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Gas van

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Burned-out Magirus-Deutz furniture mover van near Chełmno extermination camp, type used by the Nazis for suffocation, with the exhaust fumes diverted into the sealed rear compartment where the victims were locked in. This particular van had not been modified, as explained by Office of the United States Chief Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality (1946),[1] nevertheless, it gives a good idea about the process.

A gas van or gas wagon (Russian: душегубка, dushegubka, literally "soul killer"; German: Gaswagen) was a truck reequipped as a mobile gas chamber. During World War II and The Holocaust, Nazi Germany developed and used gas vans on a large scale as an extermination method to murder inmates of asylums, Poles, Romani people, Jews, and prisoners in occupied Poland, Belarus, Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union, and other regions of German-occupied Europe.[2][3]

Nazi Germany

The use of gas vans by the Germans to murder Jews, Poles, Romani people, mentally ill people, and prisoners in occupied territories during World War II originated with the Nazi Euthanasia Program in 1939. Ordered to find a suitable method of killing, the Technical Institute for the Detection of Crime ("Kriminaltechnisches Institut der Sicherheitspolizei", abbreviated KTI) of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) decided to gas victims with Carbon monoxide.[4] In October 1939 the Nazis started gassing prisoners in Fort VII near Posen. The first victims were Polish and Jewish inmates of asylums for the mentally ill.[5] Witnesses report that since December 1939, mobile gas chambers were used to kill the inmates of asylums in Pomerania, Eastern Prussia and Poland.[6] The vans were built for the Sonderkommando Lange and their use was supposed to speed up the killings. Instead of transporting the victims to the gas chambers, the gas chambers were transported to the victims. They were most likely devised by specialists from the Referat II D of the RSHA. These mobile gas chambers worked under the same principles as the stationary gas chambers: through a rubber hose the driver released pure CO from steel cylinders into the air tight special construction that was shaped like a box and placed on the carrier. The vans resembled moving vans or delivery lorries and they were labelled Kaiser’s Kaffee Geschäft (de) (“Kaiser's Coffee Shop”) for camouflage. They were not called "gas vans" at the time, but “Sonder-Wagen”, “Spezialwagen” (special vans) and “Entlausungswagen” (delousing vans).[7][6] The Lange commando killed patients in numerous hospitals in the Wartheland in 1940. They drove to the hospitals, collected patients, loaded them into the vans and gassed them while they were driving them away.[8] From 21 May to 8 June 1940 the Sonderkommando Lange killed 1558 sick people from Soldau concentration camp alone.[9]

In August 1941, SS chief Heinrich Himmler attended a demonstration of a mass-shooting of Jews in Minsk that was arranged by Arthur Nebe, after which he vomited. Regaining his composure, Himmler decided that alternative methods of killing should be found.[10] He ordered Nebe to explore more "convenient" ways of killing that were less stressful for the killers. Nebe decided to conduct his experiments by murdering Soviet mental patients, first with explosives near Minsk, and then with automobile exhaust at Mogilev.[11] Nebe's experiments led to the development of the gas van.[12] This vehicle had already been used in 1940 for the gassing of East Prussian and Pomeranian mental patients in the Soldau concentration camp.[13]

Gas vans were used, particularly at the Chełmno extermination camp, until gas chambers were developed as a more efficient method for killing large numbers of people. Two types of gas vans were used by the Einsatzgruppen in the East. The Opel-Blitz, which weighed 3.5 tons, and the larger Saurerwagen, which weighed 7 tons.[14] In Belgrade, the gas van was known as "Dušegupka" and in the occupied parts of the USSR similarly as "душегубка" (dushegubka, literally "soul killer" or "exterminator"). The SS used the euphemisms Sonderwagen, Spezialwagen or S-wagen ("special vehicle") for the vans.[15] The gas vans were specifically designed to direct deadly exhaust fumes via metal pipes into the airtight cargo compartments, where the intended victims had been forcibly stuffed to capacity. In most cases the victims were suffocated and poisoned from carbon monoxide and other toxins in the exhaust as the vans were transporting them to fresh pits or ravines for mass burial.

The use of gas vans had two disadvantages:

  1. It was slow — some victims took twenty minutes to die.
  2. It was not quiet — the drivers could hear the victims' screams, which they found distracting and disturbing.

By June 1942 the main producer of gas vans, Gaubschat Fahrzeugwerke GmbH, had delivered 20 gas vans in two models (for 30–50 and 70–100 individuals) to Einsatzgruppen, out of 30 that were ordered from that company. Not one gas van was extant at the end of the war. The existence of gas vans first came to light in 1943 during the trial of Nazi collaborators who had been involved in the gassing of around 30 to 60 civilians in Krasnodar, On August 21 and 22, 1942 members of Sonderkommando (special unit) 10a of Einsatzgruppe (mobile killing unit) D, supported by local helpers, murdered about 2,000 Jews. Between 30 and 60 Jews were caught afterwards on the run and suffocated in gas vans. In addition, the occupying forces murdered thousands of civilians, including patients and Roma during pogroms. Many of the victims, especially patients, were murdered in the gas van carried by Einsatzgruppe D during this period.[16]. The total number of gas van gassings is unknown.[17]

The gas vans are extensively discussed in some of the interviews in Claude Lanzmann's film Shoah.

Soviet Union

During the Great Purge in the Soviet Union, NKVD officer Isaj D. Berg used a specially adapted airtight van for gassing prisoners to death on an experimental basis.[18] The prisoners were gassed on the way to Butovo, a phony firing range, where the NKVD executed its prisoners and buried them.[19] According to testimony given by NKVD officer Nikolai Kharitonov in 1956, Isaj Berg had been instrumental in the production of gas vans.[20] Berg had become chief of the administrative economic department in Moscow’s NKVD in the summer of 1937.[21] In October 1937 he was charged with the supervision of the Butovo firing range.[20] Berg had to prepare Butovo for the mass execution of people from greater Moscow and to ensure that these executions would take place smoothly.[22] According to testimony given by Fjodor Tschesnokov, a member of Berg’s execution team, in 1956, trucks were used, which were equipped with valves through which the gas could be directed inside the vehicles. The interrogations revealed that the prisoners were stripped naked, tied up, gagged and thrown into the trucks. Their property was stolen.[20] Berg was arrested on 3 August 1938[23] and sentenced to death for participating in a "counter-revolutionary conspiracy within the NKVD" and executed on 3 March 1939.[20]

The scale at which these trucks were used is unknown. Author Tomas Kizny assumes that they were in use while Berg oversaw the executions (October 1937 to 4 August 1938). He points to archaeological excavations conducted in 1997. Then 59 corpses were exhumed who most likely had been killed during Berg’s tenure. Only four of these victims had been shot in the head, which leads Kizny to conclude that at least some of them had been gassed.[20]

Journalist Yevgenia Albats maintains that gas vans were a “Soviet invention”.[24] Kizny names Berg as the “inventor”.[20] Historians of the Holocaust like Henry Friedlander argue that the mobile gas chambers were invented in 1940.[25] Katrin Reichelt names Albert Widmann and Arthur Nebe as having developed the method by which human beings were killed in vans by exhaust fumes. The vans themselves were modified by Walter Rauff, Friedrich Pradel and Harry Wentritt.[26] Matthias Beer calls gas vans “a special product of the Third Reich”.[27] Robert Gellately points out that during a euthanasia program in occupied Poland the Nazi killers sought a more efficient and secretive killing process and thus "invented the first gas van, which began operations in the Warthegau on January 15, 1940, under Herbert Lange".[28] He also notes, that "the Soviets sometimes used a gas van (dushegubka), as in Moscow during the 1930s, but how extensive that was needs further investigation. They used crematoriums to dispose of thousands of bodies but had no gas chambers."[29]

See also

Bibliography

  • Alberti, Michael (2006). Die Verfolgung und Vernichtung der Juden im Reichsgau Wartheland 1939-1945 (in German). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05167-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Beer, Mathias (1987). "Die Entwicklung der Gaswagen beim Mord an den Juden" (PDF). Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (in German). 35 (3): 403–417.
  • Colton, Timothy J. (1995). Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-58749-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Friedlander, Henry (1997). The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill: Univ of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-4675-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Merridale, Catherine (2002). Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Twentieth-Century Russia. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-200063-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Vatlin, Alexander (2016). Seth Bernstein (ed.). Agents of Terror: Ordinary Men and Extraordinary Violence in Stalin's Secret Police. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-31080-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

References

  1. ^ "SS use of mobile gassing vans". A damaged Magirus-Deutz van found in 1945 in Kolno, Poland. World War II Today. 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2013. Source: Office of the United States Chief Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality: Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression – Washington, U.S Govt. Print. Office, 1946, Vol III, p. 418;
  2. ^ Bartrop, Paul R. (2017). "Gas Vans". In Paul R. Bartrop; Michael Dickerman (eds.). The Holocaust: An Encyclopedia and Document Collection. 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 234–235. ISBN 978-1-4408-4084-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  3. ^ "Gas Wagons: The Holocaust's mobile gas chambers", an article of Nizkor Project
  4. ^ Beer 1987, p. 405.
  5. ^ Alberti 2006, p. 326-327.
  6. ^ a b Beer 1987, p. 405-406.
  7. ^ Alberti 2006, p. 327-328.
  8. ^ Friedlander 1997, p. 139.
  9. ^ Beer 1987, p. 406.
  10. ^ Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life, p. 547, ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6.
  11. ^ Lewy, Guenter (2000). The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies, pp. 204–208, ISBN 0-19-512556-8.
  12. ^ The path to genocide: essays on launching the final solution By Christopher R. Browning
  13. ^ The destruction of the European Jews, Part 804, Volume 1 By Raul Hilberg
  14. ^ Ernst. Klee, Willi Dressen, Volker Riess (1991). The gas-vans (3. 'A new and better method of killing had to be found'). The Good Old Days: The Holocaust As Seen by Its Perpetrators and Bystanders. Konecky Konecky. p. 69. ISBN 1568521332. Retrieved 2013-05-08.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Patrick Montague (2012). The Gas Vans (Appendix I). Chełmno and the Holocaust: The History of Hitler's First Death Camp. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. Appendix I: The Gas Van. ISBN 978-0807835272. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  16. ^ "Krasnodar Gas Wagon Attacks, from memorialmuseums.org, in English". 2018. Retrieved 2020-05-31.
  17. ^ "Gaswagen, from deathcamps.org, in German". 2006. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  18. ^ Catherine Merridale. Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Twentieth-Century Russia. Penguin Books, 2002 ISBN 0-14-200063-9 p. 200
  19. ^ Timothy J. Colton. Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis. Belknap Press, 1998, ISBN 0-674-58749-9, p. 286
  20. ^ a b c d e f Tomasz Kizny, Dominique Roynette. La grande terreur en URSS 1937–1938. Lausanne: Éd. Noir sur Blanc, 2013, p. 236.
  21. ^ Alexander Vatlin. Agents of Terror: Ordinary Men and Extraordinary Violence in Stalin's Secret Police. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2016, ISBN 978-0-299-31080-6, p. 11.
  22. ^ Alexander Vatlin. Agents of Terror: Ordinary Men and Extraordinary Violence in Stalin's Secret Police. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2016, ISBN 978-0-299-31080-6, p. 15.
  23. ^ Alexander Vatlin. Agents of Terror: Ordinary Men and Extraordinary Violence in Stalin's Secret Police. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2016, ISBN 978-0-299-31080-6, p. 67.
  24. ^ Yevgenia Albats: KGB: The State Within a State. The secret police and its hold on Russia's past, present and future. (International Affairs, Vol. 72). London: Tauris, 1995, p. 101.
  25. ^ Henry Friedlander. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995, ISBN 978-0-8078-2208-1, p. 139.
  26. ^ Katrin Reichelt. "Gaswagen". In: Handbuch des Antisemitismus. Judenfeindschaft in Geschichte und Gegenwart. vol. 4, ed. by Wolfgang Benz. Berlin: DeGruyter, p. 143 f.
  27. ^ Mathias Beer. "Die Entwicklung der Gaswagen beim Mord an den Juden". In: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (in German). 35 (3): p. 403. English translation at Jewish Virtual Library.
  28. ^ Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. New York: Knopf, 2007, p. 367.
  29. ^ Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. New York: Knopf, 2007, p. 460.

External links