|Part of a series on|
Anti-LGBT rhetoric comprises themes, catchphrases, and slogans that have been used in order to demean lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. They range from the demeaning and the pejorative to expressions of hostility towards homosexuality which are based on religious, medical, or moral grounds. It is a form of hate speech, which is illegal in countries such as the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden.
Anti-LGBT rhetoric often consists of moral panic and conspiracy theories. In Eastern Europe, these conspiracy theories are based on earlier antisemitic conspiracy theories and posit that the LGBT movement is an instrument of foreign control and domination.
As a foreign conspiracy
In 1969, the Greek junta exited the Council of Europe after being found in violation of the European Convention of Human Rights, judging that the European Commission of Human Rights was "a conspiracy of homosexuals and communists against Hellenic values".
This discourse, promoted by the governments of Hungary and Poland, alleges that LGBT rights movements are controlled by foreign forces (such as the European Union) and are a threat to national independence and western civilization. Anti-government protests in Russia and the Euromaidan have also been portrayed by the Russian government as the work of an LGBT conspiracy. Furthermore, although Russia considers itself to be a European country, its values are entirely different from those commonly seen within the European Union. More specifically, Russia used to protest against the common European Values in support of LGBT rights, however rather than complaining about these values, Russia has now chosen to openly express their own values, which are entirely against any support for LGBT rights.
As an ideology
In 2013, Alex Aradanas published some articles in the right-wing website American Thinker which discussed "LGBT ideology", for instance, "to affirm LGBT ideology is to support abuse". The Italian Catholic philosopher Roberto Marchesini also used the phrase in a 2015 article, equating it with the earlier concept of "gender ideology". In his article he does not define either "LGBT ideology" or "gender ideology". In 2017, several conservative Islamic politicians in Malaysia and Indonesia attacked "LGBT ideology".
During a sermon on 1 August 2019, Polish Archbishop Marek Jędraszewski called "LGBT ideology" a "rainbow plague" and compared it to the "Red Plague" of Communism. Following this, the Czech cardinal Dominik Duka also commented on "LGBT ideology". However, because Czech society is secular and the Catholic Church has little influence on Czech politics, his comments had little impact. In September 2019, Stanley Bill, a lecturer at Cambridge University who studies Poland, stated "Scaremongering about 'LGBT ideology' has almost become official policy in Poland with often nasty insinuations from members of the government and public media now the norm".
In June 2020, Polish President Andrzej Duda drew international attention when he called LGBT an "ideology" and a form of "Neo-Bolshevism". Agreement Party MP Jacek Żalek stated in an interview that the LGBT community "are not people" and "it's an ideology", which led to the journalist Katarzyna Kolenda-Zaleska asking him to leave the studio; the row caused controversy. The next day, Duda said at a rally in Silesia: "They are trying to convince us that [LGBT] is people, but it is just an ideology." He promised to "ban the propagation of LGBT ideology in public institutions", including schools, similar to the Russian gay propaganda law. On the same day, PiS MP Przemysław Czarnek said on a TVP Info talk show, regarding a photo of a naked person in a gay bar, "Let's defend ourselves against LGBT ideology and stop listening to those idiocies about human rights or equality. These people are not equal to normal people."
In July 2020, the European Union announced that it will not provide funding to six Polish towns that have declared themselves "LGBT-free zones", after nearly 100 local governments, a third of Poland's territory, declared themselves "free from LGBT ideology." On 1 August 2020, the anniversary of the Warsaw Uprising, ultranationalist Robert Winnicki compared LGBT to communist and Nazi ideology. He stated, "Every plague passes at some point. The German plague passed, which was consuming Poland for six years, the red plague passed, the rainbow plague is also going to pass." In August 2020, Justice Minister Zbigniew Ziobro announced a new program for "counteracting crimes related to the violation of freedom of conscience committed under the influence of LGBT ideology". From a government fund intended to help victims of crime, PLN 613,698 was awarded to a foundation to combat the alleged crimes of "LGBT ideology". The project, among other things, explores a supposed connection between LGBT ideology and the Frankfurt School. At the 16 August "Stop LGBT aggression" rally that year, Krzysztof Bosak said that even irreligious people are among opponents of "LGBT ideology" because it is "contrary to common sense and rational thinking". He also said that the LGBT community is "a lower form of social life".
According to Krakow Post, a Polish newspaper, "LGBT is not an ideology... The phrase 'LGBT ideology' makes about as much sense as 'redhead ideology' or 'left-handed ideology.'" While the support of many LGBT people and their allies improved LGBT rights, they have differing political views. According to Notes from Poland, "attacks on 'LGBT ideology' – which often rely on exaggerated, distorted or invented claims – result in the marginalisation and demonisation of such people." Center-right presidential candidate Szymon Hołownia, who is a practicing Catholic, stated, "there is no such thing as LGBT ideology, there are [LGBT] people". He said that anti-LGBT rhetoric from politicians could lead vulnerable people to suicide. In protest at the comments made by the president and Żalek, LGBT people have held pickets in various towns and cities in Poland, opposing the idea that LGBT is an ideology. Activists also created a film, "Ludzie, nie ideologia" (People, not ideology) showcasing the families of LGBT people.
An article in OKO.press compared the anti-LGBT campaign to the 1968 "anti-Zionist" campaign: during the anti-Zionist campaign, people said that they were targeting Zionism as an ideology, but ended up targeting Jews as people. Many Jews were forced out of the country in 1968, and LGBT people are emigrating from Poland in 2020. According to Polish historian Adam Leszczyński, "LGBT ideology" is
a bag into which the right wing throws societal changes that do not suit it (eg. calls for equal rights for same-sex couples, which have been implemented in many countries, from the United States to South Africa). In the language of right-wing propaganda... "LGBT ideology" serves to dehumanize minorities and create an enemy – and thus build political support for the right, which presents itself as the only defender of the traditional family, religion and social order. "Ideology" also fits the right-wing perception of the world in terms of a conspiracy – ideology is "promoted", someone disseminates it, someone is "behind it" (eg. George Soros, a Jewish-American financier who supports, among others, LGBT organizations).
Dehumanization is a frequent feature of anti-LGBT rhetoric, which may take the form of comparing LGBT people to animals or equating homosexual relationships with bestiality.
According to one study, "homophobic epithets foster dehumanization and avoidance of gay people, in ways that other insults or labels do not." Another study found that homophobia "results in substantial health and welfare effects".
Calls for violence
Anti-LGBT rhetoric also includes calls for violence against LGBT people and suggestions that they should be killed or die, such as in Cyprus, Iran, Russia, the United States, Malawi, or Uganda.
In Serbia, members of Obraz chanted "Death to faggots" (Serbian: Смрт педерима) and posted posters stating "we are waiting for you" (Serbian: чекамо вас) next to an image of a baseball bat. In 2012, the organization was banned by the Constitutional Court of Serbia due to extremism.
Anti-gay activists claim that homosexuality goes against traditional family values, that homosexuality is a Trojan Horse, or that it destroys families and humankind through homosexual recruitment which will lead to the extinction of humanity.
Homosexuality as a cause of disasters
The argument that homosexuals cause natural disasters has been around for more than a thousand years, even before Justinian blamed earthquakes on "unchecked homosexual behavior" in the sixth century. This trope was common in early modern Christian literature; homosexuals were blamed for earthquakes, floods, famines, plagues, invasions of Saracens, and field mice. This discourse was revived by Anita Bryant in 1976 when she blamed homosexuals for droughts in California. In the U.S., right-wing religious groups including the Westboro Baptist Church continue to claim that homosexuals are responsible for disasters. Homosexuals have been blamed for hurricanes, including Isaac, Katrina, and Sandy. In 2020, various religious figures including Israeli rabbi Meir Mazuz have argued that the COVID-19 pandemic is divine retribution for same-sex activity or pride parades.
Following the September 2001 attacks, televangelist Jerry Falwell blamed "the pagans, and the abortionists, and the feminists, and the gays and the lesbians who are actively trying to make that an alternative lifestyle, the ACLU, People for the American Way" for provoking the aggression of Islamic fundamentalists and causing God to withdraw his protection for America. On the broadcast of the Christian television program The 700 Club, Falwell said, "You helped this happen". He later apologized and said, "I would never blame any human being except the terrorists".
In 2012, Chilean politician Ignacio Urrutia claimed that allowing homosexuals to serve in the Chilean military would cause Perú and Bolivia to invade and destroy his country.
AIDS as punishment
An outgrowth of the discourse on homosexuality causing disasters argues that HIV/AIDS is divine punishment for homosexuality. During the early years of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, mainstream newspapers labeled it a "gay plague". For a few years, the misleading technical name for the disease was gay-related immune deficiency.
The slogan "AIDS Kills Fags Dead" (a pun on the commercial slogan for Raid insecticide "Raid Kills Bugs Dead") appeared during the early years of AIDS in the United States, when the disease was mainly diagnosed among male homosexuals and was almost invariably fatal. The slogan caught on quickly as a catchy truism, a chant, or simply something written as graffiti. It is reported that the slogan first appeared in public in the early 1990s, when Sebastian Bach, the former lead singer of the heavy metal band Skid Row, wore it on a t-shirt thrown to him by an audience member. The slogan "AIDS cures fags" is used by the Westboro Baptist Church.
Homosexuality as unnatural
Describing homosexuality as unnatural dates back to Plato, Aristotle, and Thomas Aquinas. However, there is no single definition of "unnatural". Some of those who argue that homosexuality is unnatural in the sense of being absent from nature, an argument refuted by the presence of homosexuality in animals. Others mean that the genitals were created for reproduction (either by God or natural selection) and are not intended to be used for purposes they deem "unnatural". Proponents of this idea often argue that homosexuality is immoral because it is unnatural, but opponents argue that this argument makes an is–ought conflation. Some proponents of the "unnaturalness" thesis argue that homosexual behavior is the result of "recruitment" or willful sinfulness. However, if the causes of sexual orientation (still a matter of scientific debate) are biological, this undermines their argument to an extent.
Homosexuality as a disease
Nazi propaganda described homosexuality as a contagious disease but not in the medical sense. Rather, homosexuality was a disease of the Volkskörper (national body), a metaphor for the desired national or racial community (Volksgemeinschaft). According to Nazi ideology, individuals' lives were to be subordinated to the Volkskörper like cells in the human body. Homosexuality was seen as a virus or cancer in the Volkskörper because it was seen as a threat to the German nation. The SS newspaper Das Schwarze Korps argued that 40,000 homosexuals were capable of "poisoning" two million men if left to roam free.
Some of those who called homosexuality unnatural, such as Traditional Values Coalition head and Christian right activist Louis Sheldon, said that if it were proven to be a biologically based phenomenon, it would still be diseased. The psychiatric establishment in the west once medicalized same-sex desire. In the United States, homosexuality was removed in 1973 as a mental disorder from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as it did not meet the criteria for a mental disorder. The Catholic Church still officially teaches that "homosexual tendencies" are "objectively disordered". In 2016, anti-LGBT rhetoric was increasing in Indonesia under the Twitter hashtag #TolakLGBT (#RejectLGBT) and claims that LGBT is a disease. In 2019, Archbishop Marek Jędraszewski claimed that a "rainbow plague" is threatening Poland. In 2020, the education minister defended an official who warned that "LGBT virus" was threatening Polish schools, and was more dangerous than COVID-19.
Homosexuality as a choice or lifestyle
Closely related to the idea of "homosexual recruitment" is the idea of a "gay lifestyle" or "homosexual lifestyle", which social and religious conservatives in the United States sometimes argue that lesbian, gay, and bisexual people have chosen voluntarily rather than having a non-heterosexual sexual orientation. However, people typically feel no sense of control over their sexual orientation or attractions, and biological explanations for sexual orientation are favoured by scientists. The term "gay lifestyle" may also be used disparagingly for a series of stereotyped behaviours.
US media in the 1970s frequently used the term "alternative lifestyle" as a euphemism for homosexuality, and the term was employed in an anti-gay context by opponents of the Equal Rights Amendment, as well as supporters of California's Proposition 6, which would have barred openly gay teachers in public schools. Christian right activists may worry that increasing LGBT rights will make the "gay lifestyle" more attractive to young people. US president Ronald Reagan used the language of choice to portray the gay rights movement as being in opposition to American culture, saying the movement was "asking for a recognition and acceptance of an alternative lifestyle which I do not believe society can condone".
Homosexuality as sinful or ungodly
Many conservative Christians consider homosexual acts to be inherently sinful based on scriptural passages such as Leviticus 18:22 ("You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination"), Leviticus 20:13 ("If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall be put to death, their blood is upon them"), and 1 Corinthians 6:9–10 ("Do you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived! Fornicators, idolaters, adulterers, male prostitutes, sodomites, thieves, the greedy, drunkards, revilers, robbers—none of these will inherit the kingdom of God.") The story of Sodom and Gomorrah, two biblical cities which were burned down due to the sins of its inhabitants, is sometimes portrayed as divine retribution for homosexual behavior.
Various inflammatory and controversial slogans, including some listed in the next section, have been used by opponent congregations and individuals, particularly by Fred Phelps, founder of the Westboro Baptist Church. These slogans have included "God Hates Fags", "Fear God Not Fags", and "Matthew Shepard Burns In Hell".
Homosexuality is also frequently considered sinful in Islam. In some Middle Eastern countries, acts of homosexuality are punishable by death. Anti-LGBT rhetoric and political homophobia are growing in some Muslim countries.[excessive citations]
Other religious leaders including Christians, Muslims, and Jews have denounced anti-LGBT rhetoric.[excessive citations]
The slogan "God made Adam and Eve, not Adam and Steve" alludes to a Bible-based argument that homosexuality is sinful and unnatural. A Christianity Today article in December 1970 reported on attitudes in San Francisco, quoting a graffiti that said, "If God had wanted homosexuals, he would have created Adam and Freddy." In 1977, in Dade County, Anita Bryant made a similar comment, only her version was "Adam and Bruce". By 1979, Jerry Falwell had used "Adam and Steve". In 1977, it was used on a protest sign, as mentioned in a New York Times news service report about a November 19 rally in Houston that year. The phrase was used in "The Gay Bar", an episode of Maude broadcast on December 3, 1977. Two years later, Jerry Falwell gave the phrase wider circulation in a Christianity Today report of a press conference he had given. The phrase later acquired a certain notoriety, and, when used to name a pair of characters in a work of fiction, helps to identify them as members of a homosexual pair (Paul Rudnick's play The Most Fabulous Story Ever Told, the 2005 film Adam & Steve and other works). The phrase was used by the Democratic Unionist Party MP David Simpson during the 2013 British House of Commons' debate on same-sex marriage, although a slip of the tongue saying "in the Garden of Eden, it was Adam and Steve" initially caused laughter in the chamber. Zimbabwean presidential candidate Nelson Chamisa said in an interview that "[w]e must be able to respect what God ordained and how we are created as a people, there are a male and a female, there are Adam and Eve, not Adam and Steve". The phrase was also reclaimed by LGBT people and used in blogs, comics, and other media mocking the anti-gay message.
Homosexuality as a Western ill
Homosexuality is sometimes claimed to be non-existent in some non-Western countries, or to be an evil influence imported from the West.
Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia employed anti-gay rhetoric as part of his "Asian values" program, describing homosexuality as one of several Western ills. Mohamad used it for political advantage in the 1998 scandal involving the sacking and jailing of MP and former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim by Mohamad amidst accusations of sodomy that the Sydney Morning Herald termed a "blatantly political fix-up". Anwar was subsequently subjected to two trials and sentenced to nine years imprisonment for corruption and sodomy.
While in New York for a meeting of the United Nations, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was invited to speak at Columbia University in New York to give a lecture. When responding to a student question afterward, he said, speaking through an interpreter: "In Iran, we don't have homosexuals like in your country." In his native Farsi, he used the slang equivalent of faggot, not the neutral term for a "homosexual".
Other countries and regions viewing homosexuality as a Western disease include Vietnam, China, Ethiopia, Africa, Australian Muslims, and India.
Conflation with child abuse
The claim that homosexuals sexually abuse children predates the current era, as it was leveled against pederasts even during antiquity. Lawmakers and social commentators have sometimes expressed a concern that normalizing homosexuality would also lead to normalizing pedophilia, if it were determined that pedophilia too were a sexual orientation. A related claim is that LGBT adoption is done for the purpose of grooming children for sexual exploitation. The empirical research shows that sexual orientation does not affect the likelihood that people will abuse children.
Others have made hoaxes intending to falsely associate pedophilia with the LGBT community by rebranding it as a sexual orientation, including claims that the "+" in "LGBT+" refers to "pedophiles, zoophiles, [and] necrophiles", as well as the invented terms "agefluid", "clovergender" (a hoax executed by users of the imageboard 4chan, whose logo is a stylized four-leaf clover), and "pedosexual".
Starting in 2022, some conservatives[who?] including Chaya Raichik of Libs of TikTok started using the terms "grooming", "groomer" and "pro-pedophile" against their opponents and LGBT people over anti-LGBT legislation, such as laws restricting and banning discussion of sexual orientation and gender identity in schools. Critics say that these usages of the terms diminish the experiences of sexual assault survivors, smear the LGBT community, and are dangerous in general.
"Gay agenda" or "homosexual agenda" is a term used by sectors of the Christian religious right as a disparaging way to describe the advocacy of cultural acceptance and normalization of non-heterosexual sexual orientations and relationships. The term originated among social conservatives in the United States and has been adopted in nations with active anti-LGBT movements such as Hungary and Uganda.The term refers to efforts to change government policies and laws on LGBT rights–related issues. Additionally, it has been used by social conservatives and others to describe alleged goals of LGBT rights activists, such as recruiting heterosexuals into what conservatives term a "homosexual lifestyle".
The charge of "homosexual recruitment" is an allegation by social conservatives that LGBT people engage in concerted efforts to indoctrinate children into homosexuality. In the United States, this dates back to the early post-war era.: 91 Proponents were found especially among the New Right, as epitomized by Anita Bryant. In her Save Our Children campaign, she promoted a view of homosexuals recruiting youth.: 115–116 A common slogan is "Homosexuals cannot reproduce — so they must recruit" or its variants. Supporters of recruitment allegations point at "deviant" and "prurient" sex education as evidence. They express concern that anti-bullying efforts teach that "homosexuality is normal, and that students shouldn't harass their classmates because they're gay", suggesting recruitment as the primary motivation. Supporters of this myth cite the inability for same-sex couples to reproduce as a motivation for recruitment.
Sociologists and psychologists describe such claims as an anti-gay myth, and a fear-inducing bogeyman. Many critics believe the term promotes the myth of homosexuals as pedophiles .
- In 1977, Anita Bryant successfully campaigned to repeal an ordinance in Miami-Dade County that prohibited discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Her campaign was based upon allegations of homosexual recruitment. Writing about Bryant's efforts to repeal a Florida anti-discrimination law in the Journal of Social History, Michel Boucai wrote that "Bryant's organization, Save Our Children, framed the law as an endorsement of immorality and a license for 'recruitment'."
- Oregon's proposed 1992 Ballot Measure 9 contained language that would have added anti-LGBT rhetoric to the state Constitution. U.S. writer Judith Reisman justified her support for the measure, citing "a clear avenue for the recruitment of children" by gays and lesbians.
- A small newspaper in Uganda's capital attracted international attention in 2010 when it outed 100 gay people alongside a banner that said, "Hang them", and claimed that homosexuals aimed to "recruit" Ugandan children, and that schools had "been penetrated by gay activists to recruit kids." According to gay rights activists, many Ugandans were attacked afterward as a result of their real or perceived sexual orientation. Minorities activist David Kato, who was outed in the article and a co-plaintiff in the lawsuit against the paper, was subsequently murdered at home by an intruder and an international outcry resulted.
- In 1998, The Onion parodied the idea of "homosexual recruitment" in an article titled "'98 Homosexual-Recruitment Drive Nearing Goal", saying "Spokespersons for the National Gay & Lesbian Recruitment Task Force announced Monday that more than 288,000 straights have been converted to homosexuality since January 1, 1998, putting the group well on pace to reach its goal of 350,000 conversions by the end of the year." According to Mimi Marinucci, most US adults who support gay rights would recognize the story as satire due to unrealistic details. The Westboro Baptist Church passed along the story as fact, citing it as evidence of a gay conspiracy.
In 1937, the English gay classics scholar Sir Maurice Bowra referred to himself as part of the "Homintern". However, there are competing claims about who coined the term – including Jocelyn Brooke, Harold Norse and W. H. Auden. A takeoff on "Comintern" (Communist International), it was meant to convey the idea of a global homosexual community.[a][b][c]
Auden used the term in the Partisan Review in 1950, entitling his review of a book on Oscar Wilde: "A Playboy of the Western World: St. Oscar, the Homintern Martyr."
"Homintern" was also used by American Senator Joe McCarthy during the McCarthyist scare in the 1950s, who used it to claim that the administrations of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman were set on destroying America from within. Attempts were made to link Communism and homosexuality, with "Homintern" a play on the word "Comintern" (the short name of the Communist International). But the word was also used ironically by those in favor of gay rights.
Homintern also appeared in a number of mass-circulation magazine articles during the 1960s – such as Ramparts, which in 1966 published an article by Gene Marine about the Homintern. It was also frequently used in the conservative magazine National Review. William F. Buckley, Jr. would warn of the machinations of the Homintern on his TV talk show Firing Line – feeding the conservative belief that the Homintern deliberately manipulated culture to encourage homosexuality by promoting camp programs such as the popular 1960s TV series Batman. Such magazine articles were often illustrated with the color lavender and the Homintern was sometimes called the "lavender conspiracy". It was subsequently claimed that there was a secret worldwide network of gay art gallery owners, ballet directors, movie producers, record label executives and photographers who, behind the scenes, determined who would become successful artists, dancers, actors, and models.
The historian Michael S. Sherry has used the term hominterm discourse "for the untidy bundle of ideas and accusations about the gay creative presence".
The term "Gaystapo" (French: Gestapette) was coined in France in the 1940s by political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière for the Vichy education minister, Abel Bonnard. It was subsequently applied by National Front leader Jean-Marie Le Pen to Florian Philippot, whom he accused of being a bad influence on Marine Le Pen.
The English critic Kenneth Tynan wrote to A.C. Spectorsky (editor of Playboy) in 1967 proposing an article on the "Homosexual Mafia" in the arts. Spectorsky declined, although he stated that "culture hounds were paying homage to faggotismo as they have never done before". Playboy would subsequently run a panel on gay issues in April 1971.
"Gay mafia" became more widely used in the US media in the 1980s and 1990s, such as the American daily New York Post. The term was also used by the British tabloid The Sun in 1998 in response to what it claimed was sinister dominance by gay men in the Labour Party Cabinet.
While the term "Lavender Mafia" has occasionally been used to refer to informal networks of gay executives in the US entertainment industry, more generally it refers to Church politics. For example, a faction within the leadership and clergy of the Roman Catholic Church that allegedly advocates the acceptance of homosexuality within the Church and its teachings.
The term "homo lobby" or "gay lobby" is often used by opponents of LGBT rights in Europe. For example, the Swedish neo-Nazi party Nordic Resistance Movement runs a "crush the homo lobby" campaign. According to the German newspaper Der Tagesspiegel, advocating for LGBT rights could accurately be called lobbying, but the term Schwulen-Lobby ('gay lobby') is insulting because it is used to suggest a powerful conspiracy which does not actually exist.
In 2013, Pope Francis spoke about a "gay lobby" within the Vatican, and promised to see what could be done. In July 2013, Francis went on to draw a distinction between the problem of lobbying and the sexual orientation of people: "If a person is gay and seeks God and has good will, who am I to judge?" "The problem", he said, "is not having this orientation. We must be brothers. The problem is lobbying by this orientation, or lobbies of greedy people, political lobbies, Masonic lobbies, so many lobbies. This is the worse problem."
Misgendering is the act of labelling others with a gender that does not match their gender identity. Misgendering can be deliberate or accidental. It can involve using pronouns to describe someone that are not the ones they use, calling a person "ma'am" or "sir" in contradiction to the person's gender identity, and using a pre-transition name for someone instead of a post-transition one (deadnaming).
Deception and masquerade
Some terms often considered to be anti-trans such as shemale, trap, and ladyboy are perceived to promote the belief that trans women are men masquerading as women. The concept of a person whose gender identity differs from their assigned birth sex has often been twisted into jokes about how repulsive such a person must be.[better source needed]
This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (August 2020)
In response to a growing push for anti-discrimination bills regarding public restrooms, Former Arkansas Gov. Mike Huckabee delivered this message to a National Religious Broadcasters Convention during his 2016 bid for the presidency:
Now I wish that someone told me that when I was in high school that I could have felt like a woman when it came time to take showers in PE. I'm pretty sure that I would have found my feminine side and said, 'Coach, I think I'd rather shower with the girls today.'
Huckabee's joke prompted backlash from LGBT leaders, including Rebecca Issacs, the executive director of Equality Federation, who said in an email to The Huffington Post: "Everyone needs to use the restroom and everyone cares about safety and privacy. Despite recent gains in visibility, transgender people continue to face extraordinarily high rates of discrimination and violence."
In 2015, conservative group Campaign for Houston released an advertisement targeting Houston Proposition 1, an anti-discriminatory bill that would protect transgender peoples' rights to use bathrooms that align with their gender identity. The video, which implies the sexual assault of a young girl, was decried as "the definition of transphobia" by J. Brian Lowder, an associate editor for Slate and author for its LGBTQ section.
Some positions within feminist theory have used denialist rhetoric viewed as transphobic. Those that hold these positions are known as trans-exclusionary radical feminists, or "TERF" for short. This term was coined by feminist blogger Viv Smythe in 2008 as a value-neutral descriptor of feminists that engage in denialism.
In 1979, American radical feminist Janice Raymond published The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the She-Male. In it, she wrote that, "All transsexuals rape women's bodies by reducing the real female form to an artifact, appropriating this body for themselves." A common position in radical feminism maintain that trans women are not women in a literal sense and should not be in women-only spaces.
Some second-wave feminists perceive trans men and women respectively as "traitors" and "infiltrators" to womanhood. In a 1997 article British lesbian feminist Sheila Jeffreys wrote that "[T]ranssexualism should be seen as a violation of human rights." Jeffreys also argued that by transitioning medically and socially, trans women are "constructing a conservative fantasy of what women should be. They are inventing an essence of womanhood which is deeply insulting and restrictive." In the late 2010s, this rhetoric evolved into the claim that transgender women force themselves on cisgender lesbians by using accusations of transphobia as a guilt trip.
Legality and censorship
Hate speech against LGBT people, or incitement to hatred against them, is criminalized in some countries.
- ^ [1930s?] "The new literary fashion then in the ascendant, dominated by what Jocelyn Brooke (himself homosexual, but detached from 'committed' writing) used to call The Homintern, was unsympathetic to me; at the same time the fourth novel on which I was now at work – to have the title Agents and Patients – did not entirely satisfy my own standards in breaking fresh ground."- Anthony Powell (1981)
- ^ "The word 'Homintern', which I coined in 1939, is attributed to Auden, who used it in an article in the Partisan Review about 1941, and has passed into the language. A takeoff on Comintern (Communist International), it was meant to convey the idea of a global homosexual community." –Harold Norse (1989; correction: Auden's first articles in Partisan Review was in 1950)
- ^ "Anthony Powell suggested that his friend Jocelyn Brooke invented the term that Harold Nurse tells us Auden stole from him. Whoever invented it provided us with a splendid word to explain the social and cultural power of homosexuality." –Patrick Higgins (1993)
- ^ "Hate Speech and Hate Crimes against LGBT Persons" (PDF). European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
- ^ "Hate crime & hate speech". ILGA-Europe. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
- ^ "Dutch penal code – article 137c". Retrieved 17 March 2021.
- ^ "Norwegian Penal code, Straffeloven, section 135 a." Retrieved 17 March 2021.
- ^ Morén, Kristoffer (24 July 2012). "Lag om hets mot folkgrupp innefattar homosexuella - DN.SE". Dagens Nyheter. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
- ^ Herdt, Gilbert (June 2009). Moral Panics, Sex Panics: Fear and the Fight Over Sexual Rights. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-3723-1.
- ^ Klosowska, Anna (6 June 2011). "Trouble in the Global Village: A Snapshot of LGBT Community in Eastern Europe". In Sierra, M.; Román-Odio, C. (eds.). Transnational Borderlands in Women's Global Networks: The Making of Cultural Resistance. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-11947-5.
- ^ Sherry, Michael S. (2007). Gay Artists in Modern American Culture: An Imagined Conspiracy. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-8589-5.
- ^ Madsen, Mikael Rask (2019). "Resistance to the European Court of Human Rights: The Institutional and Sociological Consequences of Principled Resistance". Principled Resistance to ECtHR Judgments – A New Paradigm?. Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht. Vol. 285. Springer. pp. 35–52. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-58986-1_2. ISBN 978-3-662-58986-1. S2CID 210655765.
- ^ "Poland will not let EU 'force' it into allowing gay marriages, says justice minister". Reuters. 20 July 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- ^ Ayoub, Phillip; Paternotte, David (20 October 2014). LGBT Activism and the Making of Europe: A Rainbow Europe?. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-39176-6.
- ^ Ayoub, Phillip M. (2014). "With Arms Wide Shut: Threat Perception, Norm Reception, and Mobilized Resistance to LGBT Rights". Journal of Human Rights. 13 (3): 337–362. doi:10.1080/14754835.2014.919213. S2CID 145577747.
- ^ a b Harari, Yuval Noah (22 June 2019). "50 years after Stonewall: Yuval Noah Harari on the new threats to LGBT rights". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
- ^ VERPOEST, LIEN (2017). "The End of Rhetorics: LGBT policies in Russia and the European Union". Studia Diplomatica. 68 (4): 3–20. ISSN 0770-2965. JSTOR 26531664.
- ^ a b c d Leszczyński, Adam (17 June 2020). ""Ideologia LGBT". Co mówi o niej Andrzej Duda, biskupi i islamiści?". oko.press. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ L.C, Joseph Tham (15 March 2018). Sexuality, Gender & Education. IF Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-88-6788-141-3.
- ^ Bosia, Michael J.; McEvoy, Sandra M.; Rahman, Momin (2020). The Oxford Handbook of Global Lgbt and Sexual Diversity Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 455. ISBN 978-0-19-067374-1.
- ^ Scally, Derek (2 August 2019). "Polish archbishop compares LGBTI community to 'red plague'". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
- ^ "Arcybiskup mówił o "tęczowej zarazie". Powstańcy oburzeni". TVN Warszawa (in Polish). TVN. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- ^ "Police fire tear gas and arrest dozens of far-right protesters attempting to disrupt LGBT+ march". The Independent. 28 September 2019. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
- ^ a b Hoffman, Steven (20 June 2020). "What is 'LGBT ideology,' and why are Polish people talking about it?". The Krakow Post. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- ^ Dellanna, Alessio (15 June 2020). "LGBT campaigners denounce President Duda's comments on "communism"". euronews. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- ^ Barejka, Piotr (13 June 2020). "Jacek Żalek wyjaśnia, czym jest "ideologia LGBT". I jak w "imię wolności wyklucza"". wiadomosci.wp.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ "Poland's LGBT community speaks up: "We are people, not an ideology"". Kafkadesk. 24 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ a b c Krawczyk, Stanisław (16 June 2020). ""Ideologia LGBT" jak "syjoniści" w 68. Tak PiS odczłowiecza mniejszość". oko.press. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ "Przemysław Czarnek o zdjęciu z osobami LGBT: Ci ludzie nie są równi normalnym ludziom". Polska Times (in Polish). 14 June 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
- ^ Pronczuk, Monika (30 July 2020). "Polish Towns That Declared Themselves 'L.G.B.T. Free' Are Denied E.U. Funds". The New York Times.
- ^ Santora, Marc (6 August 2020). "In Poland, the Rainbow Flag Is Wrapped Up in a Broader Culture War". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ "Kuriozalny projekt finansowany przez Fundusz Sprawiedliwości. Chodzi o przestępstwa "popełniane pod wpływem ideologii LGBT"". Bezprawnik (in Polish). 5 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ "Powstanie książka o rzekomych przestępstwach popełnianych pod wpływem "ideologii LGBT". Zapłaci ministerstwo". TOK FM (in Polish). Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ "IBA – IBAHRI condemns LGBTQI+ rights crackdown in Poland". www.ibanet.org. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ Burnetko, Krzysztof (6 August 2020). "Strażnicy pamięci i resort Ziobry walczą z "inwazją LGBT"". www.polityka.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ Mazzini, Mateusz (16 August 2020). "Narodowcy zapowiadają ofensywę anty-LGBT". Polityka (in Polish). Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ a b Tilles, Daniel (17 June 2020). "Poland's anti-LGBT campaign explained: 10 questions and answers". Notes From Poland. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ ""Nie jestem ideologią, jestem człowiekiem". Pikieta środowisk LGBT". GAZETA dziennik Polonii w Kanadzie. 18 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ "Wrocławski protest LGBT: "Jestem człowiekiem, nie ideologią!" [ZDJĘCIA]". www.tuwroclaw.com (in Polish). Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ ""LGBT to ludzie. Nie ideologia". W sobotę manifestacja w Pile - Portal asta24.pl - Piła - informacje i wydarzenia". www.asta24.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ Grabiec, Marta (17 June 2020). "Nie jestem "ideologią", jestem człowiekiem. Protest LGBT+ pod lubelskim ratuszem. Zobacz zdjęcia". Kurier Lubelski (in Polish). Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ Seiler, Katarzyna (29 June 2020). ""Kocham go, bo jest dobrym człowiekiem". Bliscy osób LGBT+ bohaterami nowego filmu "Ludzie, nie ideologia"" ["I love him because he is a good person." LGBT + people's relatives as the heroes of the new film "People, not ideology"]. Gazeta Wyborcza. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ Leszczyński, Adam (5 August 2020). "Intelektualiści prawicy o LGBT: nihilizm, bolszewia, hitleryzm. O co chodzi? Tłumaczymy ten obłęd". oko.press. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
„Ideologia LGBT" to pojęcie–worek, do którego prawica wrzuca te zmiany cywilizacyjne, które jej nie odpowiadają (np. postulaty równouprawnienia związków jednopłciowych, w wielu krajach — od USA po RPA — zrealizowane). W języku propagandy prawicowej, jak pisał w OKO.press Stanisław Krawczyk, „ideologia LGBT" służy odczłowieczaniu mniejszości oraz kreowaniu wroga — a więc budowaniu politycznego poparcia dla prawicy, która przedstawia się jako jedyna obrończyni tradycyjnej rodziny, religii i ładu społecznego. „Ideologia" pasuje także do częstego na prawicy postrzegania świata w kategoriach spisku — ideologię ktoś „promuje", ktoś upowszechnia, ktoś „za nią stoi" (np. George Soros, żydowsko–amerykański finansista, wspierający m.in. organizacje LGBT).
- ^ Bender, Steven W. (2015). "Sexuality and Dehumanization: Homophobia in U.S. Law and Life". Mea Culpa: Lessons on Law and Regret from U.S. History. New York University Press. pp. 93–100. doi:10.18574/nyu/9781479899623.003.0007.
- ^ Guerrero-Coral, Mario Andres (2020). The Discursive Construction of Hate: A Comparative Analysis of the Marginalization and Dehumanization of Homosexuals in Nazi Germany and in Pre-Stonewall United States (PhD thesis). York University.
- ^ Fasoli, Fabio; Paladino, Maria Paola; Carnaghi, Andrea; Jetten, Jolanda; Bastian, Brock; Bain, Paul G. (2016). "Not "just words": Exposure to homophobic epithets leads to dehumanizing and physical distancing from gay men: Homophobic epithets and dehumanization" (PDF). European Journal of Social Psychology. 46 (2): 237–248. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2148. hdl:10071/12705.
- ^ Plummer, David (1995). "Homophobia and health: Unjust, anti-social, harmful and endemic". Health Care Analysis. 3 (2): 150–156. doi:10.1007/BF02198224. PMID 10143359. S2CID 34638623.
- ^ Duyvendak, Jan Willem; Geschiere, Peter; Tonkens, Evelien (30 June 2016). The Culturalization of Citizenship: Belonging and Polarization in a Globalizing World. Springer. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-137-53410-1.
- ^ Baider, Fabienne (2018). ""Go to hell fucking faggots, may you die!" framing the LGBT subject in online comments". Lodz Papers in Pragmatics. 14 (1): 69–92. doi:10.1515/lpp-2018-0004. S2CID 158928585.
- ^ Walsh, Alistair (12 June 2019). "Iran defends execution of gay people | DW | 12.06.2019". Deutsche Wellecode: deu promoted to code: de . Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- ^ Fitzsimons, Tim (23 July 2019). "Russian LGBTQ activist is killed after being listed on gay-hunting website". NBC News. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ "Alabama mayor suggested 'killing out' gay people". BBC News. 4 June 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- ^ "US church pastor and detective says LGBT people should be killed". The Independent. 14 June 2019. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- ^ "Homosexuals should be killed - Malawi politician". News24. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
- ^ a b ""Uganda Newspaper Published Names/Photos of LGBT Activists and HRDs – Cover Says 'Hang Them'"". International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
- ^ Петровић, Александра (14 December 2011). "Образ" пред Уставним судом". Politika Online. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
- ^ "Ustavni sud Srbije zabranio "Obraz"". B92.net. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
- ^ Mills, Laura (27 November 2013). "Russia raises anti-LGBT rhetoric at home while softening message to West". CTV News. Associated Press. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- ^ a b c Dynes, Wayne R. (2016). "Myths & Fabrications". Encyclopedia of Homosexuality: Volume II. Routledge. p. 870. ISBN 978-1-317-36812-0.
- ^ Greenberg, David F. (15 August 1990). The Construction of Homosexuality. University of Chicago Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-226-30628-5.
- ^ Dominey-Howes, Dale; Gorman-Murray, Andrew; McKinnon, Scott (2014). "Queering disasters: on the need to account for LGBTI experiences in natural disaster contexts". Gender, Place & Culture. 21 (7): 905–918. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2013.802673. S2CID 146478126.
- ^ Dowling, Tim (30 October 2012). "Superstorm Sandy and many more disasters that have been blamed on the gay community". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- ^ "Religious figures blame LGBT+ people for coronavirus". Reuters. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- ^ Goodstein, Laurie (15 September 2001). "After the Attacks: Finding Fault; Falwell's Finger-Pointing Inappropriate, Bush Says". The New York Times. p. A15. OCLC 1058508513.
- ^ "Falwell apologizes to gays, feminists, lesbians". CNN. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021.
- ^ "Falwell and Robertson Blame Liberal America". Snopes.com. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- ^ "'Si aceptan homosexuales en el Ejército, Perú y Bolivia nos volarán la raja' | Noticias | elmundo.es". www.elmundo.es. 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- ^ Bright, G. (14 February 2012). Plague-Making and the AIDS Epidemic: A Story of Discrimination. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-01122-0.
- ^ Murphy, T F (1988). "Is AIDS a just punishment?". Journal of Medical Ethics. 14 (3): 154–160. doi:10.1136/jme.14.3.154. PMC 1375741. PMID 3184138.
- ^ "'Gay plague': The vile, horrific and inhumane way the media reported the AIDS crisis". PinkNews. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
- ^ Dowsett, Gary (2009). "The "gay plague" revisited: AIDS and its enduring moral panic". In Herdt, Gilbert (ed.). Moral Panics, Sex Panics: Fear and the Fight over Sexual Rights. New York University Press. pp. 130–. ISBN 978-0-8147-3732-3.
- ^ Howard, Ken; Gavin Yamey (2003). "Magazine's HIV claim rekindles "gay plague" row". BMJ: British Medical Journal. 326 (7386): 454. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7386.454. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1125344.
- ^ "The terrifying experiences of a gay man who lived through the AIDs crisis". The Independent. 6 January 2017. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
- ^ Michael Musto. "La Dolce Musto", village voice, 2000. "La Dolce Musto". Archived from the original on 22 March 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
- ^ "Anti-Gay Protesters Descend on LISD". kcbd.com. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
- ^ Claussen, Dane S. (2002). Sex, Religion, Media. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-7425-1558-1.
- ^ a b Hopkins, Patrick D. (2012). "Naturalizing homosexuality: biology, sexual orientation, and the nature/culture distinction". Queer Philosophy. Brill | Rodopi. pp. 1–9. doi:10.1163/9789401208352_002. ISBN 978-94-012-0835-2.
- ^ Giles, Geoffrey J. (2010). "The Persecution of Gay Men and Lesbians During the Third Reich". The Routledge History of the Holocaust. Routledge. pp. 385–396. ISBN 978-0-203-83744-3.
- ^ Whisnant, Clayton J. (2016). Queer Identities and Politics in Germany: A History, 1880–1945. Columbia University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-1-939594-10-5.
- ^ Zinn, Alexander (2020). "»Das sind Staatsfeinde« Die NS-Homosexuellenverfolgung 1933–1945" ["They are enemies of the state": The Nazi persecution of homosexuals 1933–1945] (PDF). Bulletin des Fritz Bauer Instituts: 12. ISSN 1868-4211.
- ^ Drescher, Jack (4 December 2015). "Out of DSM: Depathologizing Homosexuality". Behavioral Sciences. 5 (4): 565–575. doi:10.3390/bs5040565. ISSN 2076-328X. PMC 4695779. PMID 26690228.
- ^ "Gay Is Okay With APA (American Psychiatric Association)". 24 March 2010. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010.
- ^ "Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365(...) – APA California Amicus Brief — As Filed" (PDF). Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- ^ "Stances of Faiths on LGBTQ Issues: Roman Catholic Church". HRC. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ Mollman, Steve (16 February 2016). ""LGBT is a disease, not a human right"—a growing movement in Indonesia rejects gay rights". Quartz. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
- ^ "Liberals fear unrest as Poland Catholic Church doubles down on anti-gay rhetoric". Reuters. 2 August 2019. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- ^ Tilles, Daniel (25 August 2020). "Education minister defends official who warned "LGBT virus" threatens Polish schools". Notes From Poland. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
- ^ Spitko, E. Gary (2017). Antigay Bias in Role-Model Occupations. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-8122-4870-8.
- ^ Mutz, Larry (Spring 2006). "A Fairy Tale: The Myth of the Homosexual Lifestyle in Anti-Gay-and-Lesbian Rhetoric". Women's Rights Law Reporter. 27 (2): 69–. ISSN 0085-8269.
- ^ LeVay, Simon (2017). Gay, Straight, and the Reason why: The Science of Sexual Orientation (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-029737-4.
- ^ Bailey, J. Michael; Vasey, Paul L.; Diamond, Lisa M.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc (2016). "Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science". Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 17 (2): 45–101. doi:10.1177/1529100616637616. PMID 27113562. S2CID 42281410.
- ^ Crooks, Robert L.; Baur, Karla (2010). Our Sexuality. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-81294-4.[page needed]
- ^ a b Ryan, Maureen E. (2018). Lifestyle Media in American Culture: Gender, Class, and the Politics of Ordinariness. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-315-46495-4.[page needed]
- ^ Barton, Bernadette (October 2012). Pray the Gay Away: The Extraordinary Lives of Bible Belt Gays. New York University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-8147-2442-2.
- ^ a b Gnuse, Robert K. (2015). "Seven Gay Texts: Biblical Passages Used to Condemn Homosexuality". Biblical Theology Bulletin: Journal of Bible and Culture. 45 (2): 68–87. doi:10.1177/0146107915577097. S2CID 170127256.
- ^ Pitt, Richard N. (2010). ""Killing the Messenger": Religious Black Gay Men's Neutralization of Anti-Gay Religious Messages". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 49 (1): 56–72. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2009.01492.x.
- ^ "Dunn, Katia. "What If God Were Gay?". Portland Mercury". Archived from the original on 10 March 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- ^ Boellstorff, Tom (2004). "The emergence of political homophobia in Indonesia: masculinity and national belonging". Ethnos. 69 (4): 465–486. doi:10.1080/0014184042000302308. S2CID 143971007.
- ^ Hamdi, Nassim; Lachheb, Monia; Anderson, Eric (2017). "Masculinity, homosexuality and sport in an Islamic state of increasing homohysteria". Journal of Gender Studies. 26 (6): 688–701. doi:10.1080/09589236.2016.1155979. S2CID 147347384.
- ^ Weiss, Meredith L.; Bosia, Michael J. (31 August 2013). "Homophobia as a Tool of Statecraft: Iran and Its Queers". In Korycki, Katarzyna; Nasirzadeh, Abouzar (eds.). Global Homophobia: States, Movements, and the Politics of Oppression. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-09500-9.
- ^ Thoreson, Ryan Richard (2014). "Troubling the waters of a 'wave of homophobia': Political economies of anti-queer animus in sub-Saharan Africa". Sexualities. 17 (1–2): 23–42. doi:10.1177/1363460713511098. S2CID 144030716.
- ^ Wieringa, Saskia E. (27 May 2019). "Is the Recent Wave of Homophobia in Indonesia Unexpected?". In Fealy, Greg; Ricci, Ronit (eds.). Contentious Belonging: Contentious Belonging. ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute. ISBN 978-981-4843-49-2.
- ^ "Poland's Jewish leaders deplore stigmatization of LGBTQ people". NBC News. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- ^ "The Faith Leaders Leading the Fight for LGBTQ Equality". HRC. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- ^ Jones, Ian; Thorpe, Kirsty; Wootton, Janet (3 November 2011). Women and Ordination in the Christian Churches: International Perspectives. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0-567-23910-5.
- ^ Santos, A. (28 November 2012). Social Movements and Sexual Citizenship in Southern Europe. Springer. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-137-29640-5.
- ^ Smith, Ralph R.; Windes, Russel R. (3 February 2000). Progay/Antigay: The Rhetorical War Over Sexuality. SAGE Publications. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-4522-6372-4.
- ^ Clarke, Victoria (September–October 2001). "What about the children? arguments against lesbian and gay parenting". Women's Studies International Forum. 24 (5): 555–570. doi:10.1016/S0277-5395(01)00193-5.
- ^ Cleath, Robert L. (4 December 1970). "'Gays' Go Radical". Christianity Today. Carol Stream, Illinois: Christianity Today International: 40–41. ISSN 0009-5753. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ "The Church and Homosexuals". Christian Century. 1 June 1977. p. 528.; as quoted in Balch 2007, p. 22.>
- ^ Carroll, Peter N. (1990) [1st pub. 1990]. It Seemed Like Nothing Happened: America in the 1970s. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. pp. 292–. ISBN 978-0-8135-1538-0. OCLC 183352949. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ Christianity Today, 16 November 1979, p.48, as quoted in Balch, David L. (1 July 2007). Homosexuality, Science, and the "Plain Sense" of Scripture. Wipf & Stock Publishers. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-55635-538-7. OCLC 535493879. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ a b c d e f Schonfeld, Zach (1 July 2015). "The Surprising History of the Phrase 'Adam and Eve, Not Adam and Steve'". Newsweek. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
- ^ Klemesrud, Judy (20 November 1977). "Equal Rights Plan and Abortion Are Opposed by 15,000 at Rally". The New York Times. p. 32. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
- ^ Balch, David (2000). Homosexuality, science, and the "plain sense" of Scripture. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8028-4698-3.
- ^ Hurwitt, Robert (21 May 2001). "Adam and Steve's adventures in paradise". San Francisco Chronicle. p. E4.
- ^ Hennessy, Mark (6 February 2013). "British MPs back gay marriage legislation". The Irish Times.
- ^ "MDC's Nelson Chamisa speaks on Cde Mugabe's legacy". Youtube.com. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
- ^ Shah, Shanon (17 October 2017). The Making of a Gay Muslim: Religion, Sexuality and Identity in Malaysia and Britain. Palgrave Studies in Lived Religion and Societal Challenges. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. p. 130. ISBN 978-3-319-63130-1. OCLC 1027079609. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ Hartcher, Peter (23 February 2010). "Outdated political thuggery embarrasses Malaysia". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ "Anwar Ibrahim". 6 June 2014. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- ^ Goldman, Russell (24 September 2007). "Ahmadinejad: No Gays, No Oppression of Women in Iran". ABC News. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ Martel, Frédéric; Bronski, Michael (9 April 2019) [1st pub. Flammarian, Paris 2013]. "8. "In Iran, There Are No Homosexuals"". Global Gay: How Gay Culture is Changing the World. Translated by Baudoin, Patsy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. pp. 203–. ISBN 978-0-262-53705-6. OCLC 1001431180. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
The former President of Iran evaded an American student's question on the execution of homosexuals by saying, 'In Iran, we don't have homosexuals like in your country. This does not exist in our country. In Iran we do not have this phenomenon. I do not know who told you that we have.' (Note that in this speech, Ahmadinejad used the Farsi term hamjensbaz, 'faggot', not the more neutral term hamjensgara, 'homosexual'. )
- ^ Lam, Charles (28 October 2013). "UCI Anthropologist Out To Prove Gay People Exist ... In Vietnam". OC Weekly. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- ^ Huang, Wen (4 January 2001). "Gayness as a Western disease". Bay Area Reporter. Vol. 31, no. 1. Center for Bibliographical Studies and Research. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- ^ Baker, Katie J. M. (13 December 2013). "Ethiopia's War on Homosexuals". Newsweek. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- ^ Luirink, Bart; Maurick, Madeleine; Chambers, Christopher (2016). Homosexuality in Africa: A Disturbing Love. Soesterberg: Aspekt. ISBN 978-94-6338-082-9. OCLC 1148475814. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- ^ Sanjakdar, Fida (2013). "Educating for sexual difference? Muslim teachers' conversations about homosexuality". Sex Education. Taylor & Francis. 13 (1): 16–29. doi:10.1080/14681811.2011.634154. ISSN 1468-1811. OCLC 50451119. S2CID 145417308.
- ^ Bedi, Rahul (5 July 2011). "Indian minister claims homosexuality is Western 'disease'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- ^ Lucian. Erotes
- ^ Leslie, Laura (25 June 2014). "Stam calls pedophilia, sadism 'sexual orientations'". Raleigh, N.C.: WRAL-TV.
- ^ Wądołowska, Agnieszka (29 May 2020). "Activist who said "gay couples adopt kids to rape them" will not face trial after Polish court rejects case". Notes From Poland. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ Herek, Gregory M. "Facts About Homosexuality and Child Molestation". Lgbpsychology.org. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
- ^ Lamb, Michael (2009). "Affidavit of Michael Lamb, Ph.D." (PDF). United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Civil Action No. 1:09-cv-10309. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2016 – via Glad.org.
- ^ "Sexual orientation, homosexuality, and bisexuality". American Psychological Association. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
- ^ Santora, Marc (7 April 2019). "Poland's Populists Pick a New Top Enemy: Gay People". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ "What does the plus in 'LGBT+' mean?". The Arizona State Press. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ Link, Devon (30 July 2020). "Fact check: 'Clovergender' isn't part of the LGBTQ community". USA TODAY. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ Caldera, Camille (30 July 2020). "Fact check: LGBTQ community rejects false association with pedophiles". USA TODAY. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ Evon, David (27 July 2020). "Are Pedophiles Claiming to be 'Age Fluid'?". Snopes.com. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- ^ Keveney, Bill (2 May 2022). "Weaponized grooming rhetoric is taking a toll on LGBTQ community and child sex abuse survivors". Phys.org. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
- ^ a b Murray, Heather (10 February 2012). Not in This Family: Gays and the Meaning of Kinship in Postwar North America. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0740-8. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
- ^ Tanasychuk, John (4 June 2007). "How Anita Bryant fought -- and helped -- gay rights". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
- ^ "Utah bans gay high-school clubs". Lawrence Journal-World. 19 April 1996. p. 9A. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- ^ Wong, Curtis M. (24 March 2015). "Like Hitler, LGBT Activists Are Recruiting Children, Peter LaBarbera Claims". Huffington Post. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- ^ a b Posner, Sarah (9 February 2007). "The gay recruit". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- ^ Shelly, Barb (30 April 2012). "Rep. Steve Cookson defends 'don't say gay' legislation". Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- ^ a b Andreeva, Nellie; Kit, Borys (2 February 2010). "HBO eyes biopic about anti-gay activist Bryant". Reuters. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
As a mother, I know that homosexuals cannot biologically reproduce children; therefore, they must recruit our children.
- ^ Witt, Lynn; Thomas, Sherry; Marcus, Eric (1 September 1995). Out in All Directions: The Almanac of Gay and Lesbian America. Hachette Digital, Inc. pp. 353–. ISBN 978-0-446-51822-2. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- ^ Peddicord, Richard (1996). Gay and lesbian rights: a question: sexual ethics or social justice?. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-55612-759-5. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- ^ Harris, W. C. (2009). Queer externalities: hazardous encounters in American culture. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4384-2752-2. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- ^ Sears, James T. (2001). Rebels, rubyfruit, and rhinestones: queering space in the Stonewall South. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-8135-2964-6. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- ^ Harris, p. 156
- ^ Fejes, Fred (2008). Gay rights and moral panic: the origins of America's debate on homosexuality (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-4039-8069-4. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- ^ Boucai, Michael (22 December 2010). "Gay Rights and Moral Panic: The Origins of America's Debate on Homosexuality (Book review)". Journal of Social History. Archived from the original on 11 June 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- ^ Associated Press (15 October 1992). "Ex-gay minister backs Oregon Measure 9". Moscow-Pullman Daily News. Idaho. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- ^ Akam, Simon (22 October 2010). "Outcry as Ugandan paper names 'top homosexuals'". The Independent. London.
- ^ Rice, Xan (27 January 2011). "Ugandan gay rights activist murdered weeks after court victory". The Guardian.
- ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (27 January 2011). "Ugandan Who Spoke Up for Gays Is Beaten to Death". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- ^ Rice, Xan (29 January 2011). "Murdered Ugandan gay activist talked of threats". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- ^ a b Marinucci, Mimi (1 December 2010). Kaye, Sharon M. (ed.). The Onion and Philosophy: Fake News Story True Alleges Indignant Area Professor. Open Court Publishing. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-8126-9687-5. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- ^ "'98 Homosexual-Recruitment Drive Nearing Goal". The Onion. 29 July 1998. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- ^ Broderick, James F.; Miller, Darren W. (12 June 2007). Consider the Source: A Critical Guide to 100 Prominent News and Information Sites on the Web. Information Today, Inc. pp. 267 ff. ISBN 978-0-910965-77-4. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- ^ "Satire lost on antigay group". The Advocate. 25 May 2004. Archived from the original on 11 June 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- ^ Schillinger, Liesl (March 1999). "Award-Winning Local Journalists Reflect Own Self-Hatred Back on Nightmarish World". Wired News. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- ^ "Bowra, Sir (Cecil) Maurice (1898–1971)" by L. G. Mitchell, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography"
- ^ Harold Norse: Memoirs of a Bastard Angel, W. Morrow, 1989, ISBN 978-0-688-06704-5, p. 77
- ^ A Queer Reader, ed. Patrick Higgins, Fourth Estate (UK), 1993, p. 315
- ^ Auden, W. H. (April 1950). "A Playboy of the Western World: St. Oscar, The Homintern Martyr". Partisan Review. Vol. 17, no. 4. New York. pp. 391–2. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- ^ Blumenthal, Max (13 July 2010). Republican Gomorrah: Inside the Movement that Shattered the Party (reprint ed.). Nation Books. p. 205. ISBN 978-1-56858-417-1. Retrieved 9 March 2015.[permanent dead link]
- ^ a b Montanarelli, Lisa (25 November 2007). "They're here, queer and art pioneers in Sherry's 'Gay Artists'". San Francisco Chronicle.
- ^ Fallowell, Duncan (9 April 2016). "Gay tittle-tattle". The Spectator. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
- ^ Woods, Gregory (2017). Homintern: How Gay Culture Liberated the Modern World. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22874-8.[page needed]
- ^ Sherry, Michael S. (2007). Gay Artists in Modern American Culture: An Imagined Conspiracy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3121-2.[page needed]
- ^ Perreau, Bruno (2016). Queer Theory: The French Response. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-1-5036-0046-1.
- ^ Tin, Louis-Georges (2008). The Dictionary of Homophobia: A Global History of Gay & Lesbian Experience. Arsenal. ISBN 978-1-55152-314-9.
- ^ Kenneth Tynan Letters (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1994)
- ^ "'Sun' rejects outing and sacks Parris sacks Parris and rejects outing". The Independent. 12 November 1998. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- ^ "BBC News – UK – Sun changes mind over gays". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- ^ "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 07 Apr 2010 (pt 0001)". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- ^ Buerkle, Tom (11 November 1998). "A 'Gay Mafia' in Whitehall? Sex Is Back in the Headlines in Britain". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- ^ De Stefano, George (2006). An offer we can't refuse : the Mafia in the mind of America. New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-21157-9.[page needed]
- ^ Gould, Peter (28 November 2005). "Vatican fuels gay clergy debate". BBC News. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
- ^ "Swedish neo-Nazi Party Attends Biggest Political Event in Sweden". Haaretz. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
- ^ Lange, Nadine (20 September 2016). "Gibt es eine Homo-Lobby?". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 9 June 2021.
- ^ "Pope Francis 'confirms Vatican gay lobby and corruption'". BBC News. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- ^ Lizzie Davis (29 July 2013). "Pope Francis signals openness towards gay priests". The Guardian.
- ^ "Pope Francis: Who am I to judge gay people?". BBC News. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- ^ Julia Serano (20 May 2009). Whipping Girl: A Transsexual Woman on Sexism and the Scapegoating of Femininity. Seal Press. ISBN 978-0-7867-4791-7.
- ^ Ansara, Gavriel (2013). "Misgendering in English language contexts: Applying non-cisgenderist methods to feminist research". International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches. 7 (2): 160–177. doi:10.5172/mra.2013.7.2.160. ISSN 1834-0814. S2CID 145494832.
- ^ DeCecco, John (2012). Looking Queer: Body Image and Identity in Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay, and Transgender Communities (Haworth Gay & Lesbian Studies). New Jersey: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7890-0463-5.
- ^ Bender-Baird, Kyla (2011). Transgender Employment Experiences: Gendered Perceptions and the Law. State University of New York Press. pp. 5–24. ISBN 978-1-4384-3676-0.[page range too broad]
- ^ Talusan, Meredith Ramirez (4 June 2015). "What 'deadnaming' means, and why you shouldn't do it to Caitlyn Jenner". Fusion. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
- ^ Fae, Jane (19 May 2015). "Changing your name should be a joyous moment, but for many it's a nightmare". Comment is Free. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- ^ Jefferson, Cord (1 July 2011). "How I Learned to Hate Transgender People". Good.is. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
- ^ Levine, Sam (2 June 2015). "Mike Huckabee Belittled Transgender People In February Speech". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- ^ Lowder, J. Bryan (19 October 2015). "This Anti-HERO Ad Is the Definition of Transphobia". Slate. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- ^ Raymond, Janice G. (1979). The transsexual empire. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-8070-2164-4.
- ^ Goldberg, Michelle (4 August 2014). "What Is a Woman?". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. ISSN 0028-792X. OCLC 320541675. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- ^ Erickson-Schroth, Laura (12 May 2014). Trans Bodies, Trans Selves: A Resource for the Transgender Community. Oxford University Press. pp. 568–569. ISBN 978-0-19-932535-1.
Some feminists have perceived transmasculine people as traitors—that is, as women who identify politically with men. When inclusive of trans men, these feminists have often gendered them as women. Conversely, these feminists have tended to perceive transfeminine people as infiltrators of womanhood and of women's space.
- ^ Jeffreys, Sheila (May 1997). "Transgender activism: a lesbian feminist perspective". Journal of Lesbian Studies. 1 (3–4): 55–74. doi:10.1300/J155v01n03_03. Pdf.
- ^ "Hate crime & hate speech". ILGA-Europe. Archived from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- ^ Anthony Powell, Faces in My Time, Vol. 3 of To Keep the Ball Rolling: Memoirs by Anthony Powell), Holt, Rinehart and Winston 1981, ISBN 978-0-03-021001-3, no page
Anthony Powell: To Keep the Ball Rolling: The Memoirs of Anthony Powell (new edition, abridged), University of Chicago Press, 2001, ISBN 978-0-226-67721-7, p. 221
- Brummett, Barry (1979). "A pentadic analysis of ideologies in two gay rights controversies". Central States Speech Journal. 30 (3): 250–261. doi:10.1080/10510977909368018.
- Burack, Cynthia (2006). "From Doom Town to Sin City: Chick Tracts and Anti-gay Political Rhetoric". New Political Science. 28 (2): 163–179. doi:10.1080/07393140600679843. S2CID 144985657.
- Burack, Cynthia (17 April 2008). Sin, Sex, and Democracy: Antigay Rhetoric and the Christian Right. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7406-8.
- Dugan, Kimberly B. (2004). "Strategy and "Spin": Opposing Movement Frames in an Anti-Gay Voter Initiative". Sociological Focus. 37 (3): 213–233. doi:10.1080/00380237.2004.10571243. S2CID 143775320.
- Eskridge, William N. Jr (2000). "No Promo Homo: The Sedimentation of Antigay Discourse and the Channeling Effect of Judicial Review". New York University Law Review. 75: 1327–.
- Fetner, Tina (2005). "Ex-Gay Rhetoric and the Politics of Sexuality: The Christian Antigay/Pro-Family Movement's "Truth in Love" Ad Campaign". Journal of Homosexuality. 50 (1): 71–95. doi:10.1300/J082v50n01_04. hdl:11375/21101. PMID 16368665. S2CID 31672425.
- Harris, W. C. (2006). ""In My Day It Used to Be Called a Limp Wrist": Flip-Floppers, Nelly Boys, and Homophobic Rhetoric in the 2004 US Presidential Campaign". The Journal of American Culture. 29 (3): 278–295. doi:10.1111/j.1542-734X.2006.00371.x.
- Gadarian, Shana Kushner; van der Vort, Eric (2018). "The Gag Reflex: Disgust Rhetoric and Gay Rights in American Politics". Political Behavior. 40 (2): 521–543. doi:10.1007/s11109-017-9412-x. ISSN 1573-6687.
- Levy, Elizabeth (2013). "Animus in the Closet: Outing the Addiction Parallels in Anti-Gay Legal Rhetoric". UC Irvine Law Review. 3 (1): 151–. ISSN 2327-4514.
- Mazza, Michael James (2009). This Fierce Geometry: Uses of the Judeo-Christian Bible in the Anti-Abolitionist and Anti-Gay Rhetoric of the United States (PhD thesis). University of Pittsburgh.
- Perkins, Anna Kasafi (2016). "More than Words: Evangelicals, the Rhetoric of Battle and the Fight over Gay Rights in the Caribbean". Journal of Eastern Caribbean Studies. 41 (1): 13–46.
- Schwartz, Michael (2019). Homosexuelle, Seilschaften, Verrat: Ein transnationales Stereotyp im 20. Jahrhundert (in German). De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-063650-5.
- Smith, Ralph R.; Windes, Russel R. (2000). Progay/Antigay. SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-1647-5.
- Stewart, Craig O. (2008). "Social cognition and discourse processing goals in the analysis of 'ex-gay' rhetoric". Discourse & Society. 19 (1): 63–83. doi:10.1177/0957926507083689. S2CID 144039300.