Track gauge conversion
|By transport mode|
|Tram · Rapid transit
Miniature · Scale model
|By size (list)|
|Change of gauge|
|Break-of-gauge · Dual gauge ·
Conversion (list) · Bogie exchange · Variable gauge
|North America · South America · Europe|
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In rail transport, gauge conversion is the process of converting a railway from one rail gauge to another, through the alteration of the railway tracks. An alternative to gauge conversion is dual gauge track, or gauge conversion of the rail vehicles themselves.
Ideally railways should all be built to the same gauge, since a wide range of gauges from narrow to broad are of similar value in carrying heavy loads at low cost, while small differences of gauge create tremendous break-of-gauge costs and inconvenience.
- 1 Permanent way
- 2 Structure gauge
- 3 Gauge orphan
- 4 Rolling stock
- 5 Examples
- 6 Variable gauge axles
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Rails may be too light for the loads imposed by broader-gauge railcars and need to be replaced with a heavier rail profile.
If the gauge is to be reduced, then the sleepers can continue to protrude from the side of the rails. If the gauge is to be increased, then the sleepers used for narrow gauge may be too short, and some at least of these 'short' sleepers will have to be replaced with longer ones.
Often gauge convertible sleepers are installed before the conversion of the rails themselves. Sleepers have to be long enough to take the wider of the gauges, and secondly, the sleepers must be able to take the fittings of both gauges. Gauge convertibility can also be a stepping stone to dual gauge. In cases where the differences between the gauges are small, such as 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in)/1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) and 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/1,524 mm (5 ft), dual gauge with a third rail is not practicable, in these cases four rail dual gauge is necessary.
- Timber sleepers, provided that they are long enough, are always gauge convertible, since additional holes for the dogspikes can always be drilled later. If the new gauge is wider than the old, a shorter than normal sleeper can be tolerated to a degree.
- Concrete sleepers cannot be converted as an afterthought, but must have the future fittings cast in place when manufactured.
- Steel sleepers should have the extra fitting incorporated when manufactured, though it might be possible to drill or weld the fitted sleeper after installation with some difficulty.
During the conversion of the Melbourne–Adelaide railway in Australia from 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm), dual gauge with heavy rails was not possible as the rail footings were too wide. A special gauge-convertible sleeper, with a reversible chair for the Pandrol clip, allowed a two-week conversion process.
On June 5, 2008, the South Australian Government announced that the Adelaide metropolitan network would be converted to standard gauge (1,435 mm/4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) in 2012. Consequently, broad-gauge timber sleepers are being replaced with gauge-convertible concrete sleepers in the metropolitan area. However, gauge conversion has not yet been implemented, and financial constraints are likely to delay such implementation for the foreseeable future.
Narrow-gauge railways often have a significantly smaller structure gauge, and therefore the rolling stock used has a smaller loading gauge in both height and width. Conversion to a wider track gauge will often require enlargement of the structure gauge on bridges, under road overpasses and in tunnels. Embankments and cuts could need widening as well.
The minimum curve radius of narrow-gauge railways is often less than on tracks with a wider gauge, so route deviations might be required to allow the radius of curves to be increased. Track centres at stations with multiple tracks may also have to be increased.
During gauge conversion work such as between Seymour and Albury, branch lines such as Benalla to Oaklands and stations such as Violet Town become gauge orphans as they cannot easily be served by trains until extra costly work is done.
Where vehicles cross a change of gauge, they must either be equipped for a change of bogie or have adjustable gauge axles. For example passenger trains crossing between the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) system in France and the 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) in Spain pass through a special installation which adjusts their variable gauge axles. This temporary alteration to allow through working is generally referred to as "gauge change".
Steam locomotives are difficult to convert unless this is already allowed for in the design, such as in some East African Railways Garratts, and in steam locomotives built for Victoria after the 1930s. In the event, few have been so converted, but one such is Victorian Railways R class R766.
Because boilers and fireboxes are in the way (unless allowed for) locomotives can be converted only to a wider gauge.
About 1860, the Bristol and Exeter Railway converted five 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge locomotives to 7 ft (2,134 mm) gauge, and later converted them back again.
In the 19th century, in the US, some broad 1,524 mm (5 ft) gauge locomotives were designed for easy conversion to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge.
In the 20th century, in Victoria, some broad 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) gauge locomotive classes were designed for easy conversion to the narrower 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge.
Between 1922 and 1949, five South Australian Railways T class narrow 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge locomotives were converted to Tx-class broad 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) gauge, and later back again.
In 1941, there were plans to regauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge steam locomotives to the 1,524 mm (5 ft) gauge.
Post WWII, a number of captured German 03 class pacifics were regauged to the Russian gauge.
Diesel & electric
Most diesel and electric which rest on bogies can be converted by replacing those bogies. Engines with fixed wheelbases are problematic.
In Australia, diesel locomotives are regularly regauged between broad, standard and narrow gauges.
Waggons and carriages
Gauge conversion of coaches and wagons involves the replacement of the wheelsets or entire bogies, such as happened when the 7 ft 1⁄4 in (2,140 mm) gauge of the Great Western Railway was abandoned in May 1892.
- India conversion of 17,000 km (11,000 mi) of 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge to 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge under project Unigauge
- Melbourne to Adelaide - 600 km (370 mi) of convertible sleepers installed in 1990 to facilitate quick conversion in 1995.
- Adelaide - convertible sleepers installed should gauge conversion be needed in future.
- Port Harcourt - Onne, Nigeria - convertible sleepers installed since gauge conversion not imminent.
- The Mount Gambier line in South Australia was fitted with some 3-gauge steel sleepers when it was "temporarily" converted from 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) to 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) in the 1950s, pending later proposed conversion to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) which is yet to occur.
- Central Asia - while China and Europe are connected by rail, and while both are mainly 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in), the intervening Central Asia Railways are 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) gauge. Intervening lines are gradually being made gauge convertible to facilitate an eventual linkage of the Chinese and European standard gauge system. (variable gauge trains)
- Tanzania in 2008 is proposing 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in)/1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) steel sleepers and 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in)/1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) concrete sleepers to suit gauge conversion.
Conversions to standard gauge
- 1970 Indian Pacific
- The Seymour - Albury section (~200 km or 120 mi) of the Victorian North East railway line was converted to standard gauge from 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) in 2010, creating a double track 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) route for increasing interstate traffic. The freight-only 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) Oaklands branchline was also converted. The cost of converting this 126 km (78 mi) line has been estimated as just over $13m.
- 1881 Toronto, Grey and Bruce Railway from 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
- 1941 Brest-Minsk
- 1964/65 Zabergäu Railway 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
- Peru from Huancayo to Huancavelica from 914 mm (3 ft) to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in); 147 km (91 mi). completed 2009.
- Spain is building its High Speed lines to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge, even though the existing system is 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in); new cutoff lines are being built with gauge convertible sleepers for easy conversion to standard gauge when required.
- The Congressional act of March 3, 1863 (12 Sta. 807), entitled "AN ACT to establish the gauge of the Pacific railroad and its branches." set the standard for the First Transcontinental Railroad and its branches, thus encouraging previously laid railroads to regauge, allowing for transcontinental shipment. Southern railroads, due to the American Civil War, were not converted until May 31- April 1, 1886 when they were respiked from 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge to 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm) - functionally compatible with standard gauge. The final conversions to true standard gauge took place gradually as track was maintained.
Conversion to Cape Gauge
Integrated with Southern African railways
- Beria - Salisbury - 1910 - was 610 mm (2 ft)
- Namibian Railways, 1930s, much of which was 610 mm (2 ft)
- Matadi–Kinshasa Railway - 1932 - was 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) ; mostly new alignment
- Luanda Railway, Angola, was 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in)
- Angola Namibe Railway, 1950s, was 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in)
- Kindu (Lualaba River port) - Kibombo – Kongolo – Kabalo (Lualaba River port and junction with Katanga Line) - Nyunzu – Niemba – Kalemie (the port on Lake Tanganika), 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in). This line was isolated 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) until 1955, when the gauge was changed for the connection with the Katanga line in 1956.
Conversion to metre gauge
From 1920, the standard gauge part of the Siam railway amounting to 1,000 km (620 mi) was converted first to third rail, and then to 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) (metre gauge) making the whole system metre gauge.
Variable gauge axles
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manual gauge changing.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Automated gauge changing.|
- Gauge conversion in the US
- List of gauge conversions
- Project Unigauge, an ongoing project on Indian Railways to convert almost all railways in India to 5 ft 6 in Indian gauge
- Variable gauge
- "Rail Revitalisation". South Australian Department of Transport, Energy and Infrastructure. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- Ken Jasper MLA, Member for Murray Valley - Jasper supports Oaklands rail line upgrade
- Stolfi, Russel H. S. (1991). "Chapter Eleven. German Logistics: Could the Germans Support an Advance into the Moscow-Gorki Space in the Summer of 1941?". Hitler's Panzers East: World War II Reinterpreted. Norman and London: University of Oklahoma Press. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Trains, March 2009, p68
- 12 Stat. 807
- Southern railfan, The Days They Changed the Gauge
- Военная литература : История войн : Stolfi R. H. S. Hitler's Panzers East: World War II Reinterpreted