A gastroenterostomy is the surgical creation of a connection between the stomach and the jejunum. The operation can sometimes be performed at the same time as a partial gastrectomy (the removal of part of the stomach). Gastroenterostomy was in the past typically performed to treat peptic ulcers, but today is usually carried out to enable food to pass directly to the middle section of the small intestine, bypassing the damaged first section of the small intestine duodenum. The procedure is still being used to treat refractory gastroparesis but is now rarely used to treat peptic ulcer disease ulcers as most cases are bacterial in nature and there are many new drugs available to treat the gastric reflux often experienced with peptic ulcer disease. At least 80% of peptic ulcers are caused by the bacteria H. pylori, and are therefore treated with combination antibiotic therapy (references pending).