Gay wage gap

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The gay wage gap is the pay gap between homosexuals and heterosexuals. Studies had shown that gay men earn less than their heterosexual counterparts, whereas lesbians tended to earn more. A recent study suggests that this may be changing, as gay men earned more than their heterosexual counterparts in the US.[1] People who are openly Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and/or Transgender are more likely to experience socioeconomic disadvantages.[2]

Phenomenon[edit]

A study by Georgia State University from 2009 stated, that queer men earn 8–10% less in government compared to heteronormative men, even when taking education, race, years of experience and occupation into account.[3] Until recently,[4] there was no openly gay CEO on the Fortune 1000 list, as the Wall Street Journal investigated in 2012.[5] Kirk Snyder, professor at the USC business-school, noted that gay people are better entrepreneurs. Gay managers have a 25% higher level of employee engagement.[6] The National Transgender Discrimination Survey[7] reported, that trans people are up to four times as likely to earn less than $10,000 and twice as likely to be unemployed due to discrimination.[8] In the 2013-2015 National Health Surveys analysed by Christopher Carpenter and Samuel Eppink, they found that gay, full-time employed men made, on average, 10% more than similarly employed straight men even when controlling for various other factors.[9]

Wage Discrimination by Country[edit]

Germany[edit]

Taking into account age, education, and industry, gay men earn less than heterosexuals even though they tend to be better educated than the average population.[10][11][12]

Australia[edit]

An Australian study [13] has shown, that gay men earn 13% less than their straight counterparts. Meanwhile, lesbians earn 13% more than straight women. La Nauze, economist at University of Melbourne, noted: "There are grounds for concern that workers in Australia, particularly gay men, are discriminated against because of their sexual orientation."[14]

United States[edit]

A study of the 2013-15 National Health Interview Surveys found that gay, full-time employed men made, on average, 10% more than similarly employed straight men. The same study showed that lesbians received a pay premium of 9%. Bisexual men and women earned less than both gay and straight counterparts.[15]

Wage Discrimination by Orientation[edit]

Lesbian Women[edit]

Lesbian and bisexual women receive the same pay or the equivalent of what a straight woman makes. Despite the similar pay grade, they experience less of a pay gap than their straight and gay male coworkers, as well as discrimination.[16] Lesbian women are seen as economically advantaged because they appear to be closer to the male standard of idealism rather than more feminine.[17] Lesbian women make a median of 1.4% more than heterosexual women, but make 25.6% less than heterosexual men.[18] Women who are between the ages of 18 and 44, 29% of bisexual women and 23% of lesbian women are experiencing poverty, unlike the 21% of heterosexual women who are not.[19] Lesbian couples tend to experience higher poverty rates while earning similarly the same as straight women. But, lesbians still earn less than the regular household income of a heterosexual couple because of the gender wage gap. As a result, lesbian couples/households are more likely to live in poverty than heterosexual couples/households.[20]

Gay Men[edit]

Until recently it was thought that Gay men made a median of 18.4% less than compared to straight men.[21] A recent study has showed that in the US Gay men now earn 10% more than their heterosexual counterparts.[22] Gay men are economically disadvantaged for not being the straight stereotypical male in a heterosexual relationship.[23] Gay and bisexual men receive 10%-32% less pay than straight men, especially when considering factors such as education, race, occupation, and work experience come into the work place.[24] 20% of gay men and 25% of bisexual men between the ages of 18 and 44 live in or below the poverty level, unlike the 15% of heterosexual men who are not.[25]

Transgender Individuals[edit]

Transgender adults are nearly 4 times as likely to have a household income of under $10,000 per year.[26]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Carpenter, Christopher S.; Eppink, Samuel T. (2017). "Does It Get Better? Recent Estimates of Sexual Orientation and Earnings in the United States". Southern Economic Journal. 84 (2): 426–441. doi:10.1002/soej.12233.
  2. ^ "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons & Socioeconomic Status". https://www.apa.org. Retrieved 2019-05-05. External link in |website= (help)
  3. ^ Rivas, Jorge. "The gay pay gap: Gays get paid less, lesbians earn more". Splinter. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  4. ^ "Tim Cook Speaks Up". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  5. ^ Kwoh, Leslie (2012-07-25). "A Silence Hangs Over Gay CEOs". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  6. ^ Rivas, Jorge. "The gay pay gap: Gays get paid less, lesbians earn more". Splinter. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  7. ^ Grant, Jaime M. "Injustice at Every Turn" (PDF). National Transgender Discrimination Survey.
  8. ^ Rivas, Jorge. "The gay pay gap: Gays get paid less, lesbians earn more". Splinter. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  9. ^ "Gay men now earn more than straight men in the US". Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  10. ^ "Arbeitsmarkt: Schwule verdienen weniger als Heterosexuelle". Die Zeit (in German). 2017-08-31. ISSN 0044-2070. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  11. ^ Holzki, Larissa (2017-08-31). "Schwule Männer verdienen weniger". sueddeutsche.de (in German). ISSN 0174-4917. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  12. ^ "Schwule verdienen weniger als Heteromänner - aber warum? – Mannschaft Magazin". Mannschaft Magazin (in German). 2017-09-01. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  13. ^ Wade, Matt (2015-02-28). "The gay pay gap: men earn less, but women earn more". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  14. ^ "Untitled | Employment Discrimination | Homosexuality". Scribd. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  15. ^ "Gay men now earn more than straight men in the US". Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  16. ^ Burns, Crosby (2012-04-16). "The Gay and Transgender Wage Gap". Center for American Progress. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
  17. ^ "Ignoring LGBT individuals allows the gay wage gap to continue". realchangenews.org. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
  18. ^ "Ignoring LGBT individuals allows the gay wage gap to continue". realchangenews.org. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
  19. ^ "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons & Socioeconomic Status". https://www.apa.org. Retrieved 2019-05-05. External link in |website= (help)
  20. ^ "The Impact of Wage Equality on Sexual Orientation Poverty Gaps". Williams Institute. 2015-06-02. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
  21. ^ "Ignoring LGBT individuals allows the gay wage gap to continue". realchangenews.org. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
  22. ^ Carpenter, Christopher S.; Eppink, Samuel T. (2017). "Does It Get Better? Recent Estimates of Sexual Orientation and Earnings in the United States". Southern Economic Journal. 84 (2): 426–441. doi:10.1002/soej.12233.
  23. ^ "Ignoring LGBT individuals allows the gay wage gap to continue". realchangenews.org. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
  24. ^ Burns, Crosby (2012-04-16). "The Gay and Transgender Wage Gap". Center for American Progress. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
  25. ^ "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons & Socioeconomic Status". https://www.apa.org. Retrieved 2019-05-05. External link in |website= (help)
  26. ^ "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons & Socioeconomic Status". https://www.apa.org. Retrieved 2019-05-05. External link in |website= (help)