|Fukushima pref., Japan|
The orchid has an 8–12 centimeters long elliptical underground rhizome with a diameter of 3–5 centimeters but may grow up to 7 centimeters. The stem is erect with a height of 0.3–1 meter up to 2 meters, the orange yellow, tan, cylinder, and leafless.
The flowered pale olivine or the orange red, the scape is length 5–30 centimeters, longest may be 50 centimeters. Floral Bractsare long lanceolate, length 1-1.5 centimeters; Pedicel and ovary of branch 0.7–1.2 centimeter, slightly short in colored bract; The sepal and the petal produce a slanting pot shape perianth tube, the perianth tube long the approximately 1 centimeter, the diameter 5–7 millimeters. The labellum is white, circular, with a length of 6–7 millimeters and width of 3–4 millimeters, the tip 3 cracks, the base pastes the tight pistil column full terminal, has a pair of pulp callus, in the callus connection perianth tube. The pistil column length 5–7 millimeters, have the short pistil column foot.
Capsule each approximately 30, oval or but actually oval, length 1.2–1.8 centimeters, width 8–9 millimeters. The seed are most, 2 – 40,000 grains of each fruit, minimum, powdery. Flowering season June to July, fruit time July to August.
Gastrodia elata grows in symbiosis with the fungus Armillaria mellea on rotting wood, depending on the hypha of the fungus to invade the root system so that the plant can absorb nutrients from A. mellea.
Distribution and habitat
It is found in Nepal, Bhutan, India, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyuushu), North Korea, Siberia, Taiwan, and China (in the provinces of Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shanxi, Shanxi, Gansu, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Henan, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Tibet). It grows at elevations of 400–3,200 m (1,300–10,500 ft), at the edge of forests.
The herb is used in traditional Chinese medicine and Sichuan cuisine. It is one of the three orchids listed in the earliest known Chinese Materia Medica (Shennon bencaojing) (c. 100 AD). Medicinally, it is used for 'calming the liver' and for treating headaches, dizziness, tetanus, and epilepsy. According to "Nutrition Review," "Gastrodia root has been shown to exert novel pain relief and inflammatory-mediating activities, as well as in vivo and in vitro inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production."
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- 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde from Gastrodia elata B1. is active in the antioxidation and GABAergic neuromodulation of the rat brain. Jeoung-Hee Ha, Dong-Ung Lee, Jae-Tae Lee, Jin-Sook Kim, Chul-Soon Yong, Jung-Ae Kim, Jung-Sang Ha and Keun- Huh, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 73, Issues 1–2, November 2000, Pages 329–333, doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00313-5
- 2,4-Bis(4-hydroxybenzyl) phenol from Gastrodia elata. Naoki Noda, Yukio Kobayashi, Kazumoto Miyahara and Saeko Fukahori, doi:10.1016/0031-9422(95)00051-8
- Phenolic compounds from Gastrodia rhizome and relaxant effects of related compounds on isolated smooth muscle preparation. Junko Hayashi, Toshikazu Sekine, Shigeyoshi Deguchi, Qing Lin, Syunji Horie, Shizuko Tsuchiya, Shingo Yano, Kazuo Watanabe and Fumio Ikegami, Phytochemistry, Volume 59, Issue 5, March 2002, Pages 513–519, doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00008-0
- Chung-Fen Tsaia, 1, Chuen-Lin Huangb, c, 1, Yun-Lian Lind, Yi-Chao Leee, Ying-Chen Yangf, Nai-Kuei Huangd, g, "The neuroprotective effects of an extract of Gastrodia elata",Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 138, Issue 1, 31 October 2011, Pages 119–125
- Jim English (2010). "Traditional Chinese Herbs for Arthritis". Nutrition Review. 5 (2). Archived from the original on 2011-12-10. Retrieved 2011-12-29.