Gavrilo Princip in his prison cell at the Terezín fortress
|Died||28 April 1918 (aged 23)|
|Cause of death||Tuberculosis|
|Resting place||Vidovdan Heroes Chapel, Sarajevo|
|Known for||The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which contributed to the outbreak of World War I|
Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип, pronounced [ɡǎʋrilo prǐntsip]; 25 July 1894 – 28 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb member of Young Bosnia, a Yugoslavist organization seeking an end to Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the age of 19, he assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Ferdinand's wife, Sophie, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, initiating a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I.
Princip and his accomplices were arrested and implicated the Serbian nationalist secret society known as the Black Hand, leading Austria-Hungary to issue a démarche to Serbia known as the July Ultimatum. During Princip's trial he stated: "I am a Yugoslav nationalist, aiming for the unification of all Yugoslavs, and I do not care what form of state, but it must be freed from Austria."
He said the archduke was targeted because "as future Sovereign he would have prevented our union by carrying through certain reforms," an allusion to the archduke's reputed support for structural reforms of the monarchy that would assign more autonomy to the Slavic lands.
Princip died on 28 April 1918 from tuberculosis exacerbated by poor prison conditions which had cost him his right arm.
Gavrilo Princip was born in the remote hamlet of Obljaj, near Bosansko Grahovo, on 25 July [O.S. 13 July] 1894. He was the second of his parents' nine children, six of whom died in infancy. Princip's mother Marija wanted to name him after her late brother Špiro, but he was named Gavrilo at the insistence of a local Eastern Orthodox priest, who claimed that naming the sickly infant after the Archangel Gabriel would help him survive.
A Serb family, the Princips had lived in northwestern Bosnia for many centuries and adhered to the Serbian Orthodox Christian faith. Princip's parents, Petar and Marija (née Mićić), were poor farmers who lived off the little land that they owned. They belonged to a class of Christian peasants known as kmets (serfs), who were often oppressed by their Muslim landlords.
Petar, who insisted on "strict correctness," never drank or swore and was ridiculed by his neighbours as a result. In his youth, he fought in the Herzegovina Uprising against the Ottoman Empire. Following the revolt, he returned to being a farmer in the Grahovo valley, where he worked approximately 4 acres (1.6 ha; 0.0063 sq mi) of land and was forced to give a third of his income to his landlord. In order to supplement his income and feed his family, he resorted to transporting mail and passengers across the mountains between northwestern Bosnia and Dalmatia.
Despite Petar's opposition, Gavrilo Princip began attending primary school in 1903, aged nine. He overcame a difficult first year and became very successful in his studies, for which he was awarded a collection of Serbian epic poetry by his headmaster. At the age of 13, Princip moved to Sarajevo, where his elder brother Jovan intended to enroll him into an Austro-Hungarian military school. However, by the time Princip reached Sarajevo, Jovan had changed his mind after a friend advised him not to make Gavrilo "an executioner of his own people." Princip was enrolled into a merchant school instead. Jovan paid for his tuition with the money he earned performing manual labour, carrying logs from the forests surrounding Sarajevo to mills within the city. After three years of study, Gavrilo transferred to a local gymnasium. In 1910, he came to revere Bogdan Žerajić, a Bosnian Serb revolutionary who attempted to assassinate Marijan Varešanin, the Austro-Hungarian Governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, before taking his own life. In 1911, Princip joined Young Bosnia (Serbian: Mlada Bosna), a society that wanted to separate Bosnia from Austria-Hungary and unite it with the neighbouring Kingdom of Serbia. Because the local authorities had forbidden students to form organizations and clubs, Princip and other members of Young Bosnia met in secret. During their meetings, they discussed literature, ethics and politics.
In 1912, Princip was expelled from school for being involved in a demonstration against Austro-Hungarian authorities. A student who witnessed the incident claimed that "Princip went from class to class, threatening with his knuckle-duster all the boys who wavered in coming to the new demonstrations." Princip left Sarajevo shortly after being expelled and made the 280 kilometres (170 mi) journey to Belgrade on foot. According to one account, he fell to his knees and kissed the ground upon crossing the border into Serbia. In Belgrade, Princip volunteered to join the Serbian guerrilla bands fighting the Ottoman Turks, under the leadership of Major Vojislav Tankosić. Tankosić was a member of the Black Hand, the foremost conspiratorial society in Serbia at the time.
At first, Princip was rejected at a recruitment office in Belgrade because of his small stature. Enraged, he tracked down Tankosić himself, who also told him that he was too small and weak. Humiliated, Princip returned to Bosnia and lodged with his brother in Sarajevo. He spent the next several months moving back and forth between Sarajevo and Belgrade. In Belgrade he met Živojin Rafajlović, one of the founders of the Serbian Chetnik Organization, who sent him (along with 15 other Young Bosnia members) to the Chetnik training centre in Vranje. There, they met with school manager Mihajlo Stevanović-Cupara. He lived in Cupara's house, which is today located on Gavrilo Princip Street in Vranje. Princip practiced shooting, using bombs and the blade, after which training was completed and he returned to Belgrade.
In 1913, while Princip was staying in Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary declared a state of emergency, implemented martial law, seized control of all schools, and prohibited all Serb cultural organizations.
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
On 28 June 1914, Princip participated in the assassination in Sarajevo of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Duchess Sophie Chotek of Austria. The emperor of Austria-Hungary, Emperor Franz Joseph told his nephew, the Archduke to oversee military training in Bosnia. Franz Ferdinand knew that the visit would be dangerous; his uncle, Emperor Franz Joseph, had been the subject of an assassination attempt by the Black Hand in 1911.
Just before 10 a.m. on Sunday, the royal couple arrived in Sarajevo by train. The royal couple were then to take an automobile into the city. In the front car was Fehim Čurčić, the mayor of Sarajevo and Dr. Edmund Gerde, the city's Commissioner of Police. Franz and Sophie were in the second car with Oskar Potiorek and Lieutenant Colonel Count Franz von Harrach. The car's top was rolled back in order to allow the crowds a good view of its occupants.
The six conspirators lined the route. They were spaced out along the Appel Quay, each one with instructions to try to kill Franz Ferdinand when the royal car reached his position. The first conspirator on the route to see the royal car was Muhamed Mehmedbašić. Standing by the Austro-Hungarian Bank, Mehmedbašić lost his nerve and allowed the car to pass without taking action. Mehmedbašić later said that a policeman was standing behind him and feared he would be arrested before he had a chance to throw his bomb. At 10:15 a.m., when the six-car procession passed the central police station, nineteen-year-old student Nedeljko Čabrinović hurled a hand grenade at the Archduke's car. The driver accelerated when he saw the object flying towards him, but the bomb had a 10-second delay and exploded under the wheel of the fourth car. Two of the occupants, Eric von Merizzi and Count Alexander von Boos-Waldeck, were seriously wounded. About a dozen spectators were also hit by bomb shrapnel. After Čabrinović's bomb missed the car, five other conspirators, including Princip, lost an opportunity to attack because of the heavy crowds and the car's high speed. To avoid capture, Čabrinović swallowed a cyanide capsule and jumped into the Miljacka river to make sure he died. However, the cyanide pill was decayed and only made him sick, and the river was only 10 centimetres (4 in) deep. He was soon hauled out and detained by police.
Ferdinand later decided to go to the hospital and visit the victims of Čabrinović's grenade attack. In order to avoid the city centre, General Oskar Potiorek decided that the royal car should travel straight along the Appel Quay to the Sarajevo Hospital. However, Potiorek forgot to inform the driver, Leopold Lojka, about this decision. On the way to the hospital, Lojka incorrectly turned onto a side street where Princip had positioned himself in front of a food shop (Schiller's delicatessen). After realizing his mistake, Lojka braked and began to reverse. In doing so the engine stalled and the gears locked. Princip stepped forward, drew his pistol, a .380 ACP FN Model 1910, and at point-blank range fired twice into the car, first hitting Franz Ferdinand in the neck, and then hitting Sophie in the abdomen. They both died shortly after.
Arrest and trial
Princip attempted suicide with a cyanide pill, but it was out-of-date, then tried to shoot himself, but the pistol was wrestled from his hand before he had a chance to fire another shot. At his trial, he proclaimed that he was proud of what he had done but regretted the killing of Sophie. Princip was nineteen years old at the time and too young to receive the death penalty, as he was twenty-seven days short of the twenty-year minimum age limit required by Habsburg Law. Instead, he received the maximum sentence of twenty years in prison.
Imprisonment and death
Princip was held in solitary confinement, chained to the wall, at the Terezín fortress. He lived in harsh conditions which were worsened by the war, and contracted tuberculosis. His body had become wracked by skeletal tuberculosis that ate away his bones so badly that his right arm had to be amputated. In January 1916, Princip unsuccessfully attempted to hang himself with a towel. From February to June 1916, Princip met with Martin Pappenheim, a psychiatrist in the Austro-Hungarian army, four times. Pappenheim wrote that Princip believed the World War would not have failed to come, independent of his actions, but that he cannot believe the World War was a consequence of the assassination and "cannot feel himself responsible for the catastrophe."
Gavrilo Princip died on 28 April 1918, three years and ten months after the assassination. At the time of his death, weakened by malnutrition and disease, he weighed around 40 kilograms (88 lb; 6 st 4 lb).
Fearing his bones might become relics for Slavic nationalists, Princip's prison guards secretly took the body to an unmarked grave, but a Czech soldier assigned to the burial remembered the location, and in 1920 Princip and the other "Heroes of Vidovdan" were exhumed and brought to Sarajevo, where they were buried together beneath a chapel "built to commemorate for eternity our Serb heroes" at the Saint Archangels Cemetery which includes a citation from the Montenegrin poet Njegoš: "Blessed is he who lives forever. He had something to be born for."
In socialist Yugoslavia, Gavrilo Princip was venerated as a national hero and a freedom fighter who fought to liberate all the peoples of Yugoslavia from Austrian rule; however in the modern day, many Croats and Bosniaks have now expressed viewpoints characterizing Princip as a murderer. Asim Sarajlic, a senior MP of the Bosniak nationalist Party of Democratic Action, stated that Princip brought an end to "a golden era of history under Austrian rule" and that "we are strongly against the mythology of Princip as a fighter of freedom."
However, Serbs continue to venerate his memory, with Nenad Samardžija, governor of East Sarajevo, saying that the assassination was not a terrorist act but "a movement of young people who wanted to liberate themselves from colonial slavery."
Memorials and commemoration
The house where Princip lived in Sarajevo was destroyed during World War I. After the war, it was rebuilt as a museum in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia was conquered by Germany in 1941 and Sarajevo became part of the Independent State of Croatia. The Croatian Ustaše destroyed the house again. After the establishment of Communist Yugoslavia in 1944, the house of Gavrilo Princip became a museum again and there was another museum dedicated to him within the city of Sarajevo. During the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s, the house of Gavrilo Princip was destroyed and then rebuilt for the third time in 2015.
Princip's pistol was confiscated by the authorities and eventually given, along with the Archduke's bloody undershirt, to Anton Puntigam, a Jesuit priest who was a close friend of the Archduke and had given the Archduke and his wife their last rites. The pistol and shirt remained in the possession of the Austrian Jesuits until they were offered on long-term loan to the Museum of Military History in Vienna in 2004. It is now part of the permanent exhibition there.
In the 1930s, there was a plaque commemorating where Princip fired the shots but was removed when the Germans invaded. After World War II, a new plaque went up which claimed that "Gavrilo Princip threw off the German occupiers," an incorrect statement referring to the recent war.
As of 2014, there is a plaque at the corner where Gavrilo Princip stood when he fired the shots, which apolitically states: "From this place on 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia."
A bust of Princip was erected by the locals in Tovariševo, Serbia, on 21 April 2014, unveiled by filmmaker Emir Kusturica and writer Matija Bećković. A statue was erected in East Sarajevo on the centenary of the assassination in 2014.
A statue of Princip was erected in Belgrade on the symbolic Vidovdan, 28 June 2015, unveiled by the President of Serbia Tomislav Nikolić and the President of Republika Srpska Milorad Dodik, as a gift from Republika Srpska to Serbia. At the unveiling Nikolić gave a speech, saying in part: "Princip was a hero, a symbol of liberation ideas, tyrant-murderer, idea-holder of liberation from slavery, which spanned through Europe."
Portrayals on stage, film and television
Gavrilo Princip has been portrayed by multiple actors:
- Carl Balhaus, in the 1931 German film 1914
- Gilbert Gil, in the 1940 French film Sarajevo
- Hubert Hilten, in the 1955 Austrian film Sarajevo
- Irfan Mensur, in the 1975 Czechoslovak-Yugoslav-German film The Day That Shook the World
- Duško Malalica, in the 2009 Serbian film St. George Shoots the Dragon
- Milan Marić, in the 2013 Serbian play This Grave Is Too Small for Me
- Chris Kelly, in the 2014 BBC miniseries 37 Days
- Milos Djurovic, in the 2014 Serbian film The Man Who Defended Gavrilo Princip
- Eugen Knecht, in the 2014 German-Austrian film Sarajevo
- Pokop.ba. "Sveti Arhangeli Georgije i Gavrilo" (in Bosnian). Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- Dedijer 1966, pp. 187–188.
- Johnson 1989, pp. 52-54.
- Gilbert 1995, pp. 20-24.
- Dedijer 1966, p. 341.
- Clark 2013, p. 49.
- Fromkin 2007, pp. 121–122.
- Roider 2005, p. 935.
- Fabijančić 2010, p. xxii.
- Schlesser 2005, p. 93.
- Kidner et al. 2013, p. 756.
- Schlesser 2005, p. 95.
- Roider 2005, p. 936.
- Schlesser 2005, p. 96.
- Malcolm 1994, p. 154.
- Schlesser 2005, p. 97.
- Glenny 2012.
- Documentary History of the War. 2. London: Printing House Square. 1917. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- Irić, Radoman (2 October 2013). "Ovde je Gavrilo Princip učio da puca " [This is where Gavrilo Princip learnt to shoot]. Blic (in Serbian). Belgrade. p. 21. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- Stokesbury 1981, pp. 60-67.
- Burns, Tracy. "'June 28, 1914: The first attempt'". www.private-prague-guide.com/. Archived from the original on 27 January 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Clark, Christopher. "First Shot of World War I". www.historynet.com/. Archived from the original on 27 January 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Donnelley 2012, p. 33.
- Dedijer 1966, ch. XIV, footnote 21.
- Malmberg, Ilkka: Tästä alkaa maailmansota. [This is the beginning of World War I] Helsingin Sanomat monthly supplement, June 2014, pp. 60–65.
- Shapiro, Ari (27 June 2014). "A Century Ago In Sarajevo: A Plot, A Farce And A Fateful Shot". NPR.org. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
- Manfried Rauchensteiner, Manfred Litscher (ed.): Das Heeresgeschichtliche Museum in Wien. [Museum of Military History in Vienna] Graz, Wien 2000, page 63.
- Belfield 2011, p. 241.
- Greenspan, Jesse. "The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, 100 Years Ago". HISTORY. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
- Remak 1959, pp. 137-142.
- "Man accused of murdering Archduke Ferdinand goes on trial – archive, 1914". The Guardian. 17 October 2017. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
- Butcher, Tim (30 August 2013). "The man who started the First World War". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
- "Gavrilo Princip Speaks: 1916 Conversations with Martin Pappenheim | Carl Savich". 29 August 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
- Pappenheim, Martin (1916). "Gavrilo Princip, a participant in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand". The British Library. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
- "GAVRILO PRINCIP – SOME THINGS NEVER CHANGE". Meet the Slavs. 29 June 2014. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- Beasley-Murray, Benjamin (26 June 2014). "Gavrilo Princip's Legacy Still Contested". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
- MacDowall, Andrew (27 June 2014). "Villain or hero? Sarajevo is split on archduke's assassin Gavrilo Princip". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
- Matt Robinson; Daria Sito-Sucic (11 March 2004). "An assassin divides his native Bosnia 100 years on". Reuters. Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- Rodna kuća Gavrila Principa: Obnovljena i zaboravljena ‹See Tfd›(in Serbian)
- Connolly, Kate (22 June 2004). "Found: the gun that shook the world". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- Shapiro, Ari (27 June 2014). "The Shifting Legacy Of The Man Who Shot Franz Ferdinand". NPR.org. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
- Kuper, Simon (21 March 2014). "Sarajevo: the crossroads of history". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
- "DA SE NE ZABORAVI: Meštani Tovariševa sami podigli spomenik Principu!" [NOT FORGETTING: villagers themselves erected a monument to Princip!]. Telegraf.
- Monument to Gavrilo Princip unveiled in East Sarajevo, B92, June 27, 2014 (retrieved June 22, 2015).
- Serbia: Belgrade's monument to Franz Ferdinand assassin, BBC News, June 8, 2015 (retrieved June 22, 2015).
- "Ne dozvoljavam vređanje poklanih Srba" [I do not allow insults to slaughtered Serbs]. B92. 28 June 2015.
- Belfield, Richard (2011). A Brief History of Hitmen and Assassinations. Constable & Robinson, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-849018-05-0.
- Clark, Christopher (2013). The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06219-922-5.
- Dedijer, Vladimir (1966). The Road to Sarajevo. Simon and Schuster.
- Donnelley, Paul (2012). Assassination!. ISBN 978-1-908963-03-1. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Fabijančić, Tony (2010). Bosnia: In the Footsteps of Gavrilo Princip. Edmonton: University of Alberta. ISBN 978-0-88864-519-7.
- Fromkin, David (2007). Europe's Last Summer: Who Started the Great War in 1914?. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-307-42578-2.
- Gilbert, Martin (1995). The First World War. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-637666-5.
- Glenny, Misha (2012). The Balkans: Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804–2012: New and Updated (revised ed.). Penguin. ISBN 978-1-77089-274-3.
- Johnson, Lonnie (1989). Introducing Austria: A short history. ISBN 0-929497-03-1.
- Kidner, Frank; Bucur, Maria; Mathisen, Ralph; McKee, Sally; Weeks, Theodore (2013). Making Europe: The Story of the West Since 1550. 2 (2th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Cengage. ISBN 978-1-111-84134-8.
- Malcolm, Noel (1994). Bosnia: A Short History. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-5520-4.
- Remak, Joachim (1959). Sarajevo: The Story of a Political Murder. Criterion. ASIN B001L4NB5U.
- Roider, Karl (2005). "Princip, Gavrilo (1894–1918)". In Tucker, Spencer C.; Roberts, Priscilla Mary (eds.). The Encyclopedia of World War I : A Political, Social, and Military History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2.
- Schlesser, Steven (2005). The Soldier, the Builder & the Diplomat. Seattle: Cune Press. ISBN 978-1-885942-07-4.
- Stokesbury, James (1981). A Short History of World War I. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-061763-61-8.
- Bataković, Dušan T., ed. (2005). Histoire du peuple serbe [History of the Serbian People] (in French). Lausanne: L’Age d’Homme.
- Brescia, Anthony M (1965). The Role Gavrilo Princip in the Greater Serbian Movement.
- Butcher, Tim (2014). The Trigger: Hunting the Assassin who Brought the World to War. London: Chatto & Windus. ISBN 978-0-7011-8793-4.
- Ljubibratić, Dragoslav (1959). Gavrilo Princip. Nolit.
- Savary, Michèle (2004). Sarajevo 1914: vie et mort de Gavrilo Princip. L'AGE D'HOMME. ISBN 978-2-8251-1891-7.
- Villiers, Peter (2010). Gavrila Princip: The Assassin Who Started the First World War. Unknown Publisher. ISBN 978-0-9566211-0-8.
- Wolfson, Robert; Laver, John (30 December 2001). Years of Change, European History 1890–1990 (3 ed.). Hodder Murray. p. 117. ISBN 0-340-77526-2.
- Gavrilo Princips Bekenntnisse. Zwei Manuscripte Princips, Aufzeichungen Seines Gefängnispsychiaters Dr. Pappenheim Aus Gesprächen Von Feber ... Über Das Attentat, Princips Leben und Seine Politischen und Sozialen Anschauungen. Mit Einführung und Kommentar Von R.P. Wien: Lechner und Son. 1926.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gavrilo Princip.|
- "Who's Who in World War I: Gavrilo Princip". firstworldwar.com.
- Gavrilo Princip's Statement from 12 October 1914 in Court at Sarajevo (from Dolph Owings's "The Sarajevo Trial")
- "Did teenage anarchists trigger World War I? What were the politics of the assassins of Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914?". libcom.org. 14 June 2014., including prison interview with Gavrilo Princip after the assassination