul's Federal Reserve Transparency Act.
In his campaign for the Libertarian Party nomination, he stated he opposed foreign wars and pledged to cut the military budget by 43 percent in his first term as president. He would cut the military's overseas bases, uniformed and civilian personnel, research and development, intelligence, and nuclear weapons programs, while maintaining an "invincible defense." Johnson opposes U.S. involvement in the War in Afghanistan and opposed the U.S. involvement in the Libyan Civil War. He has stated that he does not believe Iran is a military threat, would use his presidential power to prevent Israel from attacking Iran, and would not follow Israel, or any other ally, into a war that it had initiated. While Johnson views the Islamic threat to the US as overrated, he has been openly advocating for greater diplomacy with China regarding North Korea, which, in his view, "is the biggest threat in the world today," stating "...one of these days, one of their ICBMs is going to work."
Johnson presents himself as a strong supporter of civil liberties and received the highest score of any candidate from the American Civil Liberties Union for supporting drug decriminalization while opposing censorship and regulation of the Internet, the Patriot Act, enhanced airport screenings, and the indefinite detention of prisoners. He has spoken in favor of the separation of church and state, and has said that he does not "seek the counsel of God" when determining his political agenda. Johnson endorsed same-sex marriage in 2011; he has since called for a constitutional amendment protecting equal marriage rights, and criticized Obama's position on the issue as having "thrown this question back to the states." Johnson supports the enforcement of Protected Classes that was established by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and believes that providers should be prohibited from discriminating between customers based on demographics, such as race or sexuality. This differentiated him from his Libertarian Party opponents in the party primary, especially Austin Petersen. He has been a longtime advocate of legalizing marijuana and has said that if he were president, he would remove it from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act as well as issue an executive order pardoning non-violent marijuana offenders.
Johnson supports current federal laws regarding abortion. He has stated he believes that "it's the woman's choice." His 2016 position page on abortion states the "woman must be allowed to make decisions about her own health" and "government should not be in the business of second guessing".
Johnson opposes federal and state gun control legislation, saying: "I'm a firm believer in the Second Amendment and so I would not have signed legislation banning assault weapons or automatic weapons." Johnson says that the Second Amendment "was designed to protect us against a government that could be very intrusive. And in this country, we have a growing police state - if people can own assault rifles or automatic rifles, I think leads to a more civil government." Johnson would, however, limit weapons such as rocket launchers. Johnson believes that allowing concealed carrying of guns reduces crime and gun violence. He opposes barring gun sales to individuals on the no-fly list, because he claims that such lists have a high error rate. Johnson has called for a "thousand-person taskforce" or "hot line" to prevent terrorists from obtaining guns, and has questioned why the perpetrator of the Orlando nightclub shooting was not "deprived of his guns" after being interviewed three times.
Johnson was married to his college girlfriend, Dee Johnson (née Simms; 1952–2006) from 1977 to 2005. As First Lady of New Mexico, she engaged in campaigns against smoking and breast cancer and oversaw the expansion of the Governor's Mansion. He initiated a separation in May 2005, and four months later he announced that they would divorce. At the age of 54, Dee Johnson died unexpectedly on December 22, 2006, her cause of death later attributed to hypertensive heart disease. The couple had two children, now adults.
Johnson became engaged to Santa Fe real estate agent Kate Prusack in 2009, a year after meeting her at a bike race in Santa Fe. Prusack has stated that the reason they have not yet married is because "[m]y fiance’s always on the road."
Johnson lives in Taos, New Mexico, in a home that he built himself. He is an avid triathlete who bikes extensively. During his term in office, he competed in several triathlons, marathons and bike races. He competed three times (1993, 1997, 1999) as a celebrity invitee at the Ironman World Championship in Hawaii, registering his best time for the 2.4-mile (3.9 km) swim, 112-mile (180 km) bike ride, and 26.2-mile (42.2 km) marathon run in 1999 with 10 hours, 39 minutes, and 16 seconds. He once ran 100 miles (160 km) in 30 consecutive hours in the Rocky Mountains. On May 30, 2003, he reached the summit of Mount Everest "despite toes blackened with frostbite." He has climbed all seven of the Seven Summits: Mount Everest, Mount Elbrus, Denali, Mount Kilimanjaro, Aconcagua, Mount Vinson, and Carstensz Pyramid—the tallest peaks in Asia, Europe, North America, Africa, South America, Antarctica, and Oceania respectively. He completed the Bataan Memorial Death March at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, in which participants traverse a 26.2 mile course through the desert, many of them in combat boots and wearing 35-pound packs.
On October 12, 2005, Johnson was involved in a near-fatal paragliding accident when his wing caught in a tree and he fell approximately 50 feet (15 m) to the ground. Johnson suffered multiple bone fractures, including a burst fracture to his twelfth thoracic vertebra, a broken rib, and a broken knee; this accident left him 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) shorter. He used medicinal marijuana for pain control from 2005 to 2008.
Johnson is a Lutheran and has stated that his belief in God has given him "a very fundamental belief that we should do unto others as we would have others do unto us."
|Democratic||Bruce King (inc.)||186,686||39.92%||-14.68%|
|Republican gain from Democratic||Swing|
|Republican||Gary Johnson (inc.)||271,948||54.53%||+4.72%|
|Democratic||Barack Obama (inc.)||65,899,583||51.03%||-1.84%|
|Republican gain from Democratic||Swing|
- Seven Principles of Good Government: Gary Johnson on liberty, people and politics. 2012. Aberdeen, WA: Silver Lake Publishing. ISBN 978-1563439131. OCLC 809701081
- Common Sense for the Common Good; Libertarianism as the End of Two-Party Tyranny was published as an e-book on September 27, 2016, and is scheduled to be published in an expanded hardcover version in spring 2017 by HarperCollins. Johnson describes the book as an examination of "the root causes that have brought the two-party system to crisis.”
- Pratt, Timothy (May 5, 2012). "Libertarians nominate ex-Governor Gary Johnson for president". Reuters. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- Eichstaedt, Peter (1 July 1995). "No, no, two hundred times no". State Legislatures.
- "Gary Johnson on the Issues". The Santa Fe New Mexican. 30 May 1994. p. A4.
- Clowes, George A. (1 October 2000). "Better Education Does Make All the Difference: Governor Gary E. Johnson". School Reform News. The Heartland Institute. Retrieved 14 November 2010.[dead link]
- "2012 Republican Hopeful Gary Johnson Takes On His Party's 'Cardboard Cutouts'". ABC News. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Stanage, Niall (5 May 2010). "The most interesting Republican you've never heard of". Salon.com.
- Marr, Kendra (April 21, 2011). "Gary Johnson makes 2012 presidential run official". Politico. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Stewart, Rebecca (December 28, 2011). "'Liberated' Gary Johnson seeks Libertarian nomination". CNN. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- Tuccile, J.D. "Gary Johnson Pulls One Million Votes, One Percent". Reason. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- Collins, Eliza (January 6, 2016). "Libertarian Gary Johnson launches presidential bid". Politico. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- "Gary Johnson Wins Libertarian Nomination for President". ABC. May 29, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2016.
- Who's Who in the West 1996–1997. Marquis Who's Who. 1995. p. 421. ISBN 0-8379-0926-0.
- Good, Chris (May 26, 2011). "From the Yearbook to the White House: The 2012 Republicans in High School". The Atlantic.
- "Candidate: Gary Johnson". USA Today. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- "Candidate Profile from Congressional Quarterly". CNN. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
- Marciello, Alex. "Former NM governor talks politics". The Daily News of Newburyport. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
- Jones, Steve (February 1, 2011). "Myrtle Beach Tea Party hears from presidential hopeful". Myrtle Beach Sun. Archived from the original on August 13, 2012.
- Miller, Matthew (August 20, 2000). "He Just Said No to the Drug War". The New York Times.
- "Governor Johnson says what's on his mind". New Mexico Business Journal. 19 (1). January–February 1995. Retrieved April 21, 2011.[dead link]
- "Governor Gary E. Johnson". Forbes. May 8, 2011. Archived from the original on June 19, 2009. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
- Lynch, Michael W. (January 2001). "America's Most Dangerous Politician – Republican Governor of New Mexico Gary E. Johnson". Reason. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- Massey, Barry (November 26, 1995). "Governor sets a fast pace in New Mexico Marathons, vetoes keep him moving". The Denver Post.
- "Gary Johnson Offers Third Choice In 2012 Elections". NPR. June 21, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Hollow, Ralph Z. (February 6, 2011). "Maverick N.M. politician always on trail". The Washington Times. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Moore, Stephen; Stansel, Dean (July 26, 1996). "A Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors: 1996". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Tollerson, Ernest (November 20, 1995). "Governors In G.O.P. Urge Stand On Budget". The New York Times.
- "America's boldest governor". The Economist. April 15, 1999.
- Ayres, B. Drummond, Jr. (October 23, 1998). "Democrats Renew Push in New Mexico". The New York Times.
- "CNN election results 1998". Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Janofsky, Michael (January 31, 2000). "Parents Lead Way as States Debate School Vouchers". The New York Times.
- Janofsky, Michael (May 14, 1999). "$21 Million Vetoed in Budget". Albuquerque Journal. (subscription required)
- Janofsky, Michael (September 16, 2000). "Antidrug Program's End Stirs Up Salt Lake City". The New York Times.
- Buckley, William F. (June 29, 2004). "Free Weeds: The marijuana debate". National Review. Retrieved April 21, 2011.[dead link]
- Lieberman, Jon (March 14, 2000). "Political Brawl Leaves New Mexico Without Budget". Pew Charitable Trusts. Archived from the original on November 27, 2008. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
- Hughes, Jim (15 May 2000). "Monday Profile: N.M. Gov. Gary Johnson". The Denver Post. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Janofsky, Michael (October 7, 1999). "New Mexico Governor Resists Draft Efforts by Libertarians". The New York Times.
- Robert Samuels, Years before 'Aleppo moment,' Gary Johnson showed little interest in details of governing, Washington Post (October 3, 2016).
- Sullivan, Andrew (January 19, 2011). "The Tea Party On Prohibition: Lovin' It". The Atlantic. The Daily Dish. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Gardner, Jeffry (January 6, 2011). "More than 10 years have past since the feared 2000 disaster". Los Alamos Monitor.
- Bolduc, Brian (January 3, 2011). "2012: Year of the Libertarian?". National Review.
- Massey, Barry (September 3, 1999). "Johnson opposes independent study of private prisons". Associated Press. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
- Ayres, Jr., B. Drummond (October 23, 1998). "Democrats Renew Push in New Mexico". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Ames, Mark (November 6, 2012). "The Gary Johnson Swindle and the Degradation of Third Party Politics". nsfwcorp.com. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "Constitutional and statutory provisions for number of consecutive terms of elected state officials" (PDF). National Governors Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "Former New Mexico Governor Gary Johnson Endorses Ron Paul". Reuters. January 21, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2012.[dead link]
- George Dance (January 11, 2010). "Gary Johnson and Our America". Nolan Chart. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
- Keck, Kristi (September 3, 2008). "Thousands rally at Ron Paul convention". CNN. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- "Students for Sensible Drug Policy, Advisory Council". 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
- "Leadership". Students For Liberty. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Seven Principles of Good Government: Gary Johnson on Politics, People and Freedom: Insights from the 2012 Libertarian Party Nominee for P. Google. 2012-08-01. ISBN 9781563439131. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Bill Kauffman (April 21, 2009). "The Republic Strikes Back". The American Conservative. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- 24 Hour Newsroom (October 27, 2009). "Ex-Gov Mulls Presidential Bid". 770 KKOB AM. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
- Pt 5/6 Freedom Watch Napolitano Ron Paul Lew Rockwell Gary Johnson David Boaz & more 6-24-09. YouTube. June 24, 2009. Event occurs at 1:58. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
- Johnson, Gary. "OUR America Initiative". Ouramericainitiative.com. Our America Initiative. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
- Steve Terrell (October 26, 2009). "Group wants Johnson on presidential ballot". Santa Fe New Mexican. Retrieved October 27, 2009.[dead link]
- Gadi Schwartz (November 5, 2009). "Supporters call for former Gov. Johnson to run for president". KOB News 4. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2009.
- Hannity, Sean (May 10, 2010). "Controversial Republican Eyeing White House?". Fox News Channel. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- Wallsten, Peter (August 9, 2010). "Washington Wire Q & A: Gary Johnson". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- Johnson, Gary (January 18, 2011). "$100 billion in spending cuts this year? How about this week!". The Daily Caller.
- Carey, Amanda (February 8, 2011). "Potential 2012 presidential candidate Gary Johnson to speak at CPAC". The Daily Caller.
- Good, Chris (February 11, 2011). "Is Gary Johnson the Next Ron Paul?". The Atlantic.
- Falcone, Michael (February 12, 2011). "Ron Paul Wins 2011 CPAC Straw Poll, Sarah Palin Finishes a Distant 9th Place". ABC News.[dead link]
- Weigel, David (February 14, 2011). "Who Won CPAC?". Slate.
- Kapur, Sahil (April 21, 2011). "Pro-pot, anti-war Republican Gary Johnson running for president". The Raw Story. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Lisa Depaulo (November 2011). "Is This the Sanest Man Running for President?". GQ. Condé Nast.
- "Johnson Key Staff and Advisers". Politico.com. Politico LLC. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Conor Friesdorf (June 15, 2011). "Gary Johnson Crashes the N.H. Republican Debate". The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group.
- Michael Muskal (September 23, 2011). "Gary Johnson cleaning up with his dog poop quip". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Newspapers.
- Michael Scherer (September 23, 2011). "What You Missed While Not Watching the Fox News/Google Debate". Time.
- Jeff Labrecque (September 23, 2011). "Gary Johnson and neighbor's two dogs win Republican presidential debate". Entertainment Weekly.
- Fortier, Mark (November 29, 2011). "Gary Johnson Throws in the Towel in NH". Portsmouth Patch. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Moran, Andrew (November 29, 2011). "Gov. Gary Johnson may run for U.S. President as a Libertarian". Digital Journal. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- Friedersdorf, Conor (November 30, 2011). "Will Gary Johnson Seek the Libertarian Party's Nomination?". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- "Interview with Gary Johnson". Liberty Underground / 1787 Network. December 2, 2011.
- Epstein, Reid J. (December 20, 2011). "Johnson to run as Libertarian". Politico.[dead link]
- Steve Nelson; Will Rahn. "Gary Johnson encourages supporters to vote for Ron Paul in GOP primaries". The Daily Caller. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- Winger, Richard (May 5, 2012). "Gary Johnson Nominated by Libertarian Party on First Ballot". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- Moxley, R. Scott (May 5, 2012). "Libertarian Presidential Candidate Gary Johnson: Give Me Orange County's Jim Gray as VP". OC Weekly. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- Puditty (Jun 5, 2012). "Gary Johnson visits 'The Daily Show with Jon Stewart'". Allvoices.com. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Crugnale, James (June 6, 2012). "Penn Jillette & Gary Johnson Lament NY's Marijuana Decriminalization Doesn't Go Far Enough". Mediaite. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Walsh, Kenneth (September 11, 2012). "Gary Johnson Could Spoil Romney's Chances". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Rose, Joel (September 26, 2012). "Libertarian Candidate Could Be Election Spoiler". NPR. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Presidential Hopefuls Meet in Third Party Debate". PBS NewsHour. PBS. October 25, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012.[dead link]
- Derek Rosenfeld (October 25, 2012). "Larry King Hosts Third Party Debate: Presidential Candidates Slam the Drug War". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- Josh Hicks (October 26, 2012). "Gary Johnson and Jill Stein will debate one-on-one". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- Jack Kenny (November 5, 2012). "Johnson, Stein in Election Eve Debate". Mashable. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
- Karoun Demirjian (October 5, 2012). "Libertarian candidate makes push for Nevada's Ron Paul supporters". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- Lucas Eaves (November 1, 2012). "Why 5% matters to Gary Johnson". Independent Voter Network. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- Jones, Jeffrey (July 6, 2012). "Little Support for Third-Party Candidates in 2012 Election". Gallup. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- Newport, Frank (September 12, 2012). "Gary Johnson scores at 5.3% nationally against Obama and Romney". Watchdog.org. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives, Federal Election Commission, July 2013.
- "Libertarian Party buoyant; Greens hopeful". United Press International. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- Blake, Aaron; Sullivan, Sean (November 20, 2012). "The GOP's growing Libertarian problem". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Weber, Joseph (November 7, 2012). "Johnson satisfied with presidential run, mum on future bid for office". Fox News Channel. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- Johnson, Gary (March 9, 2013). "Let states legalise marijuana, Eric Holder: you know it makes sense". The Guardian. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Evans, Zenon (June 12, 2013). "Gary Johnson Weighs in on NSA, Says He's Open to Running As a Republican Again". Reason. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Reichbach, Matthew (December 11, 2013). "Gary Johnson launches Super PAC". New Mexico Telegram. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- Goldsmith, Alex (July 1, 2014). "Gary Johnson to head marijuana company". KRQE.com. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- Roller, Emma (July 2, 2014). "Gary Johnson Is Now CEO of a Marijuana Company. And He Wants to Run for President.". National Journal. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- Roller, Emma (April 23, 2014). "Remember Gary Johnson? He Wants to Run for President Again.". National Journal. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014.
- Gillespie, Nick (November 4, 2014). "Gary Johnson: "I'll Run in 2016 to Provide Libertarian Option" That Rand Paul Doesn't Offer". Reason.com. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- Gillespie, Nick; Bragg, Meredith (July 16, 2015). "Gary Johnson on Trump, the Presidential Election, and Life as a Pot Company CEO: Johnson says he wants nothing to do with the GOP". Reason Foundation.
- "Gary Johnson resigns his position as CEO of Cannabis Sativa, Inc.", Independent Political Report. January 4, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- DeCosta-Klipa, Nick (May 18, 2016). "Former Massachusetts Gov. Bill Weld confirmed as Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson's VP". boston.com. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- "Gary Johnson on November Ballot in All 50 States". Yahoo News. September 14, 2016. Retrieved Oct 6, 2016.
- Wright, David. "What is Aleppo?". CNN. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- "Read the Interview Where Gary Johnson Asked What Aleppo Is". Time. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- Nelson, Louis (September 8, 2016). "Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson: 'What is Aleppo?'". Politico. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
- "Wait, why did Gary Johnson bite his tongue in an MSNBC interview?". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-11-13.
- Weigel, David. "Gary Johnson has 'Aleppo moment' when asked to name favorite foreign leader". Washington Post. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- Woolf, Nicky. "US presidential candidate Gary Johnson fails to name a foreign leader he admires". Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "'I Guess I'm Having an Aleppo Moment': Gary Johnson Can't Name a Single Foreign Leader". New York Times.
- Eugene Scott (October 4, 2016). "Gary Johnson stands by being skeptical of elected officials, foreign leaders". CNN.
- "Gary Johnson won't (or can't) name North Korea's leader, Kim Jong Un".
- Brian Stelter (August 5, 2016). "Judge dismisses debate lawsuit filed by Gary Johnson and Jill Stein". CNN Money. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
- "General Election: Trump vs. Clinton vs. Johnson". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved Oct 6, 2016.
- Ron Nielson (September 15, 2016). "Bring Out a Third Lectern for Gary Johnson". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved Oct 6, 2016.
- Gamio, Lazaro. "New poll shows how Trump-Clinton matchup is redrawing the electoral map". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
- Giovanni Russonello, Libertarian Gary Johnson Polls at 10 Percent. Who Are His Supporters?, New York Times (September 4, 2016).
- Haq, Husna (April 21, 2011). "Election 101: Who is Gary Johnson?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Bolduc, Brian (January 3, 2011). "2012: Year of the Libertarian?". National Review. Retrieved April 23, 2011.[dead link]
- "Don't Forget Gary Johnson! How the Libertarian Could Shake Up 2012". The Daily Beast. May 6, 2012.
- Brian Doherty (April 11, 2012). "Gary Johnson's Foreign Policy: Libertarian or "Strange"?". Reason.
- "Johnson speaks at CPAC".
- Toole, John (September 25, 2011). "Johnson campaign tests GOP support for 'classical liberal'". The Eagle-Tribune. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- "Maher: Johnson is for nothing Bernie supporters want".
- Glover, Mike (September 8, 2010). "Former NM gov is little known but has big ideas". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Quigley, Bernie (February 10, 2011). "Prelude to a nervous breakdown; New Mexico's Gary Johnson rises". The Hill. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Weigel, David (September 8, 2010). "America's Next Top Libertarian". Slate. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Quinn, Garrett (August 22, 2012). "Fair Tax Gives Gary Johnson Some Hiccups On The Trail". Reason. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Think You've Got It Locked, Hillary? Meet Jill Stein.". POLITICO Magazine. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- "Johnson's views on tackling climate change appear to be in opposition to a large percentage of his supporters".
- "Collaborative, incentive driven, locally-based solutions.".
- "Where Gov. Johnson Stands on Energy".
- "Hillary is the only Rational Choice for Young Progressives".
- Klein, Rick (April 22, 2011). "Gary Johnson: 'From Obscurity to Prominence' in New Hampshire". ABC News. Retrieved April 23, 2011.[dead link]
- "Gov. Gary Johnson Sends Letter To House Of Representatives". garyjohnson2012.com. July 23, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
- Interview with Gov. Gary Johnson, LP presidential candidate, on Foreign Policy. YouTube. April 2011. Event occurs at 6:00.
- John Vaught LaBeaume (September 1, 2011). "Gov. Gary: Cut defense, quit subsidizing Eurocare". Washington Examiner.
- Friedersdorf, Conor (April 22, 2011). "The Zen of Gary Johnson". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Interview with Gov. Gary Johnson, LP presidential candidate, on Foreign Policy. YouTube. April 2011. Event occurs at 4:30.
- "Gary Johnson on the Issues". 2016 Presidential Candidates/. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- "Gary Johnson Braves the ACLU; The Libertarian presidential candidate charms a gathering of civil libertarians". Reason. January 31, 2012.
- Landsberg, Mitchell (October 17, 2012). "Atheist group gives Obama an unenthusiastic nod over Romney". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Riggs, Mike (May 10, 2012). "Gary Johnson on Obama's Gay Marriage Remarks: "I guess the President is still more worried about losing Ohio, Colorado, North Carolina and Virginia than he is in doing the right thing"". Reason. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Scarboro, Aaron. "Why America Needs Gary Johnson". The Guardian Express. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
- Riggs, Mike. "Gary Johnson on "Defanging" the DEA, Pardoning Marijuana Offenders, and Standing With Occupy Wall Street". Reason. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Abortion - Gary Johnson for President". Retrieved 2016-09-17.
- "Presidential candidate Gary Johnson talks guns, for-profit prisons". RNN, Regional News Network. January 30, 2013.
- Susan Page (June 16, 2016). "Libertarian nominee Gary Johnson on guns, debates and pot". USA Today.
- "2016 CNN Libertarian Town Hall with Gary Johnson & Bill Weld". OnTheIssues. June 22, 2016.
- Ryan, Lizza (July 25, 2016). "The Libertarians' Secret Weapon". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 5, 2016.
- Haq, Husna. "Election 101: Who is Gary Johnson?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
- Olson, Sean (December 24, 2006). "Ex-N.M. First Lady Dies; Dee Johnson Fought for Women's and Children's Issues". Abqjournal.com. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Linthicum, Leslie (September 29, 2005). "Ex-Gov. Johnson, Wife Are Divorcing". Albuquerque Journal. (subscription required)
- Olson, Sean (December 24, 2006). "Ex-N.M. First Lady Dies; Dee Johnson Fought for Women's and Children's Issues". Albuquerque Journal. (subscription required)
- Linthicum, Leslie (February 10, 2007). "Former First Lady Died of Heart Disease". Albuquerque Journal.(subscription required)
- Pappas, Alex (May 23, 2011). "Meet Kate Prusack, Gary Johnson's fiancé". The Daily Caller. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
- Pappas, Alex (May 23, 2011). "Meet Kate Prusack, Gary Johnson's fiancé". The Daily Caller. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
- Klein, Rick; Simmons, Gregory (February 10, 2011). "You Say You Want a Revolution?". ABC News. Retrieved June 1, 2011.[dead link]
- Linthicum, Leslie (January 3, 2010). "You Say You Want a Revolution?". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
- Mallozzi, Vincent M. (October 12, 1997). "Famous Just Doesn't Make It". The New York Times.
- "New Mexico Governor to Compete in Ironman Utah". World Triathlon Corporation. June 3, 2002.[dead link]
- "Former governor scales Mount Everest". Lawrence Journal-World Online Edition. Lawrence, Kansas. Associated Press. June 8, 2003. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- "Gary Johnson summits Mount Vinson". Independent Political Report. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Corjulo, Michael (August 9, 2011). "GOP Presidential Hopefuls Go To Ames, Gary Johnson Rides a Bike". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- Navrot, Miguel (October 24, 2005). "Ex-Governor Johnson Injured While Paragliding". Albuquerque Journal. (subscription required)
- Toole, John (September 9, 2011). "Johnson campaign tests GOP support for 'classical liberal'". eagletribune.com. The Eagle-Tribune. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- Moody, Chris (2011-09-21). "Unorthodox GOP candidate Gary Johnson gets his chance in Orlando debate". Yahoo! News. Yahoo!. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- McCormack, John (December 6, 2010). "Gov. Gary Johnson: I Smoked Marijuana from 2005 to 2008". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- "Gary Johnson Candidate Profile". Reason. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- "Gary Johnson Is Probably The Healthiest Candidate For President".
- "Canvass of Returns of General Election Held on November 8, 1994 – State of New Mexico" (PDF).
- "State of New Mexico Official 1998 General Election Results for Governor Of New Mexico". Archived from the original on November 30, 2008.
- Dave Leip. "2012 Presidential General Election Results". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- Dave Leip. "2016 Presidential General Election Results". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2016. Check date values in:
- "E-book from libertarian Gary Johnson coming Sept. 27". Washingotn Times. AP. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- 2001 and 2002 State of the State speeches from stateline.org
- Failure-to-Launch, Nick Heil, Outside, September 12, 2011
- Republican Presidential Candidate Gary Johnson On Technology, Benjamin Kuo, socalTECH.com, November 2011
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Gary Johnson|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gary Johnson.|
|Wikinews has news on Gary Johnson:|
- 2016 campaign website
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Financial information at OpenSecrets.org
|Party political offices|
|Republican nominee for Governor of New Mexico
|Libertarian nominee for President of the United States
|Governor of New Mexico