Gary Works

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Gary Works
U.S. STEEL PLANT - NARA - 547097 (retouched).jpg
Aerial view of the Gary Works in 1973
Built1906 (1906)
Operated28 June 1908 (1908-06-28)
Coordinates41°36′26.1468″N 87°20′15.2664″W / 41.607263000°N 87.337574000°W / 41.607263000; -87.337574000
Employees5000 (2015)

The Gary Works is a major steel mill in Gary, Indiana, on the shore of Lake Michigan. For many years, the Gary Works was the world's largest steel mill, and it remains the largest integrated mill in North America.[1] It is operated by the United States Steel Corporation.

The Gary Works includes both steelmaking and finishing facilities as an integrated mill, and has an annual capacity of 8.2 million tons.[2] It contains:[3]

  • Four blast furnaces
  • Three top-blown basic oxygen process (BOP) vessels (one additional idled in 2019[4])
  • Three bottom-blown basic oxygen process (Q-BOP) vessels
  • Vacuum degasser
  • Three ladle metallurgy facilities
  • Four continuous slab casters
  • 84" Hot strip mill
  • Hot-rolled Temper mill
  • 80" and 84" Pickle lines
  • 52" 6-Stand and 80" 5-Stand Cold reduction mills
  • Electrolytic cleaning line
  • Three batch annealing facilities
  • 38" Continuous annealing line
  • 80" 1-Stand, 48" 2-Stand and 84" 2-Stand Temper mills
  • 48" 2-Stand Double cold reduction mill
  • 37" and 46" Electrolytic tinning lines

The Gary Works was under construction from 1906 to 1908, and the first shipment of iron ore was unloaded on June 23, 1908.[5] 11 million cubic feet (310,000 m3) of sand were moved in the process of constructing the plant.[6]

The Gary Works remains Gary's largest single employer and a key element of the city's tax base.[7] However, employment levels have fallen substantially since the mid-20th century; the plant and allied facilities employed over 30,000 people in the early 1970s, but only 6,000 in 1990,[8] and 5,000 in 2015.[9] The plant is also a central part of the city's geography; its main entrance is at the northern end of Broadway, the city's main thoroughfare.


  1. ^ NiSource, Inc. (1999-10-14). "U.S. Steel - Primary Energy Cogeneration Plant at Gary Works Wins National Recognition". Archived from the original on 2007-10-22. Retrieved 2011-06-10.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  2. ^ U.S. Steel. "Gary Works". Retrieved 2011-06-10.
  3. ^ "About Us - Locations -". Retrieved 2021-08-26.
  4. ^ "U.S. Steel to idle blast furnace at Gary Works". NWITimes. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  5. ^ Schoon 2003, p. 156.
  6. ^ Schoon 2003, p. 155.
  7. ^ "Gary gets a reprieve as DUAB rules against tax cap". Chicago Crusader. 2011-04-16. Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2011-06-10.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  8. ^ Catlin 1993, p. 90.
  9. ^ Pete, Joseph S. (April 24, 2015). "U.S. Steel starts layoffs of up to 323 workers at Gary Works". NWI Times.


  • Catlin, Robert A. (1993). Racial politics and urban planning: Gary, Indiana, 1980-1989.
  • Schoon, Kenneth J. (2003). Calumet Beginnings. ISBN 978-0-253-34218-8.

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