Gaston (comics)

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Gaston Lagaffe

Gaston is a comic strip created in 1957 by the Belgian cartoonist André Franquin in the Franco-Belgian comics magazine Spirou. The series focuses on the every-day life of Gaston Lagaffe (whose surname means "the blunder"), a lazy and accident-prone office junior. Gaston is very popular in large parts of Europe (especially in Belgium and France) and has been translated in over a dozen languages, but except for a few pages by Fantagraphics in the early 90s (as Gomer Goof), there is no published English translation.

Since the 1980s Gaston has appeared on a wide variety of merchandise.

Publication history[edit]

Gaston's very first (silent) appearance in 1957

André Franquin who was then in charge of Spirou et Fantasio, the primary series of Spirou magazine, first introduced the character Gaston in issue n°985, published February 28, 1957.[1][2] The initial purpose was to fill up empty spaces in the magazine and offer a (comically artificial) glimpse of life behind-the-scenes at the paper.[3] His arrival was carefully orchestrated with a teasing campaign over several months, based on ideas by Franquin, Yvan Delporte and Jidéhem, with mysterious blue footprints in the margins of the magazine.

For the Spirou issue N°1000 cover, Franquin drew 999 heads of Spirou, and one of Gaston, and the first Gaston full-page gag was featured in a bonus supplement.[4][5][6]

In the context of the fictive story evolving at the magazine offices, the man behind the footprints, Gaston, finally turned up for a memorable job interview, telling the bemused Spirou that he didn't remember with whom or for what he had been called. Fantasio, functioning as the magazine's opinionated face of signed editorials, subsequently announced in a formal communiqué that Gaston would be the first "Hero-without-a-job". Gaston's blunders continued during a stressful and frustrating period for Fantasio, pushing him to go on a 4 week strike and eventually a vacation, initiating the story Vacances sans histoires.[7]

From Spirou issue n°1025, the single-panel gags were replaced with Gaston strips running at the bottom of the editor's pages, signed by both Jidéhem and Franquin.[8][9] These ran until 1959 when Gaston acquired a weekly half-page, which lasted until the mid-60s when the Gaston Lagaffe gags grew to full-page.[10]

Spirou et Fantasio appearances[edit]

Gaston's first Spirou et Fantasio appearance

Gaston's first cameo in a Spirou et Fantasio adventure took place in Spirou issue n°1014 (19 September 1957) as he graced two frames of Le voyageur du Mésozoïque (French: "The Traveller from the Mesozoic Era"). He is first seen "on the streets of the capital" riding a bicycle while reading a newspaper, obliviously littering papers, and then appears two frames later, bruised and dazed, dragging his deformed bike, having ridden into the middle of ongoing traffic.[11]

His second cameo occurred in the early panels of the story Vacances sans histoires (fr: "Quiet Holidays") (later included in the album Le gorille a bonne mine) which was published between November 1957 and January 1958. Gaston appears at the start of the story when, cycling and lighting a cigarette at the same time, he runs past a red light and very nearly gets hit by Spirou and Fantasio's Turbot I sportscar. Towards the end, he is again cycling, this time down the wrong way of a one-way street, when he actually gets hit by the new Turbot II. More surprised than anything else, stretched out on the front of the car, he simply tells Spirou and Fantasio that they are requested back at the Spirou offices.[12]

Gaston was given a larger part in the following adventure, La Foire aux gangsters ("The Gangster's Fair", included in the book Le nid des Marsupilamis). Here, Gaston hinders Spirou's investigation into a baby's kidnapping. Spirou's search leads him to a fairground and Gaston, who just happens to be there, keeps approaching him. When Spirou, desperate to keep a low profile, whispers to Gaston that they "don't know each other", he keeps insisting that they do or else suggesting that it is Spirou who looks like someone he knows. When Spirou recovers the baby, the kidnappers approach Gaston, who they know was previously talking to Spirou, and he, quite innocently, offers to show them the way to Spirou's house for what he thinks will be a pleasant social evening. Fortunately for Spirou and the little victim, Gaston keeps getting his directions wrong and he and the gangsters end up in a dead-end, surrounded by police and in jail. In the final frame (of the book version) Gaston is released from prison, to the scornful glances of the passing public.[13][14]

In 1961, Franquin and Yvan Delporte wrote a radio serial "Les Robinsons du rail" (French for "The Railway Robinsons"). In this story, Fantasio is sent to cover the inauguration of the first nuclear powered train and, since no-one else is available, is compelled to take Gaston with him for assistance. Needless to say, with Gaston on board, things start to go wrong and the train is soon speeding out of control, leaving Spirou and the train designer the task of sorting things out. The serial was broadcast on Belgian radio in 1961.[15] It was later published in Spirou magazine in 1964 and as a book, but in text form with Franquin and Jidéhem contributing just a few illustrations.[16]

Gaston also appeared in Franquin's two final Spirou et Fantasio stories, published in Panade à Champignac. He is featured in the opening pages of the title story, and plays a central role in Bravo les Brothers in which he offers Fantasio a troupe of performing chimpanzees as an unwanted birthday present.[13][14]

Gaston does not appear in QRN sur Bretzelburg (published in 1961-63), but in one scene Fantasio is about to endure painful agony by torturers in a totalitarian state. He thus decides that the best thing to do is to focus on emptiness and think of Gaston.

Jean-Claude Fournier succeeded Franquin as artist and writer of the Spirou and Fantasio series with Le faiseur d'or, published in 1969. Kidnapped by gangsters, leading scientist the Count of Champignac is forced by them to come up with a means of helping them with their plans. Thinking of Gaston, he comes up with the kind of recipe that the office idiot would devise, but the resulting and disgusting mixture does have the results that the gangsters wanted, much to the Count's annoyance.

When Tome and Janry took over the series a couple of references to Gaston were made in La jeunesse de Spirou (Spirou's youth) where a scam artist is publishing a faux number five album of the Gaston series. And during the tale about Spirou's childhood Gaston's car is seen parked in front of the publishing company.

More recently a reference to Gaston was made in the album "Au source du Z" (The source of Z) by Morvan and Munuera, when Spirou uses the time shifting machine he remarks that the experience is yucky, almost as bad as the Champagne that Gaston made out of fermented potatoes. Later in that album when Spirou has to use the time shifter once more he remarks that it's time to take a sip from Gaston's Champagne again.

Focus on Gaston[edit]

For a period, Franquin had trained his assistant Jidéhem to take over the strip in due time, but Jidéhem felt no affinity with the character and remained the background artist.[17] Franquin inversely grew tired of Spirou et Fantasio (a series he had not created himself, but inherited from Joseph "Jijé" Gillain in 1946) and decided in 1968 to resign the job, and concentrate on the increasingly popular Gaston.[18] Gaston's antics appeared in Spirou from 1957 to 1996, a few months before Franquin's death in 1997, although new material appeared only sporadically after the early 1980s.[19]

Format and appeal[edit]

Gaston Lagaffe follows the classic "gag" format: one-page stories (initially half-a-page) with an often visual punchline, sometimes foreshadowed in the dialogue. The humour mixes slapstick, puns and running gags. Franquin's style is characterised by extremely nervous characters and action and very quotable dialogue. The series is much loved not only for its perfectly timed comedy, but also for its warm outlook on everyday life. Although Gaston works at Spirou magazine and one of his colleagues is a cartoonist, the series satirises office life in general rather than the publishing or comics business; Franquin himself worked at home. In the later episodes, the reader could discover a visual reference to the story in Franquin's signature at the bottom of the page.

Characters[edit]

Gaston Lagaffe[edit]

Gaston was hired - somewhat mysteriously - as an office junior at the offices of the Journal de Spirou (the real-life publication in which the strip appeared), having wandered in cluelessly. The strip usually focuses on his efforts to avoid doing any work, and indulge instead in hobbies or naps while all around him panic over deadlines, lost mail and contracts. Initially, Gaston was an irritating simpleton, but he developed a genial personality and sense of humour. Common sense however always eludes him, and he has an almost supernatural ability to cause disasters ("gaffes") to which he reacts with his catchphrase: "M'enfin!" ("What the...?"). His job involves dealing with readers' mail. The ever-growing piles of unanswered letters ("courrier en retard") - and the attempts of Fantasio and Léon Prunelle to make him deal with it - are recurring themes of the comic.

Gaston's age is a mystery - Franquin himself confessed that he neither knew nor indeed wanted to know it. Although Gaston has a job, a car and his own place, he often acts like a young teenager. In the publication of Dossier Franquin Franquin had said that Gaston is a boy in his late teens but certainly not in his twenties. He is invariably dressed in a tight polo-necked green jumper and blue-jeans, and worn-out espadrilles. It is said that his appearance was originally based on that of Yvan Delporte, editor of the Journal de Spirou at that time. Also, in his first gags, Gaston was an avid cigarette smoker, but his habit was slowly phased out.

Gaston alternates between phases of extreme laziness, when it is near impossible to wake him up, and hyper-activity, when he creates various machines or plays with office furniture. Over the years, he has experimented with cooking, rocket science, music, electronics, decorating, telecommunication, chemistry and many other hobbies, all with uniformly catastrophic results. His Peter Pan-like refusal to grow up and care about his work makes him very endearing, while ironically his antics account for half the stress experienced by his unfortunate co-workers.

Gaston's disregard for authority or even public safety are not confined to his office — they occasionally threaten the entire city. He is not above covering road signs with advertising posters or even snowmen, reasoning that it is the only decent use that they have — being oblivious to the chaos and accidents that covering the road signs cause.

Gaston's pets[edit]

Gaston is very fond of animals (as was Franquin of drawing them) and keeps several pets. The main ones are a depressive, aggressive seagull and a hyperactive cat. Like Franquin's most famous animal creation, the Marsupilami, those two never acquired a name and are just referred to as the cat and the seagull. Gaston also sometimes keeps a mouse (Cheese), and a goldfish (Bubulle). The animals are sometimes Gaston's partners in crime, sometimes the victims of his clumsiness and sometimes the perpetrators of nefarious schemes. They are depicted more realistically than the pets in Spirou, in that we are not privy to their inner thoughts. The cat and seagull in particular can be fairly vicious, to the extent of forcing all employees and an unwilling De Mesmaeker to wear helmets, but never to Gaston himself. They often team up to obtain food. For example, in volume 14, the seagull distracts the fishmonger while the cat steals a fish, which they later eat together.[20]

The office co-workers[edit]

Fantasio of Spirou et Fantasio is the main supporting character and irritable straight man to Gaston in the early part of the series. Franquin acknowledged with regret that he had totally destroyed the original clown-like personality of the character by using him in this role. In Gaston, instead of having adventures and doing some reporting, Fantasio has an editorial role in the magazine and, as such, has the impossible task of trying to put Gaston to work. By the time the story Bravo les Brothers came out (which, while nominally a Spirou et Fantasio story, was effectively hijacked by Gaston), it was time for Fantasio to leave. When Fournier took over the Spirou et Fantasio series in 1970, Fantasio disappeared from Gaston.[21] At first he made the occasional guest appearance, even once returning in the office itself, his absence explained as being away in Champignac,[22] but otherwise faded out completely.

Spirou of Spirou et Fantasio was a fairly major supporting character in the comic's very early days, though his role was quickly reduced to occasional appearances. He was on generally friendly terms with Gaston, sometimes trying to mediate between him and Fantasio, usually without much success. Like Fantasio, he vanished entirely from the comic when Franquin stopped drawing Spirou et Fantasio.

Léon Prunelle, an editor at the Journal de Spirou. Prunelle is even more short-tempered than Fantasio, from whom he has inherited not only the mammoth task of making Gaston work, but also the job of signing contracts with important businessman Aimé De Mesmaeker (see below). Initially optimistic about this, Prunelle slowly realizes that he cannot win. However he refuses to give up and sometimes resorts to drastic measures, such as locking up Gaston in the cellar or even a cupboard. Perpetually at the end of his tether, running around barking orders, Prunelle turns a nasty reddish purple when disaster strikes and utters his trademark outburst "Rogntudju!" (a mangled version of "Nom de Dieu", roughly the equivalent of "bloody hell", then unacceptable in a children's comic). Occasionally, he manages to turn the tables on Gaston and shows that he is not without a sense of humour. He has black hair, a short beard and wears glasses.

Yves Lebrac, (first presented with the name Yvon Lebrac),[23] an in-house cartoonist, is comparatively laid-back. He is fond of puns and we see him woo (and eventually win) one of the attractive secretary girls over the course of the series. Although mostly on good terms with Gaston (unlike Prunelle), he occasionally loses his temper when deadlines loom and Gaston's interference becomes too much. When not a victim of "gaffes", he is a lenient comrade of Gaston, and the character with which Franquin himself most identified.[24]

Joseph Boulier, a surly accountant for Éditions Dupuis, the publishers of the magazine. He states that he will not rest until he has tracked down every useless expense in the company, and in particular those of Gaston. However, his attempts to cause Gaston grief backfire in spectacular ways. He represents the more serious side of the comics publishing business.

Mademoiselle Jeanne ("M'oiselle Jeanne" to Gaston), a redheaded with freckles, is one of Gaston’s colleagues and his love interest. She was first depicted as comically unattractive in a gag where Gaston needs a partner for the back end of his pantomime horse costume, and chooses Jeanne because of her ponytail. Gradually however, she became cuter with her body turning from pear-shaped to curvaceous — if never really a beauty queen. Jeanne is a perfect match for Gaston, as she admires his talent, his courage, his inventiveness and is utterly oblivious to his lack of common sense — of which she herself has fairly little. However their courtship is perpetually stuck at the very first step. They address each other with the formal vous and as "Mister" and "Miss" and see each other mainly at the office — though they have had the occasional outing together. This platonic relationship, in a way, is in keeping with Gaston's refusal or inability to grow up. It is revealed in the album En direct de la gaffe that Jeanne is color blind: she can't tell green from red. She also still lives with her mother and, although it is assumed that she is well beyond her teens, is shown grounded after a row.

By the end of the series, Gaston's daydreams about Jeanne did become relatively more explicit. To the dismay of critics, Franquin once actually drew them naked, with Gaston in a state of arousal, on a commercially unavailable greeting card.[25]

Monsieur Dupuis (the real-life publisher Jean Dupuis) himself has made two appearances - both times we only see his legs.

Spirou is also staffed by the Van Schrijfboek brothers: the mustached translator Bertje and the red-haired editor Jef,[26] cleaning lady Mélanie Molaire (who always fumes at the mess left by Gaston and which she has to clean up), concierge Jules Soutier, and a string of attractive secretaries named Sonia (who is constantly handing in her notice), Yvonne and Suzanne. Occasionally, real-life figures from the Journal de Spirou (such as editor Yvan Delporte or writer Raoul Cauvin) have cameos.

Friends[edit]

Jules-de-chez-Smith-en-face (Jules-from-Smith’s-across-the-street) is one of Gaston’s friends. He "works" (much in the same way as Gaston "works") in the office just across the street from the Journal de Spirou, prompting countless attempts at cross-street communication via walkie-talkie, flash card, carrier seagull etc. Jules shares Gaston's childish enthusiasm, and is his sidekick in many ventures. Although they are close, Jules addresses Gaston as "Lagaffe".

Bertrand Labévue is another of Gaston’s friends/sidekicks and also his cousin. As his name indicates, (bévue means "blunder"), he shares his cousin's tendency to goof up. Bertrand suffers from acute depression, mirroring Franquin's own problems with the illness, and Gaston and Jules do their best to cheer him up with food, country drives and other things (all of which backfire comically).

Manu is another friend, who regularly turns up in different jobs (à la Bert in Mary Poppins): chimney sweep, sewer worker, installer of street signage... He also partakes in Gaston's schemes to irritate Longtarin, the policeman.

Foes[edit]

Aimé De Mesmaeker is a rich businessman; we know that he owns a private jet (until Gaston destroys it) and that his oldest daughter drives an Alfa Romeo.[27] His precise line of business is unknown, but he is repeatedly lured into the offices of Spirou by Fantasio or Prunelle in order to sign some lucrative contracts (see below). De Mesmaeker has developed a deep loathing for Gaston and by extension his colleagues. His frequent visits allow Franquin to satirise business rituals, as Dupuis's employees shower him with attention, complimentary drinks, cigars but De Mesmaeker almost inevitably ends up storming out of the offices, swearing never to set foot in them again, passed out on the floor or even in hospital due to Gaston's catastrophic blunders.

De Mesmaeker is named after Jean De Mesmaeker (known as Jidéhem from the French pronunciation of his initials J.D.M.), Franquin’s collaborator on the series; he remarked that the character looked like his own father.[28] The real-life Mr De Mesmaeker Sr — actually a salesman — soon found that, as Gaston's strip became increasingly popular, concluding a deal would result in the client asking, "Where are the contracts?".

Joseph Longtarin ("long nose") is a policeman working in the neighbourhood where the offices of Spirou are located. One of his particular responsibilities is for traffic and illegal parking. An exceptionally petty and vengeful man, he is the closest thing the series has to a villain. He is one of Gaston's favorite "victims" as well as his nemesis. The two clash continually over Gaston's car and parking habits. Gaston retaliates for Longtarin's repeated attempts to ticket him by wreaking havoc on the neighbourhood's parking meters (not just a bugbear of Gaston, but of André Franquin too). He pulls off other pranks, such as putting a small effigy of Longtarin on the front of his car, in a parody of the Rolls-Royce Spirit of Ecstasy.[29]

Ducran & Lapoigne (“Courage & Stronghold”) is an engineering firm (specializing in steel bridges) whose offices neighbour those of Dupuis. This company is also a frequent victim of Lagaffe's mishaps and Fantasio or Prunelle often bear the brunt of Ducran and Lapoigne's anger—both of them being big muscular men, as their names suggest.

Freddy-les-doigts-de-fée ("fairy-fingered Freddy") is a burglar. His occasional break-ins at Spirou are always foiled accidentally by Gaston, who tends to inadvertently leave dangerous objects, devices or pets around the office. Workers at Spirou see Freddy as a fellow victim of Gaston, and, instead of turning him in to the police, offer him comfort and freebies when they find him in the morning.

Props, inventions and other running gags[edit]

Objects play an important part in Gaston's life, and some of them have become iconic enough to be sometimes recreated in real life for exhibitions and such. The main two are:

Gaston's car[edit]

Fiat 509 at the European Motor Show Brussels 2006, decorated like Gaston's car.

Gaston drives an old Fiat 509, which he acquires in gag #321, decorated with racing patterns that he added himself.[30] However its top speed still allows passengers to safely pick flowers on motorway verges.[31] Much humour derives from the car's extreme state of decrepitude; for example, a friend of Gaston is able to "waterski" behind it on a slick of oil, while Gaston strenuously denies any such leaks. The car also produces huge quantities of (often toxic) smoke, even more so when Gaston converts it to run on coal. Customisations and ill-fitted upgrades include:

  • An emissions filter fitted to the exhaust pipe which turns out not to let anything through, causing the exhaust to come in the front.[32]
  • A bag in which exhaust fumes are collected. Unfortunately, Gaston thoughtlessly empties the bag in a busy street, rendering everyone unconscious.[33]
  • Snow chains.[34]
  • A snow-plough device that sucks the snow into a heater, which, instead of evaporating the snow, fills the passenger compartment, freezing the occupants.[35]
  • Seatbelts, which, accidentally wrap around the rear axle.[36]
  • An airbag which smothers the driver (Prunelle claims it allows a less messy death in case of accident).
  • A wind turbine that peels apart the car's roof, flying away with Prunelle dangling underneath.[37]

The car is inadvertently rocket-powered on two separate occasions.

Some of Gaston's colleagues are terrified at the very thought of sitting in the Fiat – Prunelle swears on several occasions that he will never set foot in it again. The car is also the source of many clashes with Longtarin, as Gaston endlessly devises schemes to avoid paying parking meters, even going as far as parking it up in a tree or faking roadworks.

The Gaffophone[edit]

This extraordinary instrument, a prehistoric-looking combination of horn and harp created by Gaston,[38][39] produces a sound so terrible and loud that it causes physical destruction all around and panics animals and even fighter jet pilots. Like the voice of the bard Cacofonix in Asterix, it horrifies everyone except its originator. The first time the instrument appears, the plucking of just one string causes the floor to collapse.[38] Gaston has also created at least one other instrument in the same vein, and an electric version of the Gaffophone.[40] Fantasio has tried several times to get rid of the Gaffophone, without success.

An illustrated text published in the Journal de Spirou column En direct de la Rédaction (and later collected in Gaston nº 10), chronicled (from the viewpoint of Prunelle) the Gaffophone's blossoming and development into a small ecosystem, which then self-destructed. Gaston later rebuilt his instrument.

Costumes[edit]

An early running gag involved Gaston coming up with elaborate and extremely impractical costumes for fancy dress parties at the facetious suggestions of his colleagues: Roly-poly toy, octopus, Greek urn, petrol pump, Eiffel Tower etc. He was invariably worried about whether he would be able to dance with the outfit on. Once, he dressed as the Marsupilami.[41]

Other inventions[edit]

These have included:

  • A necktie- / shoelace-tying device
  • A ceiling-suspended table[42]
  • A self-heating duffle coat[43]
  • A rotating Christmas tree[44]
  • A pneumatic ashtray
  • An electric scarecrow[45]
  • A folding bicycle[46]
  • A remote-controlled electric iron[47]
  • A mini-lawnmower (to mow around daisies)
  • A suit of armour for mice[48]
  • A solar-powered flashlight[49]
  • An electric cigar cutter, shaped like a guillotine which almost worked like a guillotine for the users' fingers.
  • An automatic hammer. The inevitable "gaffe" being that you first had to nail it to the wall.
  • A seatbelt made of rubber, for easy access to the mailbox from the car.
  • A coffeemaker which produces so stiff a drink, it renders the drinker (Gaston himself and De Mesmaeker) hyperenergetic, agitated and utterly unable to use even a pen without destroying it.
  • A tanning umbrella, to tan (or sunburn) when it is raining
  • A perpetual motion machine.

The mail backlog[edit]

The task most often given to Gaston by Prunelle is to sort and answer the mail, presumably sent by readers. This often builds up to a mountain-like backlog, which Gaston often attempts to dispose of in creative ways, for instance stuffing a homemade sofa with it. In a similar vein, Gaston was briefly put in charge of the reference library: at first he arranged the books into a maze and charged his colleagues for admission, and later he simply piled them up, dug a cave in the middle and settled there with his pets, a radio and a stove to sleep all day.

De Mesmaeker's contracts[edit]

This is possibly the most frequent running gag in the series, and by Franquin's admission a MacGuffin: "Whatever's in the contracts is irrelevant. What we want to see is how Gaston will prevent them from being signed."

Aimé De Mesmaeker is a hot-tempered businessman who often visits the office (which he increasingly, and with some justification, sees as a madhouse) in order to sign some important contracts. However, the contracts are irrevocably jinxed: before De Mesmaeker can apply pen to paper, Gaston's latest gimmick comes along, provokes mayhem and causes the hapless businessman to storm out, rip the contracts up, or in some cases pass out. Even when they do get signed, Gaston can always be counted on to accidentally, and unintentionally, destroy them.

Over the years, Fantasio and Prunelle's efforts to get the iconic contracts signed become increasingly frantic and desperate. Prunelle even goes so far as to send Lagaffe to the other side of town on some wild goose chase or bound and gag him and lock him into a cupboard but even these drastic measures backfire and fail.

On two occasions, De Mesmaeker actually ended up signing other contracts with Gaston spontaneously, instead of the contracts, both merchandising deals over Gaston's inventions (the "Cosmo-clock", an Apollo spacecraft-shaped cuckoo clock,[50] and a soup recipe).

Politics, activism and promotional material[edit]

Authors at Spirou could only go so far in expressing anything resembling politics within the magazine, and so the author of Gaston generally stuck to a gentle satire of productivity and authority. However, the pacifism and concern for the environment that formed the basis of Franquin's politics and would be expressed much more bluntly in Idées noires were already surfacing in Gaston (and Spirou et Fantasio). Very occasionally, Franquin stepped over the mark, as in an uncharacteristically angry strip where Gaston uses a toy Messerschmitt plane to strafe the whole office in protest at their (real life) appearance in the magazine's modelling column (while building the model, he says: “… and now, the swastikas. They are very popular amongst retards”). Outside of Spirou however, Franquin had a free rein, and used Gaston in promotional material for diverse organisations such as Greenpeace and Amnesty International. In the former, activists scare whales away from whalers by plucking the dreaded gaffophone. For the latter, Franquin produced a gut-wrenching sequence where Gaston is beaten and tortured and forced to watch M'oiselle Jeanne raped in front of him, before being sent to a prison camp. In the penultimate frame he faces capital punishment which the punters hope "serves as an example". Awaking in a sweat, Gaston shouts at the reader that "although this was a nightmare, it's happening right now around the world", urging membership.

Gaston has also appeared in advertising campaigns for batteries, a soft drink (Orange Piedboeuf),[51] and in a campaign to promote bus use. The material was always drawn by Franquin himself rather than under licence, and has been reprinted in books. The latter campaign is interesting in that it shows Franquin's evolution from car enthusiast inventing the Turbo-traction and other fancy sports vehicles for Spirou in the 1950s, to disillusioned citizen concerned over traffic and pollution in later years. One topical strip had the seagull boycotting Gaston's car after seeing a bird stuck in an oil spill on television. "Life is becoming more and more complicated", its owner concludes gloomily in a very rare joke-free ending.

Albums[edit]

In 1960 the first Gaston book, a small-format (7x13 cm) publication, was released. Its format was so unorthodox that some retailers thought it was a promotional issue to be given away for free.[52] The cover features Gaston wearing orange espadrilles without socks, not yet given his trademark blue espadrilles. Fifteen major albums were published between 1963 and 1996, including all the strips that appeared in Spirou. There were some oddities such as number 1 appearing out of sequence and number 0 twenty years later. The first five were quickly sold out; the others were frequently reprinted.

Included in the series were the "R1" through "R5" albums (R for Réédition, French for republication). The R5 album was not published until 1986; its non-existence until then had been a mystery. This was due to the republication of the real first five books: they were published on a smaller format and from this small ones they couldn't make five big ones. After several years it was decided to fill it up with early unpublished material and some advertising gags for PiedBœuf.

Beginning in 1987, Éditions J'ai lu began publishing a 17-volume series in paperback format. The titles and contents did not exactly match the large-format albums.

In 1996, upon Gaston's 40th anniversary, Dupuis and Marsu Productions published Edition Définitive, containing nearly all Gaston gags in chronological order. As some of the earliest material had been damaged, restoration work was done by Studio Léonardo, with the results approved by Franquin.[53] This edition is being published in Spain by Planeta DeAgostini Comics starting in January 2007.[54]

In 2007, upon Gaston's 50th anniversary, Marsu Productions published Gaston 50, a new album with unpublished work. The strange number 50 refers to Gaston's age but also to the chaotic numbering of the Classic series, which hadn't got a number five for a very long time.

Série classique, Classic series
Title Year[a] Pages Format
Content[b] Period [a] Authors
0- Gaston 01960 19,7 x 8,3 cm new 1960 Franquin, Jidehem
02 Gala de gaffes 01963 64 22 x 15 cm new (strips 49 - 151) 1962 Franquin, Jidehem
03 Gaffes à gogo 01964 64 22 x 15 cm new (strips 144 - 210) 1964 Franquin, Jidehem
04 Gaffes en gros 01965 64 22 x 15 cm new (strips 215 - 286) 1965 Franquin, Jidehem
01 Gare aux gaffes 01966 64 22 x 15 cm new (strips 294 - 351) 1959 to 1966 Franquin, Jidehem
05 Les gaffes d'un gars gonflé 01967 64 22 x 15 cm new (strips 350 - 410) 1967 Franquin, Jidehem
06 Des gaffes et des dégâts 01968 59 21,8 x 30 cm new (strips 413 - 480) 1968 Franquin
07 Un gaffeur sachant gaffer 01969 59 21,8 x 30 cm new (strips 472 - 543) 1969 Franquin
08 Lagaffe nous gâte 01970 59 21,8 x 30 cm new (strips 544 - 607) 1970 Franquin
0R1 Gala de gaffes à gogo 01970 59 21,8 x 30 cm albums 2 and 3 1963 Franquin, Jidehem
09 Le cas Lagaffe 01971 52 21,8 x 30 cm new (strips 601 - 658) 1971 Franquin
010 Le géant de la gaffe 01972 52 21,8 x 30 cm new (strips 659 - 714) 1972 Franquin
0R2 Le bureau des gaffes en gros 01972 52 21,8 x 30 cm album 4 and unpublished 1965 Franquin, Jidehem
0R3 Gare aux gaffes du gars gonflé 0 01973 52 21,8 x 30 cm album 1 and 5 1959 to 1966 Franquin, Jidehem
011 Gaffes, bévues et boulettes 01973 44 21,8 x 30 cm new (strips 715 - 849) 1972 Franquin
0R4 En direct de la gaffe 01974 44 21,8 x 30 cm unpublished 1960 to 1968 Franquin, Delporte
012 Le gang des gaffeurs 01974 44 21,8 x 30 cm new (strips 759 - 805) 1974 Franquin
013 Lagaffe mérite des baffes 01979 46 21,8 x 30 cm new (strips 806 - 850) 1975 to 1979 Franquin
014 La saga des gaffes 01982 44 21,8 x 30 cm new (strips 851 - 890) 1980 to 1982 Franquin
00 Gaffes et gadgets 01985 46 21,8 x 30 cm unpublished 1957 Franquin, Delporte
0R5 Le lourd passé de Lagaffe 01986 46 21,8 x 30 cm unpublished 1957 to 1982 Franquin, Jidehem
015 Gaffe à Lagaffe ! 01996 45 21,8 x 30 cm new and unpublished 1987 to 1996 Franquin
019 Gaston 19 01999 44 21,8 x 30 cm new and unpublished 1957 to 1997 Franquin
050 Gaston 50 02007 44 21,8 x 30 cm new and unpublished 1957 to 1997 Franquin
[a] year the comics book was published in album, as opposed to the period during which the strips were published in Spirou magazine.
[b] "new" refers to an album whose strips had been published in magazine one or some years earlier (with the numero of the strips), while "unpublished" means the album is a collection of unrelated strips never published in albums by mistake. "album" means the album is a republication.

Other publications[edit]

  • Biographie d'un gaffeur (1965) Franquin & Jidéhem, Gag de poche n°26
  • La fantastica Fiat 509 di Gaston Lagaffe (1977)
  • Gaston et le Marsupilami (1978, ISBN 2-8001-0637-9)
  • Les Robinsons du rail (1981, ISBN 2-903403-05-8) An illustrated story album (not a comic) featuring Gaston, Spirou and Fantasio
  • Fou du Bus (1987, ISBN 2-906452-01-7) Advert album commissioned by the Union of Public Transportations
  • Rempile et désopile (1989) Advertising gags for Philips, only printed in 2500 editions
  • Le facteur est mon ami (1992) Advertising for the Belgian Post
  • Gaston 50 (2007, ISBN 2-35426-000-8) Edition for Gaston's 50th birthday with unpublished work

Tributes and pastiches[edit]

Issue no 3672 of Spirou magazine was conceived as a tribute to the series, with tributes and parodies being drawn by artists such as Yoann, Olivier Schwartz, Lewis Trondheim, Fabrice Tarrin etc.

Gaston film[edit]

In 1981, a live-action French film based on Gaston Lagaffe, called Fais gaffe à la gaffe! directed by Paul Boujenah and starring Roger Mirmont was released to disappointing reception.[citation needed] It features future The Sopranos star Lorraine Bracco.

Franquin, uncomfortable with the prospect of the adaptation of Gaston, had given permission for the elements and jokes from his work to be used, but not the actual characters. As a result, the characters' names were all changed, making the film appear more like an imitation than a proper adaptation.

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ gastonlagaffe.com. "Dossiers-28 février 1957". (French)
  2. ^ Image of Spirou n°985 Gaston page
  3. ^ gastonlagaffe.com. "Franquin raconte Gaston". (French)
  4. ^ Plate1 of Spirou n°1000 cover
  5. ^ Plate2 of Spirou n°1000 cover
  6. ^ Gaston-Spirou n°1000 supplement Gaston gag n°1
  7. ^ BDoubliées. "Spirou année 1957" (in French). 
  8. ^ gastonlagaffe.com. "Dossiers-28 novembre 1957". (French)
  9. ^ gastonlagaffe.com. "Dossiers-5 décembre 1957". (French)
  10. ^ gastonlagaffe.com. "les différentes époques". (French)
  11. ^ gastonlagaffe.com. "Dossiers-19 septembre 1957". (French)
  12. ^ gastonlagaffe.com. "Dossiers-21 novembre 1957". (French)
  13. ^ a b Collignon, Claude. "Images moins connues dans SPIROU". (French)
  14. ^ a b Inigo Yanez, Pedro. "Apparitions de Gaston Lagaffe". (French)
  15. ^ inedispirou.net
  16. ^ peuleux.fr Spirou web site
  17. ^ franquin.com. "Franquin-les amis-Jidéhem". (French)
  18. ^ franquin.com. "Franquin-une vie-1968". (French)
  19. ^ gastonlagaffe.com. "Dossiers-inventaire-all Gaston index". (French)
  20. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #726" Gaston v14, (1997), Dupuis
  21. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #481" Gaston v8, (1997), Dupuis
  22. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #512" Gaston v9, (1997), Dupuis
  23. ^ LaGaffeMeGate.free.fr. "Prenom-Yves Lebrac" (in French). 
  24. ^ Franquin.com. "Personnages-Yves Lebrac" (in French). 
  25. ^ Thierry Groensteen, "Bloc-Notes", Les Cahiers de la BD, March 1988, p67-68
  26. ^ Unnamed in the comic book itself, known mainly as "the redhead", Jef's identity is confirmed on the official website (in French): http://www.gastonlagaffe.com/saga/personnages/#jef
  27. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #587" Gaston v11, (1997), Dupuis
  28. ^ franquin.com. "Gaston-personnages-De Mesmaeker". (French)
  29. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #786" Gaston v15, (1997), Dupuis
  30. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #327" Gaston v5, (1997), Dupuis
  31. ^ Gaston nº 12
  32. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #447" Gaston v8, (1997), Dupuis
  33. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #448" Gaston v8, (1997), Dupuis
  34. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #550" Gaston v10, (1997), Dupuis
  35. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #551" Gaston v10, (1997), Dupuis
  36. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #664" Gaston v13, (1997), Dupuis
  37. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #863" Gaston v17, (1997), Dupuis
  38. ^ a b Franquin, André (w). "Gag #449" Gaston v8, (1997), Dupuis
  39. ^ Gaston nº 8
  40. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #600" Gaston v11, (1997), Dupuis
  41. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #601" Gaston v11, (1997), Dupuis
  42. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #338" Gaston v5, (1997), Dupuis
  43. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #380" Gaston v6, (1997), Dupuis
  44. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #385" Gaston v6, (1997), Dupuis
  45. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #535" Gaston v10, (1997), Dupuis
  46. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #629" Gaston v12, (1997), Dupuis
  47. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #899" Gaston v18, (1997), Marsu Productions
  48. ^ Franquin, André (w). Gaston v18, (1997), Marsu Productions
  49. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #868" Gaston v17, (1997), Dupuis
  50. ^ Franquin, André (w). "Gag #604" Gaston v11, (1997), Dupuis
  51. ^ These strips were later collected in Le lourd passé de Lagaffe and Série définitive Gaston n°2. Piedboeuf is now part of Interbrew
  52. ^ gastonlagaffe.com. "Série classique Gaston 0". (French)
  53. ^ franquin.com. "Albums-Edition Définitive". (French)
  54. ^ planetadeagostinicomics.com. "Planeta DeAgostini Comics > Colección BD > Tomás, el gafe". (Spanish)

External links[edit]