Gates County, North Carolina

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Gates County, North Carolina
Seal of Gates County, North Carolina
Seal
Map of North Carolina highlighting Gates County
Location in the U.S. state of North Carolina
Map of the United States highlighting North Carolina
North Carolina's location in the U.S.
Founded 1779
Named for General Horatio Gates
Seat Gatesville
Largest town Gatesville
Area
 • Total 346 sq mi (896 km2)
 • Land 340 sq mi (881 km2)
 • Water 5.2 sq mi (13 km2), 1.5%
Population
 • (2010) 12,197
 • Density 36/sq mi (14/km²)
Congressional districts 1st, 3rd
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Website Gates County, North Carolina

Gates County is a small, rural county located in the northeast portion of the U.S. state of North Carolina, on the border with Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,197.[1] Its county seat is Gatesville.[2]

Gates County is included in the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Metropolitan Statistical Area.[3] It is part of the Albemarle Sound area of the Inner Banks.

History[edit]

As in other areas along the waterways, Native Americans had settled these lands for thousands of years, with different groups leaving and new ones migrating to settle again. They created settlements, increasingly permanent, along the Chowan River.

At the time of European contact, the Chowanoke was the largest tribe in North Carolina of the many in the Algonquian language family and occupied most of the territory along the river. After suffering dramatic population decreases by the early 17th century due to European infectious diseases, to which they had no immunity, most survivors were pushed out by encroaching Tuscarora, an Iroquoian-speaking tribe.

In 1585, the Ralph Lane Colony explored the Chowan River. They explored the river at least as far up as present-day Winton, North Carolina. In 1622, the John Pory Colony led an expedition from Virginia to the Chowan River. (Pory was secretary of the Province of Virginia.) In 1629, Sir Robert Heath was granted a patent to settle Carolina. This patent embraced Gates County.

The Chowanoke waged war against the encroaching colonists in 1644 but lost.[4] During the 1650s, colonists from Virginia started to move increasingly into the Albemarle Sound region. Colonel Drew and Roger Green led an expedition into the Albermarle area. In 1654, Francis Speight was granted a patent for 300 acres (1.2 km2) of land near Raynor Swamp. The first English settlement in Gates County was established near Corapeake in 1660. In 1670, Colonel Henry Baker of Nansemond County obtained a grant of land for 2,400 acres (9.7 km2) near Buckland. In 1672, George Fox, leader of the Quakers, visited Gates County. He described the county as barren.

The Chowanoke renewed their effort to expel the colonists, warring from 1675-1677. Following the English defeat of these forces, in 1677 they created a Chowanoke Indian Reservation, the first within the present-day United States. The 11,360-acre reservation was established at the Chowanoke settlement between Bennett's Creek and Catherine Creek in Gates.[4]

From 1684–1722 Gates County was a part of the Chowan precinct. In 1711, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel established an Anglican school for Chowanoke and local Native Americans at Sarum, with Mr. Marshburn as the teacher. During the 18th century, the Chowanoke lost most of their land, selling off portions to help the tribe survive. Men's names were recorded in tribal conveyances, and many modern descendants can trace their ancestry to these families. Some members began to intermarry with other Native Americans, such as the nearby Meherrin people, Europeans and African Americans.[4]

In 1738, Anglo-European settlers created a mail route from Suffolk, Virginia to Corapeake and Edenton, North Carolina. The stage coach route crossed the Chowan River at Barfield.

Gates County was organized in 1779 from parts of Chowan, Hertford, and Perquimans counties. It was named for General Horatio Gates,[5] who had commanded the victorious American colonial forces at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777.

1800s[edit]

In 1806, European Americans established Middle Swamp Baptist Church as the first Baptist church in Gates County. This accompanied the Second Great Awakening revival in the South after the American Revolution, which was led by Baptist and Methodist preachers. In 1811, Savages United Methodist Church was established, the oldest Methodist Church in Gates County. Both denominations preached to enslaved blacks as well as white settlers, and accepted slaves and free blacks as members and sometimes as preachers.

The Chowanoke lost their last 30-acre plot of communal land in 1821. Although Gates County had mostly yeomen farmers who owned few slaves, Americans in the South had a slave society in which they generally classified people as black (related to ethnic African slaves) or white. They did not understand that Native Americans maintained their identity by culture and had an ability to absorb people of other races or mixed race within matrilineal kinship systems. The Chowanoke were increasingly classified as free people of color, together with mixed-race persons of African and European descent (also considered free blacks). Once the Chowanoke and other Native American peoples were landless, the Americans tended to believe that Native Americans lost their identity as Indians. Especially if they also had visible ethnic African ancestry, they became classified as blacks primarily.[4]

In 1825, Marquis de Lafayette passed through Gates County and was entertained at Pipkin's Inn. The town of Gatesville was incorporated in 1830. The old courthouse located on Court Street was built in 1836. The oldest item in the courthouse is the Federal-style bell, which was purchased by the town in 1781.

William Paul Roberts, who would become the youngest Confederate general to serve in the American Civil War, was born in Gatesville in 1841. According to the 1850 census, of the 717 farms in Gates County, only 15 produced cotton. In 1851, Reynoldson Academy was established. Free people of color, who were often of mixed race, organized New Hope Baptist church in 1859.

Port of Hamburg[edit]

People in the county worked to develop better connections to major ports. From 1805–1822, they developed the Cross Canal, or Hamburg Ditch, three miles (5 km) south of the Virginia line. It was Gates County's water route to the major port of Norfolk, running straight east for ten miles (16 km) through the Dismal Swamp, from a landing on Daniels Road in Gates County to the Dismal Swamp Canal.[6] That led to Norfolk.

The Dismal Swamp Canal Welcome Center is now located at the landing on Daniels Road. The Cross Canal is no longer a through route, closed by hurricanes bringing trees down and blocking access. In the late 20th century, sportsmen in small boats had still used the Gates County end, at the site of Hamburg, to enter the swamp. [6]

Civil War[edit]

Prior to the American Civil War, most of the land in Gates County was still covered with virgin timber. The mostly yeomen subsistence farmers did not hold many slaves.

A. J. Walton was the Gates County representative to the North Carolina secession convention. Soon after, the "Gates Guard" was the first company raised in the County to protect its borders. The second company was "Gates Minutemen". Gates County helped supply food to the Confederate States of America. General William P. Roberts from the county was the youngest general of the Civil War. Brigadier General Laurence S. Baker, a native of Gates County, was wounded and lost an arm.

Jack Fairless, also born in the county, served in the war but dishonorably discharged for stealing. After returning to the county, he formed a band known as the "Buffaloes". Made up of draft dodgers, Confederate deserters, and renegades from both sides, the Buffaloes raided farms throughout the area. They terrorized the women, children, and old men unfit to be soldiers who were trying to keep their farms going. Fairless and his group stole their food and livestock. He was eventually killed by his own men in self-defense.

Fort Dillard was built as a Confederate fort in the county. The story of the "Ellis Girls" was long told in the county. One day while fishing in the Chowan River, the sisters spotted a Union gunboat on its way upriver to attack Winton. Union soldiers seized the girls and held them prisoners on the gunboat until they finished burning the town. Only then were the girls released, unharmed but frightened.

In 1878, Jethro Goodman introduced peanuts into Gates County. Thad Eure, future Secretary of State, was born here in 1899.

1900s[edit]

On May 9, 1925 the first bridge opened across the Chowan River between Gates and Hertford counties. In 1925, Hwy 158 opened between Gates and Pasquotank, constructed through the Great Dismal Swamp.

In the 1930s Gates County still had no paved roads and few people owned automobiles. Most families grew their own produce and some raised livestock. In 1935 during the Great Depression, the Sunbury Ruritan Club was established, the first and oldest Ruritan chapter in the state. The civic organization of men was active in improving the town: "in its first three months..., the Sunbury Ruritan Club sponsored a Community Agriculture Fair; contacted NC DOT to place a stop signal at the Edenton-to-Suffolk Road; purchased school books for needy children; paid one-half the cost of new shades for the school; had the school piano tuned; and later made a contribution to the school’s basketball team and sponsored a move to hire a police officer to serve the community."[7]

Beckford Junction was a train switch in the city that enabled trains to go to Suffolk, Elizabeth City, or Edenton. Beckford Junction was abandoned in 1940. The last passenger train serving Gates County ended in 1954. That year the Gates County Historical Society was established.

In 1973 A.B. Coleman donated 925 acres (3.74 km2) of land in the Millpond to the state. This was the basis of the Merchants Millpond State Park.

In 1984 a tornado struck Gates County, killing two people and causing an estimated $500,000 to $5,000,000 worth of damage. Hurricane Floyd hit Gates County in 1999.

2000s[edit]

In September 2007 Gates County was chosen as a potential site for a US Navy landing field in the northeastern part of the state.

In 2014 Delois Chavis, a Chowanoke descendant, worked with other Chowanoke to buy 146 acres of the tribe's former reservation land near Bennett's Creek. She had grown up knowing of her Native American identity from her parents and grandparents, and is among those who want to revive the tribe. They have organized as the Chowanoke Indian Tribe, and plan to build a cultural center on the land to help their efforts.[4]

Geography[edit]

A welcome sign at the NC state line on U.S. 13 is visible in this shot.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 346 square miles (900 km2), of which 340 square miles (880 km2) is land and 5.2 square miles (13 km2) (1.5%) is water.[8]

Great Dismal Swamp[edit]

Main article: Great Dismal Swamp

The counties of Gates, Perquimans, Camden and Currituck contain sixty percent of the Great Dismal swamp.[9] In 1973, Union Camp donated the land which it owned in the swamp to the Nature Conservancy. The Conservancy next donated the land to the Department of The Interior, and the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge was created. The refuge consists of 107,000 acres (430 km2) of swamp and wetlands' surrounding Lake Drummond.[10]

Merchants Millpond State Park[edit]

In 1811, the Norfleet family built the first dam at the millpond. At that time, it consisted of around 750 to 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) of water. The mill ground corn. In 1856 the Millpond was sold and became known as Williams Millpond.

In 1910, Charles Lawrence purchased the Millpond. It became known as Merchants Millpond. In the 1960s A. B. Coleman purchased the Millpond. In 1973, A.B. Coleman donated 925 acres (3.74 km2) of the land to North Carolina under the condition that it was to become a state park. Today Merchants Millpond occupies 3,200 acres (13 km2).

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties and independent cities[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 5,386
1800 5,881 9.2%
1810 5,965 1.4%
1820 6,837 14.6%
1830 7,866 15.1%
1840 8,161 3.8%
1850 8,426 3.2%
1860 8,443 0.2%
1870 7,724 −8.5%
1880 8,897 15.2%
1890 10,252 15.2%
1900 10,413 1.6%
1910 10,455 0.4%
1920 10,537 0.8%
1930 10,551 0.1%
1940 10,060 −4.7%
1950 9,555 −5.0%
1960 9,254 −3.2%
1970 8,524 −7.9%
1980 8,875 4.1%
1990 9,305 4.8%
2000 10,516 13.0%
2010 12,197 16.0%
Est. 2015 11,431 [11] −6.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14]
1990-2000[15] 2010-2013[1]

As of the census[16] of 2010, there were 12,197 people, 3,901 households, and 2,933 families residing in the county. The population density was 31 people per square mile (12/km²). There were 4,389 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile (5/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 63.7% White, 33.2% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, and 1.8% from two or more races; 1.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 3,901 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.20% were married couples living together, 13.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.80% were non-families; 21.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.09.

In the county the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 29.10% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, and 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $35,647, and the median income for a family was $41,511. Males had a median income of $32,227 versus $21,014 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,963. About 14.50% of families and 17.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.90% of those under age 18 and 26.20% of those age 65 or over.

Law and government[edit]

Gates County employs the Council-manager style of government. Under this form an elected Board of Commissioners appoints a manager to oversee the day-to-day operations and carry out the will of the council. The Board of Commissioners is responsible for appointing the county manager, passing local ordinances, and establishing policy. Gates County has five Commissioners, one from each district. The Commissioners are elected for four-year terms and have overlapping terms so that all of the Commissioners don't go up for reelection each time.

Gates County is a member of the Albemarle Commission regional council of government. The Gates County Sheriff's Department consists of less than 15 deputies that maintain order in the county. Gates County has five volunteer fire departments with six fire stations, and one EMS station consisting of paid and volunteer members.

County districts[edit]

Gates County is divided into five districts. Each district elects a member to the Board of Commissioners. Each of the five districts contain a polling place where members of that district go to vote. The five districts are Gatesville, Eure, Gates, Sunbury, and Hobbsvile.

Register of Deeds[edit]

Mary C. (Cathy) Horton is the current Register of Deeds for Gates County. She in position is elected by the people of Gates County for a term of four years. The land deeds date back to 1779, with provided land plots for taxation reasons. Birth and Death Records in Gates County date back to 1913. And also for the veterans in the county, Gates County office provides military discharge papers. Marriage License are issued under the following provisions; Aged 16 to 18 must have parent consent, under the age 16 must have approval by judge, and 18 to 21 must show birth certificate. The Gates County office also issues Deeds of Trust which is when a bank loans you money and you put up your home for payments.

Clerk of Court[edit]

The current Clerk of Court for Gates county is Nell Wiggins. The Clerk of Court is elected by the people every 4 years. The Clerk of Court is responsible for keeping the following; Infractions, misdemeanors, felonies, civil records, wills, adoption records, and juvenile records. The current cost of court for Gates County is $121.00.

Economy[edit]

Most of Gates County's revenue comes from property taxes on personal property, with a small percentage coming from commercial sources.

Industries[edit]

The main industries are agriculture and forest products. Heritage tourism and recreation are increasing in importance.

Education[edit]

Gates County Schools has five schools ranging from pre-kindergarten to twelfth grade. Those five schools are separated into one high school (Gates County Senior High School), one middle school, and three elementary schools.[17]

Gates County is quite prideful in its high school athletics. Gates County High School has won a state championship in football, in 1971. That team was led by legendary coach, Pete Smoak. Most recently, the football team has been successful in the Tar-Roanoke Conference, and winning the conference in 2010. The Red Barons galvanized the entire northeastern part of North Carolina, as it went on its improbable run, winning 11 games in a row, and going undefeated in the conference. This team was led by current head coach, Matt Biggy. It is home to many athletes, including Thomas Smith, formerly of the Buffalo Bills, and Walter Smith I, formerly of the Toronto Argonauts.

Rosenwald Schools[edit]

Main article: Rosenwald School

Rosenwald Schools were schools set up by money from the Rosenwald Fund. This fund was created in 1917 by Julius Rosenwald, Chicago businessman and head of Sears Corporation to encourage construction of schools, mostly in the South, for rural black children who were underserved by the segregated public school system. The fund required communities to raise matching funds, including the use of public money and the support of school boards. At the time, the school boards were run by whites. Blacks had been disfranchised throughout the South since the turn of the century, so services for them were typically underfunded.

Black communities strongly supported the schools, raising money, and sometimes contributing both land and labor. In effect they taxed themselves twice to support education. The schools were built to model designs developed by architects at Tuskegee University, a historically black college. The Rosenwald Fund stimulated the construction of more than 4,977 schools and related structures for African-American children before the program ended in 1948 when the fund was depleted.

Seven Rosenwald Schools built in communities in Gates County. In some areas, such schools have been converted to community centers and other uses.[18]

  • Corapeake (still standing)
  • Reid's Grove (still standing)
  • T.S. Cooper
  • Hobbsvile
  • Reynoldson
  • Sunbury
  • Roduco

Communities[edit]

Map of Gates County, North Carolina With Municipal and Township Labels

Town[edit]

Census-designated place[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Townships[edit]

  • Gatesville
  • Hall
  • Reynoldson
  • Haslett
  • Holly Grove
  • Hunters Mill
  • Mintonsville

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 19, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ "Hampton Roads loses Surry Co., gains Gates Co., N.C.". Retrieved March 16, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Justin Petrone, "Chowanoke Descendants Reclaim Ancestral Land, Envision Cultural Center", Indian Country Today, 10 August 2016; accessed 10 August 2016
  5. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 135. 
  6. ^ a b Trout, W.E., The Great Dismal Atlas, pp. 39–41 
  7. ^ Cal Bryant, "Sunbury Salute", Roanoke-Chowan News Herald, 23 August 2015; accessed 11 August 2016
  8. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  9. ^ "The Great Dismal Swamp - Northeastern North Carolina". Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  10. ^ "The Great Dismal Swamp: A History". Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  11. ^ "County Totals Dataset: Population, Population Change and Estimated Components of Population Change: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  14. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  16. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  17. ^ "Gates County Schools". North Carolina's School Report Cards. North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Retrieved January 29, 2013. 
  18. ^ Hanchett, Thomas. "NC Schools by County". Retrieved 2009-05-25. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°26′N 76°42′W / 36.44°N 76.70°W / 36.44; -76.70