Gauss's constant

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In mathematics, Gauss's constant, denoted by G, is defined as the reciprocal of the arithmetic–geometric mean of 1 and the square root of 2:

The constant is named after Carl Friedrich Gauss, who on May 30, 1799 discovered that

so that

where Β denotes the beta function.

Gauss's constant should not be confused with the Gaussian gravitational constant.

Relations to other constants[edit]

Gauss's constant may be used to express the gamma function at argument 1/4:


and since π and Γ(1/4) are algebraically independent, Gauss's constant is transcendental.

Lemniscate constants[edit]

Gauss's constant may be used in the definition of the lemniscate constants, the first of which is:

and the second constant:

which arise in finding the arc length of a lemniscate.

Other formulas[edit]

A formula for G in terms of Jacobi theta functions is given by

as well as the rapidly converging series

The constant is also given by the infinite product

It appears in the evaluation of the integrals

Gauss' constant as a continued fraction is [0, 1, 5, 21, 3, 4, 14, ...]. (sequence A053002 in the OEIS)

See also[edit]


  • Weisstein, Eric W. "Gauss's Constant". MathWorld.
  • Sequences A014549 and A053002 in OEIS