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Gated reverb is an audio processing technique that is applied to recordings of drums (or live sound reinforcement of drums in a PA system) to make the drums sound powerful and "punchy," while keeping the overall mix clean and transparent-sounding. The gated reverb effect, which was most popular in the 1980s, is made using a combination of strong reverb and a noise gate.
The gated reverb effect became highly popular as part of the strongly syncopated sound of 1980s pop, rock and funk. Early and prominent uses of the effect were from Yellow Magic Orchestra, XTC, Peter Gabriel, Phil Collins and Hugh Padgham.
Phil Collins used gated reverb extensively, both in his solo work as well as working with other artists. Producer Steve Lillywhite and engineer Hugh Padgham famously applied gated reverb to Collins' drum timbre on Peter Gabriel's 1980 song "Intruder", from Gabriel's third solo album. Padgham discovered the sound accidentally when he opened an overhead mic, intended to be used as a talkback channel, above Collins's drum set when the pair were working on the track. The microphone was heavily compressed as well as using a gate. Collins went on to use the effect notably on his hit single "In the Air Tonight" (1981), produced by Collins and Padgham. Other examples from Collins' own music include "Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)", "I Don't Care Anymore" and "I Wish It Would Rain Down", and the Genesis tracks "Mama" and "No Son of Mine". Lillywhite and Padgham's work on Peter Gabriel 3 was bookended with their work on XTC's Drums and Wires and Black Sea. In this period they perfected their technique on Terry Chambers' drums, which can be heard most distinctively on Black Sea (particularly songs "Respectable Street", "Generals and Majors" and "Love At First Sight").
One of the first electronic reverb units to be powered by a microprocessor was the AMS RMX16, which was introduced in 1982, and could replicate otherwise expensive and physically large methods of generating reverb effects.
Gated reverb was used on countless drum tracks during the 1980s, to the point that the sound became a defining characteristic of that decade's popular music.
The British band Duran Duran made repeated use of the recording technique, heard prominently on the drums on the 1984 hit single "The Wild Boys" as well as the 1985 James Bond theme song "A View To A Kill". Bruce Springsteen used the effect on his 1984 hit "Born in the U.S.A.", the drums being played by Max Weinberg. The song "Some Like It Hot" by The Power Station opens with a drum solo that features the effect prominently. The song "Hounds of Love", produced and released by Kate Bush, makes heavy usage of this method. American rock band Haim used gated reverb on Danielle Haim's drumming for their first album Days Are Gone.
Methods of creation
Live Room method
The oldest, most "natural" technique can be executed with minimal electronic processing. The steps for processing are as follow:
This results in a very live-sounding drum that is rapidly cut off with none of the overpowering secondary reflections associated with reverb. Note that this process is generally used in studio recording environment only: it's hard to reproduce such effect when playing live, though both Phil Collins and Genesis were able to incorporate it into most of their live performances.
Effects processor method
When using a hardware reverb unit, echo chamber or digital emulation of either, it is possible to replicate the classic scheme:
This setup does not require a "live room" to achieve the enhanced reverberation of the drum sound and therefore the effect can be reproduced at live gigs without great difficulty.
Gated reverb is most commonly used for empowering drum sounds, particularly snare drum and bass drum. The technique became so popular and the "gated reverb" sound is so recognizable that many drum machines and samplers include some sort of "gated drums" setting. These sounds are usually referred to as gated snare and gated kick, omitting the word "reverb" from the original name.
While General MIDI does not specify particular sound characteristics for its drum kits, it does include two distinct snare sounds, sometimes referred to as acoustic snare (38) and electric snare (40), the latter usually implemented with a "gated snare" sound. Later MIDI standards such as GS and XG include drum kits that specify gated drum sounds, most usually patch #16 (1-128 #17, with shifted numbering) named "Power drumkit" (for GS) or "Rock drumkit" (for XG), or patch #24 (1-128 #25) named "Electronic drumkit". Thus, for example, for snare drum, distinct sounds may be referred to as power snare or rock snare.
- Tanaka, Yuji (November 11, 2014). "Yellow Magic Orchestra: The Pre-MIDI Technology Behind Their Anthems". Red Bull Music Academy.
- Hodgson, Jay (2010) Understanding Records, p.87. ISBN 978-1-4411-5607-5.
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- Flans, Robyn. "Classic Tracks: Phil Collins' "In the Air Tonight"". Mix Professional Audio & Music Production. New Bay Media. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- Robyn Flans (May 1, 2005). "Classic Tracks: Phil Collins' "In the Air Tonight"". Mix.
- Partridge & Bernhardt (2016). Complicated Game, p.116. ISBN 978-1-908279-78-1
- on YouTube - Vox, 18 August 2017
- Petridis, Alexis (2013-09-26). "Haim: Days Are Gone – review". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-10-19.