|At least 4000 chapters|
Gay–straight alliances are school/student-led or community based organizations, found primarily in North American high schools, colleges and universities, that are intended to provide a safe, supportive environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth (or those who are perceived as such) and their straight allies.
The goal of most gay–straight alliances is to make their school community safe, facilitate activism on campus, and create a welcoming environment for LGBT students. They participate in national campaigns to raise awareness, such as the Day of Silence, National Coming Out Day, No Name Calling Week, Transgender Day of Remembrance, Harvey Milk Day, GSA day or locally organized campaigns, such as Take It Back: Anti-Slur Campaign, Beyond the Binary, LGBTQ-Inclusive Curriculum and others. Many GSAs work with local chapters of the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) or Gay–Straight Alliance Network, a national organization supporting youth leadership. The registered number of GSAs with GLSEN is over 4000, as of 2008. In California, there are over 900 GSAs registered with GSA Network, representing over half of California's high schools. Over half the states in the United States have one or more statewide groups that work with GSAs. Many of these state based groups and local chapters of GLSEN participate in the National Association of GSA Networks. GSA Networks have been formed to help local area students to network and connect to local resources, provide training for youth leaders, and sponsor local GSA efforts.
The inclusion of heterosexual "straight allies" in the missions of these groups "is an important distinguishing factor from early support groups for glbtq teens, and recognizes the need for a comprehensive approach to youth safety," and attempts to build a network of support for non-heterosexual and transgender teens, as well as raising awareness of homophobia and heterosexism.
History in the United States
Described as "perhaps the most important precursor of the GSA movement," Los Angeles' Project 10 is seen as the start of the GSA movement, as Project 10 was widely recognised as the first organised effort to provide support for LGBTQ youth in schools across the United States. The majority of its facilitators were heterosexual, and was named after the commonly-held statistic that 10% of the adult male population is "exclusively homosexual". Project 10 focused on issues such as drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and discussing issues of high-risk sexual behavior.
One of the first GSAs was started in 1988, in Concord, Massachusetts at Concord Academy by Kevin Jennings, the founder and head of the Gay Lesbian Straight Education Network GLSEN. The first public school gay–straight alliance was started at Newton South High School (Newton Centre, Massachusetts) by teacher Robert Parlin. GSAs made headlines in 1999 with the Federal Court ruling in Utah–East High Gay/Straight Alliance v. Board of Education of Salt Lake City School District. This ruling found that denying access to a school-based Gay-Straight Alliance was a violation of the Federal Equal Access Act giving students the right to use facilities for extra curricular activities at any school that receives public funding - regardless of private standing or religious affiliation.
Some students face opposition from school administrations, elected school boards, or local communities in starting a school GSA.
In 2015, students at Brandon High School in Rankin County, Mississippi, attempted to start a GSA, but the school board met and publicly stated they wanted to prevent the formation of "gay clubs" in the school district. They then created a policy requiring parents to provide written permission before a student can join any club. Students then protested with support from the ACLU.
Students at West Carteret High School in Morehead City, North Carolina tried to start a GSA but the Carteret County Board of Education turned it down. In 1999, the Orange Unified School District in Orange County, California voted unanimously to prohibit the formation of a GSA at El Modena High School. The students sued the school board, claiming that their rights under the First Amendment and the 1984 Equal Access Act had been violated. In the first-ever ruling of its kind, Judge David O. Carter of the United States District Court for the Central District of California issued a preliminary injunction ordering the school to allow the GSA to meet.
However, on their website, GSA Network state that:
|“||GSAs cannot be banned if other non-curricular student clubs are allowed to exist at the school. The Federal Equal Access Act and the First Amendment of the US Constitution establish the requirement of equal treatment for all non-curriculum related clubs regardless of the content of speech at the club meetings.||”|
History outside the United States
Worldwide, gay-straight alliances are not as popular as they are in the United States but are beginning to take-off slowly. In the UK, there has always been more of an emphasis on stand alone lesbian and gay youth groups that take place outside of the school setting, often funded by the local health authority or education service. The first GSA in the UK was founded in 2000 by CN Lester at Putney High School GDST, and led in part to the formation of Queer Youth Network. The second GSA in the UK was started in 2010 at Shimna Integrated College in Northern Ireland. Another GSA started in 2012 by Copland Community school in Wembley. The setting up of the club has subsequently resulted in the school being known for "tackling homophobic prejudice". Acland Burghley school in Camden set up a gay–straight alliance in 2012 called Connected.
The first GSA in Mexico was begun by a group of students in 2004 at the American School Foundation, a private American school in Mexico City. The GSA was initially opposed by several school board members and a small group of religious conservative parents. But the students eventually won and formed the student club. The GSA's co-advisor, Ian K. Macgillivray, wrote several articles detailing his students' experiences, as well as the book, Gay-Straight Alliances: A Handbook for Students, Educators, and Parents (2007, Harrington Park Press).
Beyond a school group the Toronto District School Board has been committed to an unwritten alliance with their students, funding the Triangle Program at OASIS Alternative School, designed for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender students who are at risk of dropping out or committing self-harm because of harassment in regular schools.
The first GSA in Canada was started at Pinetree Secondary School in Coquitlam, British Columbia in 1998. The start of the Pinetree GSA garnered national media attention, and its members continued to play a role in public affairs by meeting with successive provincial Ministers of Education, testifying before the B.C. Safe Schools Task Force on anti-bullying, and delivering workshops to students and educators about LGBT-sensitive inclusive language and how to start GSAs. In early 2002, the Pinetree GSA held the first Pride Day at a high school in Canada. The Pride Day included an information fair with booths from various local LGBT organizations, PrideTalk workshops delivered in numerous classes, and an assembly with a talk on transgender rights and a performance by G.L.A.S.S., a local LGBT youth choir.
In Saskatchewan, Carlton Comprehensive High School houses one of the first GSA movements in the city of Prince Albert. The first GSA in the city of Saskatoon first met on March 18, 2003 at Mount Royal Collegiate. Since then, GSAs have been established at Nutana, Walter Murray, Evan Hardy, Marion Graham, Bedford Road and Aden Bowman Collegiates. The city of North Battleford Saskatchewan, had their first GSA in 2004 at Sakewew high school, a First Nations school.
Parkside high school (Dundas, Ontario) held the first Gay-Straight-Alliance assembly in Canada, in 2011.
In Ontario, Arnprior District High school, a small rural Ottawa Valley town started a GSA created by the students in 2009. This GSA won one of three Jer's Vision "Youth Role Model of The Year" awards in April 2009. The next year a GSA was founded by students in 2010 at Renfrew Collegiate Institute in the town of Renfrew.
In May 2010 Egale Canada launched MyGSA.ca, a website focused on GSAs and their role in making Canadian schools safer and more LGBTQ inclusive. As part of MyGSA.ca's mission the site maintains an online directory of Canadian GSAs and provided resources and information to students who wish to start a GSA in their school and for teachers who wish to support them. In December 2011, the government of the most populous Canadian province, Ontario, announced it would bring a legislation making it mandatory for all publicly funded schools to support the formation of "tolerance clubs" and student associations. Gay-Straight clubs were to be specifically mentioned in that act. The main focus of that legislation would be to counterattack bullying of students, particularly those of a racial or sexual minority.
The first GSAs in the Netherlands were started in 2009. At the beginning of 2011, a nationwide campaign was started on television to promote GSAs in Dutch schools, featuring several well-known young actors and singers. A number of GSAs already exist in a wide variety of Dutch schools throughout the country, most of them at the university level, but increasingly popular on secondary school level.
Nelson College, the Nelson College for Girls, Nayland College and other schools have had GSAs set up, often with the support of youth mental health bodies. Kira Byrne, a GSA leader at Nelson College for Girls, says that the legalization of Same-sex marriage in New Zealand in 2013 created shifts in attitudes towards LGBT people in New Zealand, but that boys at Nelson college were afraid to go to the GSA there because "other boys would wait outside to beat up anyone that came out."
In Australia, the group Safe Schools Coalition Victoria piloted a system of reducing homophobia though teacher training and student groups that promote inclusion of LGBT young people. Started by The Foundation for Young Australians and Gay and Lesbian Health Victoria, along with La Trobe University, the program was expanded to run Australia wide. The program is supported by Beyondblue, Headspace, the University of Canberra, Macquarie University, University of Western Sydney, Curtin University, various family planning and HIV prevention groups, government bodies and Uniting Church organizations.
In 2008, students at The University of Hong Kong founded Queer Straight Alliance (QSA), a registered society under Hong Kong laws. For several years it was the only GSA in the city, and it serves students in all campuses through social activities, career support and advocacy. In more recent years, university students in the city have formed other student LGBT groups. However, GSA efforts in secondary schools remain limited, if any.
- Queer Youth Network (UK)
- National Union of Students LGBT Campaign (UK)
- Campus Pride (US)
- NOH8 Campaign
- "Top 5 Frequently Asked Questions from the Media". GLSEN. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- GLBTQ 2004.
- No Name Calling Week
- "GSA Day for Racial Justice - Feb. 20th, 2015". gsaday.org.
- "Change Your School". gsanetwork.org. gsanetwork. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Home - Gay-Straight Alliance Network". gsanetwork.org.
- "Frequently Asked Questions about GSA Network". gsanetwork.org. gsanetwork. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Jennings, Kevin: Mama's Boy, Preacher's Son: A Memoir, page 196. Beacon Press, 2006.
- (81 F. Supp.2d 1166, 1197 (D. Utah 1999))
- Jennifer Toomer-Cook; Marjorie Cortez (19 March 1998). "3 groups sue S.L. board over club". deseretnews.com. Deseret News. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- National Gay-Straight Alliance Day message from Secretary Arne Duncan. YouTube. 24 January 2012.
- "Proposed LGBT club prompts new Rankin school policy". The Clarion Ledger. Retrieved 2015.
- Colin ex rel. Colin v. Orange Unified School District, 83 F. Supp. 2d 1135 (C.D. Cal. 2000).
- Vasagar, Jeevan (2 March 2012). "Gay-Straight Alliance club confronts homophobia at north London school". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- "Connected: LGBTQ-Straight Alliance". Facebook.
- Macgillivray, Ian (2005). "Shaping Democratic Identities and Building Citizenship Skills Through Student Activism: Mexico's First Gay-Straight Alliance". Equity & Excellence in Education 38 (4): 320–330. doi:10.1080/10665680500299783.
- Macgillivray, Ian (2006). "The Struggle for Mexico's First Gay-Straight Alliance: Como una Novela Real". Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education 4 (1): 33–46. doi:10.1300/J367v04n01_04.
- "Celebrating a History of Diversity: Lesbian and Gay Life in Saskatchewan, 1971 - 2006". Library2.usask.ca. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- "Jer's Vision 5th Anniversary Gala (April 14th, 2010)". Jersvision.blogspot.com. 2010-03-10. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- "Constitution: Renfrew Collegiate Institute Gay/Straight Alliance". Rcigsa.wikispaces.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- "MyGSA". mygsa.ca.
- "GSA Directory".[dead link]
- "Huffington Post; Dec.15,2011". Huffingtonpost.ca. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Roberts, Adam (6 April 2011). "Boys' college backs gay, straight students". The Nelson Mail. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Eder, Jennifer (18 June 2015). "Students have homophobia issue taped". The Nelson Mail. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- "Gay youth advocate first Kiwi to earn Queen's new honour". Stuff.co.nz. 14 Jan 2015.
- "Young leader off to London to meet the Queen". NZHerald. 17 Jun 2015.
- "Former Nayland student honoured by Queen for community work". Nelson Mail. 5 Jul 2015.
- "School culture crucial for LGBT students". Radio New Zealand. 6 Jan 2015.
- "Coming out in school could reduce depression and abuse". Stuff.co.nz. 18 Feb 2015.
- "Schools eye gay-straight support groups". Marlborough Express. 10 Mar 2015.
- "Who we are". Safe Schools Coalition Australia.
- "Supporter Organisations". Safe Schools Coalition Australia.
- "Queer Straight Alliance (QSA)". Queer Straight Alliance (QSA).
GLBTQ, Encyclopedia (2004). Gay-Straight Alliances. glbtq, inc. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Denina, Chris. "Gay Club Loses Touro OK." Vallejo Times-Herald 9 Sept. 2006: A1 [dead link]
- Buchanan, Wyatt. "Gay rights group's charter is revoked." San Francisco Chronicle 12 Sept 2006: B5. 
- American Medical Student Association. 11 Sept. 2006: "Medical Students at TU to protest Abolition of Gay-Straight Alliance Group" [dead link]
- Gay Lesbian Medical Association. 09 Sept. 2006: "GLMA Decries Decision by Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine to Ban Gay Straight Alliance Student Group." 
- Denina, Chris. "Touro's provost says gay group wasn't dropped." Vallejo Times-Herald 12 Sept 2006: A1. [dead link]
- Buchanan, Wyatt. "Gay rights group not banned, school says." San Francisco Chronicle. 13 Sept 2006: B4. 
- Johnson, Brooke (May 2008). "Out but not loud. Even as acceptance grows, gay DOs, students remain wary" (PDF). The DO magazine (American Osteopathic Association): 36–41.[dead link]
- Press release GSA Netherlands. 
- Gay Straight Alliance
- Site for Gay-Straight Alliances to register with the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN)
- GSA Network
- Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) Official Site
- MyGSA.ca Canadian GSA Directory
- Gay/Straight Alliances: A Student Guide
- Gay-Straight Alliances: A Handbook for Students, Educators, and Parents
- Queer Youth Alliance website (UK)
- "Hineini: Coming Out in a Jewish High School," 2005 documentary film profiling a student's attempt to start a GSA at her Jewish High School
- "Gay issues club pits pupils against principal. January 22, 2007. A newspaper article on the predicament faced by RHHS GSA[dead link]
- Can LBGTQ + School = Safe?, instructional video for youth on how to start a GSA at their high school.
- Fish Almost Eaten By a Shark, Documentary. Beyondmedia Education partners with a 17-year-old latina student who tries to start a GSA at her public high school.