Rainbow flag (LGBT movement)
The rainbow flag, commonly known as the gay pride flag or LGBT pride flag, is a symbol of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) pride and LGBT social movements. (Other uses of rainbow flags include a symbol of peace.) The colors reflect the diversity of the LGBT community, and the flag is often used as a symbol of gay pride during LGBT rights marches. While it originated in Northern California, the flag is now used worldwide.
Originally devised by San Francisco artist Gilbert Baker, the design has undergone several revisions since its debut in 1978, first to remove colors then restore them based on availability of fabrics. The most common variant consists of six stripes: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. The flag is typically flown horizontally, with the red stripe on top, as it would be in a natural rainbow.
Gilbert Baker, an openly gay activist born in 1951, grew up in a small Kansas town, and went on to serve in the US army for about two years in 1970. After an honorable discharge, Gilbert taught himself to sew. In 1974, Baker met Harvey Milk, an influential gay leader, who three years later challenged Baker to come up with a symbol of pride for the gay community. The original gay pride flag flew in the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade on June 25, 1978. It has also been suggested that Baker may have been inspired by Judy Garland's singing "Over the Rainbow" and the Stonewall riots that happened a few days after Garland's death (she was one of the first gay icons). Another suggestion for how the rainbow flag originated is that at college campuses during the 1960s, some people demonstrated for world peace by carrying a Flag of the Races (also called the Flag of the Human Race) with five horizontal stripes (from top to bottom they were red, white, brown, yellow, and black). Gilbert Baker is said to have gotten the idea for the rainbow flag from this flag in borrowing it from the Hippie movement of that time largely influenced by pioneering gay activist Allen Ginsberg. The flag originally consisted of eight stripes; Baker assigned specific meaning to each of the colors:
Thirty volunteers hand-dyed and stitched the first two flags for the parade.
After the November 27, 1978, assassination of openly gay San Francisco City Supervisor Harvey Milk, demand for the rainbow flag greatly increased. To meet demand, the Paramount Flag Company began selling a version of the flag using stock rainbow fabric consisting of seven stripes of red, orange, yellow, green, turquoise, blue, and violet. As Baker ramped up production of his version of the flag, he too dropped the hot pink stripe because of the unavailability of hot-pink fabric. Also, San Francisco-based Paramount Flag Co. began selling a surplus stock of Rainbow Girls flags from its retail store on the southwest corner of Polk and Post, at which Gilbert Baker was an employee.
In 1979 the flag was modified again. When hung vertically from the lamp posts of San Francisco's Market Street, the center stripe was obscured by the post itself. Changing the flag design to one with an even number of stripes was the easiest way to rectify this, so the turquoise stripe was dropped, which resulted in a six stripe version of the flag — red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet.
In 1989, the rainbow flag came to nationwide attention in the United States after John Stout sued his landlords and won when they attempted to prohibit him from displaying the flag from his West Hollywood, California, apartment balcony.
For the 25th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots in 1994, flag creator Baker was commissioned to create the world's largest rainbow flag. It took months of planning and teams of volunteers to coordinate every aspect. The flag utilized the basic six colors and measured thirty feet wide. Foot-wide sections of the flag were given to individual sponsors as part of a fundraiser for the Stonewall anniversary event once the event had ended. Afterwards additional large sections of the flag were sent with activists and they were used in pride parades and LGBT marches worldwide. The Guinness Book of World Records confirmed it as the world's largest flag.
In 2003 Baker was again commissioned to produce a giant flag. In this case it marked the 25th anniversary of the flag itself. Dubbed "25Rainbow Sea to Sea" the project entailed Baker again working with teams of volunteers but this flag utilized the original eight colors and measured a mile-and-a-quarter (2 km) across Key West, Florida from the Atlantic Ocean to the Gulf Coast Sea. The flag was again cut up afterward, and sections sent to over a hundred cities worldwide.
In 2000, the University of Hawaii at Manoa changed its sports teams' name from "Rainbow Warriors" to "Warriors" and redesigned its logo to eliminate a rainbow from it. Initially Athletic Director Hugh Yoshida said that the change was to distance the school's athletic program from homosexuality. When this drew criticism, Yoshida then said the change was merely to avoid brand confusion. The school then allowed each team to select its own name, leading to a mix including "Rainbow Warriors", "Warriors", "Rainbows" and "Rainbow Wahine". This decision was reversed in May 2013, when current athletic director Ben Jay reversed his earlier decision in February to force all of the men's athletic teams to be just Warriors from the patchwork of names from dropping the Rainbow Warriors name.
The rainbow flag celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2003. During the gay pride celebrations in June of that year, Gilbert Baker restored the rainbow flag back to its original eight-striped version and has since advocated that others do the same. However, the eight-striped version has seen little adoption by the wider gay community, which has mostly stuck with the better known six-striped version.
In autumn 2004 several gay businesses in London were ordered by Westminster City Council to remove the rainbow flag from their premises, as its display required planning permission. When one shop applied for permission, the Planning sub-committee refused the application on the chair's casting vote (May 19, 2005), a decision condemned by gay councillors in Westminster and the then Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone. In November the council announced a reversal of policy, stating that most shops and bars would be allowed to fly the rainbow flag without planning permission.
Today some LGBT individuals and straight allies put rainbow flags in the front of their yards and/or front doors, or use rainbow bumper stickers on their vehicles to use as an outward symbol of their identity or support.
In June 2004 LGBT activists sailed to Australia's uninhabited Coral Sea Islands Territory and raised the rainbow flag, proclaiming the territory independent of Australia, calling it the Gay and Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands. The rainbow flag is the official flag of the kingdom.
On June 26, 2015, the White House was illuminated in the rainbow flag colors to commemorate the legalization of same-sex marriages in all 50 U.S. states, following the Obergefell v. Hodges Supreme Court decision.
On April 20, 2017, a font named "Gilbert" was created in memory of Gilbert Baker, creator of the Rainbow Flag. The font is free and available at typewithpride.com under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. One version of the font is using OpenType-SVG features and is made from the same colors as the rainbow flag. This font is a collaborative project between the New York Pride, Newfest, Ogilvy & Mather and Fontself.
Many variations of the rainbow flag have been used. Some of the more common ones include the Greek letter lambda (lower case) in white in the middle of the flag and a pink triangle or black triangle in the upper left corner. Other colors have been added, such as a black stripe symbolizing those community members lost to AIDS. The rainbow colors have also often been used in gay alterations of national and regional flags, replacing for example the red and white stripes of the flag of the United States. In 2007, the Pride Family Flag was introduced at the Houston, Texas pride parade.
In the early years of the AIDS epidemic, AIDS activists designed a "Victory over AIDS" flag consisting of the standard six-stripe rainbow flag with a black stripe across the bottom. Leonard Matlovich, himself dying of AIDS-related illness, suggested that upon a cure for AIDS being discovered, the black stripes be removed from the flags and burned.
LGBT communities in other countries have also adopted the rainbow flag. A South African gay pride flag which is a hybrid of the rainbow flag and the national flag of South Africa was launched in Cape Town in 2010. Flag designer Eugene Brockman said "I truly believe we (the LGBT community) put the dazzle into our rainbow nation and this flag is a symbol of just that."
Rainbow colors as symbol of LGBT pride
The rainbow flag has found wide application on all manner of products including jewelry, clothing and other personal items and the rainbow flag colors are routinely used as a show of LGBT identity and solidarity. The rainbow colors have become so ubiquitously recognized as a symbol of LGBT pride and identity in recent years that they have effectively replaced most other LGBT symbols, including the Greek letter lambda and the pink triangle. One common item of jewelry is the pride necklace or freedom rings, consisting of six rings, one of each color, on a chain. Other variants range from key chains to candles. In Montreal, the entrance to Beaudry metro station, which serves that city's Gay Village, was rebuilt in 1999 with rainbow-colored elements integrated into its design.
In early October 2010, Canadian teenager Brittany McMillan promulgated the observance of a new event called Spirit Day, the first observance of which took place on October 20, 2010; it now however takes place on October 15. On this day people wear the color purple to show support for LGBT youth who are victims of bullying. The name Spirit Day comes from the purple stripe of the rainbow flag, whose creator Gilbert Baker defined it as "representing 'spirit'".
- GLBT Historical Society (San Francisco): Houses the sewing machine used by Gilbert Baker to make the first rainbow flag in 1978.
- LGBT symbols, other LGBT symbols
- Queer culture
- Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence
- Rainbows in culture
- Other flags in the LGBT community:
- "The Rainbow Flag". Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- Gilbert Baker (18 October 2007). "Pride-Flyin' Flag: Rainbow-flag founder marks 30-years anniversary". Metro Weekly. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
- "MoMA | MoMA Acquires the Rainbow Flag". www.moma.org. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
- Gay Almanac, p. 94
- Higgs, Professor David (1999). Queer Sites: Gay Urban Histories Since 1600. Psychology Press. pp. 173–. ISBN 9780415158978. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Carleton College—"Symbols of Pride of the LGBTQ community": Noted as sourced to The Alyson Almanac from the college's library.
- "San Francisco: The Unknown City", Helene Goupil, Josh Krist. Arsenal Pulp Press/Josh Krist, 2005. ISBN 1-55152-188-1, ISBN 978-1-55152-188-6. p. 33
- "Gilbert Baker, Creator Of Rainbow LGBT Pride Flag, Dies". CBS New York. CBS Broadcasting. March 31, 2017. Retrieved 2017-03-31.
- Witt, et al., p. 435
- Unsung Heroes of the Gay World: Vexillographer Gilbert Baker: The Gay Betsy Ross UK Gay News, 17 April 2008. Accessed 23 September 2009.
- Russell, Ron. "Removal of 'Gay Pride' Flag Ordered: Tenant Suit Accuses Apartment Owner of Bias." Los Angeles Times (December 8, 1988): Part 9, 6.
- "San Francisco Neighborhoods: The Castro" KQED documentary.
- Young, Mark C. (1994-10-01). The Guinness book of records. Facts on File. pp. 307–. ISBN 9780816026463. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Whitley, David (2008-08-09). "More buzz over 'Bows". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
- Dave Reardon; Brian McInnis (May 14, 2013). "All UH men's teams will be named Rainbow Warriors". Honolulu Star Advertiser. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
- Lowder, J. Bryan (June 18, 2015). "MoMA Preserves Pride by Acquiring the Rainbow Flag". Slate. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- Antonelli, Paola; Fisher, Michelle Millar (June 17, 2015). "MoMA Acquires the Rainbow Flag". Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- Martinez, Alanna (June 17, 2015). "The Rainbow Flag Joins the Museum of Modern Art's Collection". Observer. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- "Ogilvy & Mather on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
- "South African Flag Revealed at MCQP". Cape Town Pride. 22 December 2010. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Gage, Simon; Richards, Lisa; Wilmot, Simon Gage Lisa Richards Howard; Boy George (2002-06-13). Queer. Da Capo Press. pp. 50–. ISBN 9781560253778. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Schmidt, Kathryn J. (2008). Lesbian Identity Management in Workplace Contexts: "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" in Mainstream Organizations. ProQuest. pp. 96–. ISBN 9780549535461. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Hinrichs, Donald W. (2012-01-04). Montreal's Gay Village: The Story of a Unique Urban Neighborhood Through the Sociological Lens. iUniverse. pp. 40–. ISBN 9781462068371. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Fodor's (2008-02-05). Fodor's Montreal and Quebec City 2008. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 48–. ISBN 9781400018994. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "Go purple on October 15, 2015 for #spiritday". GLAAD. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Wackrow, Kyle (October 10, 2010). "Spirit Day to honor recent homosexual suicide victims". The Eastern Echo. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
- The National Museum & Archive of Lesbian and Gay History (1996). The Gay Almanac. New York City, Berkeley Books. ISBN 0-425-15300-2.
- Witt, Lynn, Sherry Thomas & Eric Marcus (1995). Out in All Directions: The Almanac of Gay and Lesbian America. New York, Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-67237-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to LGBT pride flags.|
- Unsung Heroes of the Gay World: Vexillographer Gilbert Baker
- How Did Gay Pride Flag Originate? KPIX-TV (CBS 5), December 1, 2006
- - VIDEO INTERVIEW WITH GILBERT BAKER - 30 YEARS OF RAINBOW FLAG, June 2008, London
- Gilbert Baker speaks to Homovision.tv about the importance of the Rainbow Flag in the 21st century and why it shouldn't be forgotten.