Gaussian frequency-shift keying

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Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK) is a type of frequency shift keying modulation that uses a Gaussian filter to smooth positive/negative frequency deviations, which represent a binary 1 or 0. It is used by DECT, Bluetooth,[1] Cypress WirelessUSB, Nordic Semiconductor,[2] Texas Instruments LPRF, Z-Wave and Wavenis devices. For basic data rate Bluetooth the minimum deviation is 115 kHz.


A GFSK modulator is similar to a FSK modulator, except that before the baseband waveform (levels −1 and +1) goes into the FSK modulator, it is passed through a Gaussian filter to make the transitions smoother so to limit its spectral width. Gaussian filtering is a standard way for reducing spectral width; it is called "pulse shaping" in this application.

In ordinary non-filtered FSK, at a jump from −1 to +1 or +1 to −1, the modulated waveform changes rapidly, which introduces large out-of-band spectrum. If we change the pulse going from −1 to +1 as −1, −.98, −.93 ..... +.93, +.98, +1, and we use this smoother pulse to determine the carrier frequency, the out-of-band spectrum will be reduced.[3]


  1. ^ Sweeney, D. "An introduction to bluetooth a standard for short range wireless networking" Proceedings. 15th Annual IEEE International ASIC/SOC Conference, Rochester, NY, USA, 25-28 Sept. 2002, pp. 474–475. 2002.
  2. ^ Nordic Semiconductor. nRF24LU1+ Preliminary Product Specification v1.2
  3. ^ Bhagwat, Pravin (10 May 2005). "Bluetooth: 1.Applications, Technology and Performance". p. 21. Retrieved 27 May 2015.