Gautier d'Espinal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Gautier d'Épinal)
Jump to: navigation, search
The Château d'Épinal.
The Château d'Épinal, first constructed in the 13th century

Gautier d'Espinal (also d'Epinal, d’Épinal or d'Espinau) (died before July 1272)[1] was a French composer and trouvère poet of the 13th century.

Grove states that while details of his life are lacking, some documents of the time mention a Gautier d'Espinal active between 1232 and 1272, but it is uncertain if this is the trouvère, as some of the songs attributed to him suggest an earlier date. Most likely Gautier was one of the seigneurs of the city of Epinal.[1] However, Robert Lug's more recent (2007) study of the Saint-Germain-des-Prés chansonnier (Trouvère MS U) shows that Gautier is not the person in the mentions cited by Grove, but was in fact a cleric, a nephew of the bishop of Metz. As Gautier's songs are contained in the oldest part of Trouvère MS U, they must have been composed before 1231–32.[2]

His work was popular and widely distributed, with some of his compositions appearing in over a dozen separate source documents. Grove lists fourteen songs with reliable attribution to Gautier, eleven of them with extant melodies.[1] The list below relies instead on Spanke's revision of Raynaud's catalogue, and gives greater detail than Grove. The total listing below gives 21 songs, 13 with surviving melodies, plus a further four songs, all with surviving melodies, of which three are probably by other trouvères.

Works[3][edit]

  • A droit se plaint et a droit se gamente (RS749), found in Trouvère MSS U and, with attribution, C; melody in U.
  • Aïmans fins et verais (Se li mons) (RS199), found with attribution in Trouvère MSS M, K, N, P, and without in V, O R, S, B, U, C. The first strophe is copied in Girart d'Amiens's Méliacin; the work was contained in now-lost leaves of Trouvère MS X; melodies survive in most sources.
  • Amours et bone volentés (RS954), found in Trouvère MSS U and, with attribution, C; melody in U.
  • Amours, a cui tous jours serai (RS104), in Trouvère MS M; no melody survives (M has empty staves).
  • Desconfortés et de joie parti (RS1073), found with attribution in Trouvère MSS M, T, K, and N, and C; anonymous in P, V, O, R, and U. The first strophe is copied in Girart d'Amiens's Méliacin; melodies survive in most sources.
  • En toute gent ne truis tant de savoir (RS1816), attributed in Trouvère MS M, but anonymous in C, leading the modern editor to consider it doubtful.[4] No melody survives (both sources have empty staves).
  • Ja pour longue demouree (RS504), found in Trouvère MSS U and C (with attribution); no melody survives, since U has only space for staves that were never entered and C has empty staves.
  • Jherusalem, grant damage me fais (RS191), crusade song ascribed in Trouvère MS M; feminine voice; no melody survives, since M has empty staves.
  • Ne puet laissier fins cuers c'adès se plaigne (RS119), found in Trouvère MSS U and C (with attribution); melody survives in U.
  • Outrecuidiers et ma fole pensee (RS542), found Trouvère MSS O and C and, with attribution, in M; melody survives in O (C and M have empty staves).
  • Par son dous comandement (RS649), found in Trouvère MSS I and U and, with attribution, in C; melody in U.
  • Partis de doulour (RS1971), attributed in Trouvère MS C; no melody survives (C has empty staves).
  • Puis qu'en moi a recouvré seignourie (RS1208), found in Trouvère MSS O and, with attribution, C; the text of the opening stanza is also found at the end of Richard de Fournival's Bestiary of Love in Trouvère MS k; melody in O.
  • Quant je voi l'erbe menue (RS2067), found in Trouvère MSS U and, with attribution, C; melody in U (C has empty staves).
  • Quant je voi par la contree (RS501), ascribed in Trouvère MS M; no melody survives (M has empty staves).
  • Quant voi fenir iver et la froidour (RS1988), ascribed in Trouvère MS M; no melody survives (M has empty staves).
  • Quant voi iver et froidure aparoir (RS1784), ascribed Trouvère MSS K, N, P, and C; anonymous in MSS O and U; was copied in a now lost part of Trouvère MS X; melody found in all sources except C and U, which have empty staves.
  • Se j'ai lonc tens amours servi (RS1082), found in Trouvère MSS I, U, and, with attribution, C; no melody survives (empty staves in C, text only in I and U).
  • Se par force de merci (RS1059), found in Trouvère MSS O, I, U, and, with attribution, C; melody in O (C has empty staves, U has space for staves, I is text only).
  • Tout autresi com l'äimans deçoit (RS1840), attributed in Trouvère MSS K, N, P, and C; anonymous in O and U; was copied in a now-lost part of Trouvère MS X; melody in all sources except C and O (which have empty staves).
  • Tout esforciés avrai chanté souvent (RS728), found in Trouvère MSS O, U, C, and, with attribution, M; melody in O, U, and M; C has empty staves.

In addition, the following songs have conflicting attributions, but are attributed to Gautier in at least one source:

  • Au comencier de ma nouvele amour (RS1960), attributed to Gautier in Trouvère MS N but to other authors in other sources (M, T, K, and R), as well as surviving anonymously in O and P; was copied in a now-lost part of Trouvère MS X; melodies in most sources. Probably not by Gautier.
  • Bone amour qui m'agree (RS487), attributed to Gautier in Trouvère MS C, anonymous in Trouvère MS U, but attributions to Simon d'Authie in Trouvère MSS M, T, and a seem stronger. Probably not by Gautier.
  • Commencement de douce saison bele (RS590=RS1328), found at the head of the Gautier section in Trouvère MS M (although initial, attribution, and first line are now cut away), but other sources are anonymous (P, V, O, L, H, U), or attribute it to the Chastelain de Couci (K, N, X); melodies survive in most sources. Possibly by Gautier.
  • Puis qu'il m'estuet de ma doulour chanter (RS805), attributed to Gautier in Trouvère MSS N and X; attributions to Richard de Fournival in M, T, a, A, and R seem stronger; the song is anonymous in Trouvère MS O and when its first stanza is interpolated in Girart d'Amiens's Meliacin. Probably not by Gautier.

Discography[edit]

Ensemble Syntagma has produced two discs dedicated to Gautier's songs:

  • 2008 : Gautier d'Épinal. Remembrance, Ensemble Syntagma, Challenge Classics CC72190
  • 2004 : Touz esforciez / Trouvères en Lorraine, Ensemble Syntagma, Pierre Vérany, PV704041

Various individual songs can be found on the following discs:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c .Theodore Karp, "Gautier d'Espinal". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/10765 (accessed 24 December 2011).
  2. ^ The reference to Lug's Der Chansonnier de Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Das älteste volkssprachige Liederbuch Europas. Melodien, Notation, Entstehung, politisches Umfeld. 4 volumes, Frankfurt (Peter Lang) 2007 is found in the entry for Gautier d'Epinal in the French language version of Wikipedia. However, it cannot be verified; Lug's own website notes this work as still in preparation; see publication list here[better source needed]
  3. ^ Spanke, Hans (1955). G. Raynauds Bibliographie des altfranzösischen Liedes. Brill. 
  4. ^ Lindelöf, U.; Wallensköld, A. (1901). Les chansons de Gautier d'Épinal: Edition critique.