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A gateway is a piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications for telecommunications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another. Gateways are distinct from routers or switches in that they communicate using more than one protocol and can operate at any of the seven layers of the open systems interconnection model (OSI).
A network gateway provides interoperability between networks and contains devices, such as protocol translators, impedance matching devices, rate converters, fault isolators, or signal translators, as necessary to do so. A network gateway requires the establishment of mutually acceptable administrative procedures between the networks using the gateway. Network gateways, known as a protocol translation gateways (or mapping gateways), can also perform protocol conversions to connect networks with different network protocol technologies. For example, a network gateway connects an office or home intranet to the Internet. If an office or home computer user wants to load a web page, at least two network gateways are accessed—one to get from the office or home network to the Internet and one to get from the Internet to the computer that serves the web page.
On Microsoft Windows, the Internet Connection Sharing feature allows a computer to act as a gateway by offering a connection between the Internet and an internal network.
On an Internet protocol (IP) network, IP packets with a destination outside a given subnet mask are sent to the network gateway. For example, if a private network has a base IPv4 address of 192.168.0.0 and has a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, then any data addressed to an IP address outside of 192.168.0.X is sent to the network gateway. IPv6 networks work in a similar way. While forwarding an IP packet to another network, the gateway may perform network address translation.
An Internet-to-orbit gateway (I2O) connects computers or devices on the Internet to computer systems orbiting the Earth, such as satellites or manned spacecraft. Project HERMES, by the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency, was the first to implement this kind of gateway on June 6, 2009. Project HERMES has a maximum coverage of 22,000 km and can transmit voice as well as data. The Global Educational Network for Satellite Operations (GENSO) is another type of I20 gateway.
Cloud storage gateway
A cloud storage gateway is a network appliance or server which translates cloud storage APIs such as SOAP or REST to block-based storage protocols such as iSCSI or Fiber Channel or file-based interfaces such as NFS or CIFS. Cloud storage gateways enable companies to integrate private cloud storage into applications without moving the applications into a public cloud, thereby simplifying data protection.
An Internet of things (IoT) gateway provides the bridge between IoT devices in the field, the cloud, and user equipment such as smartphones. The IoT gateway provides a communication link between the field and the cloud and can provide offline services and real-time control over the devices in the field.
To achieve sustainable interoperability in the Internet of things ecosystem, there are two dominant architectures for data exchange protocols: bus-based (DDS, REST, XMPP) and broker based (AMPQ, CoAP, MQTT, JMI). The protocols that support the information exchange between interoperability domains can also be classified as message-centric (AMQP, MQTT, JMS, REST) or data-centric (DDS, CoAP, XMPP). Interconnected devices communicate by using lightweight protocols that don't require extensive CPU resources. C, Java, Python and some scripting languages are the preferred choices used by IoT applications. To handle any needed protocol conversion, database storage or decision making (e.g. collision handling), IoT nodes use separate IoT gateways in order to supplement the low-intelligence of devices.
A large number of manufacturers are involved in the IoT gateways design and production; such companies include CISCO, Harman International Industries, Advantech, ADLINK, Supermicro, and NXP.
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