Gayatri Mantra

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Gayatri Mantra

The Gāyatrī Mantra is a highly revered mantra from the Vedas. Like all Vedic mantras, the Gayatri mantra is considered not to have an author, and like all other Vedic mantras, is believed to have been revealed to Brahmarshi Vishvamitra. It is a verse from a sukta of the Rigveda (Mandala 3.62.10). Gāyatrī is the name of the Vedic meter in which the verse is composed.[1] As the verse can be interpreted to invoke Savitr, it is also called the Sāvitrī mantra.[2] Its recitation is traditionally preceded by oṃ and the formula bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ, known as the mahāvyāhṛti, or "great (mystical) utterance".

The Gayatri mantra is repeated and cited very widely in Vedic literature[2] and praised in several classical Hindu texts such as the Bhagavad Gita ,[3][4] Harivamsa,[5] and Manusmṛti. [6] The mantra is an important part of the upanayana ceremony for young males in Hinduism, and has long been recited by dvija men as part of their daily rituals. Modern Hindu reform movements spread the practice of the mantra to include women and all castes and its use is now very widespread.[7][8]

The Mantra[edit]

Text[edit]

The main mantra appears in the hymn RV 3.62.10. During its recitation, the hymn is preceded by oṃ () and the formula bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ (भूर् भुवः स्वः). This prefixing of the mantra proper is described in the Taittiriya Aranyaka (2.11.1-8), which states that it should be chanted with the syllable oṃ, followed by the three Vyahrtis and the Gayatri verse.[9]

The Gayatri mantra is:[9]

In Devanagari[edit]

ॐ भू: भुवः स्वः ।
तत्स॑वि॒तुर्वरेण्यं॒
भर्गो॑ दे॒वस्य॑ धीमहि ।
धियो॒ यो नः॑ प्रचो॒दया॑त् ॥

In IAST[edit]

om bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ
tát savitúr váreṇ(i)yaṃ
bhárgo devásya dhīmahi
dhíyo yó naḥ pracodayāt
– Rigveda 3.62.10[10]
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Whereas in principle the gāyatrī metre specifies three pādas of eight syllables each, the text of the verse as preserved in the Samhita is one short, seven instead of eight. Metrical restoration would emend the attested tri-syllabic vareṇyaṃ with a tetra-syllabic vareṇiyaṃ.[11]

Meaning[edit]

A meaning of the Gayatri mantra, published in 1882 by Monier Monier-Williams, is as follows:

Let us meditate on that excellent glory of the divine vivifying Sun,
May he enlighten our understandings.

— Translated by Monier Monier-Williams[12][13]

Paraphrases[edit]

The following is a list of English paraphrases or free translations.

Author Year Translation
Sir William Jones 1807 "Let us adore the supremacy of that divine sun, the god-head who illuminates all, who recreates all, from whom all proceed, to whom all must return, whom we invoke to direct our understandings aright in our progress toward his holy seat."[14]
William Quan Judge 1893 "Unveil, O Thou who givest sustenance to the Universe, from whom all proceed, to whom all must return, that face of the True Sun now hidden by a vase of golden light, that we may see the truth and do our whole duty on our journey to thy sacred seat."[15]
Sivanath Sastri (Brahmo Samaj) 1911 "We meditate on the worshipable power and glory of Him who has created the earth, the nether world and the heavens (i.e. the universe), and who directs our understanding."[16]
Swami Vivekananda "We meditate on the glory of that Being who has produced this universe; may He enlighten our minds."[17]
S. Radhakrishnan 1947, 1953
  1. " We meditate on the effulgent glory of the divine Light; may he inspire our understanding."[18]
  2. "We meditate on the adorable glory of the radiant sun; may he inspire our intelligence."[19]

Role in Vedic and Vedantic literature[edit]

The Gayatri mantra is cited widely in Vedic texts.

  • The Rigvedic stanza 3.62.10 is found a number of times in the mantra listings of the Śrauta liturgy,[20] where it is used without any special distinction, typically as one among several stanzas dedicated to Savitar at appropriate points in the various rituals. Accordingly, the stanza is cited several times in the Brahmanas and the Srauta-sutras.[21]
  • In this corpus, there is only one instance of the stanza being prefixed with the three mahavyahrtis.[22] This is in a late supplementary chapter of the Shukla Yajurveda samhita, listing the mantras used in the preliminaries to the pravargya ceremony. However, none of the parallel texts of the pravargya rite in other samhitas have the stanza at all. A form of the mantra with all seven vyahrtis prefixed is found in the last book of the Taittiriya Aranyaka, better known as the Mahanarayana Upanishad.[23] It is as follows:
    ओम् भूः ओम् भुवः ओम् सुवः ओम् महः ओम् जनः ओम् तपः ओम् स॒त्यम्।

      ओम् तत्स॑वि॒तुर्वरे॑ण्य॒म् भर्गो॑ दे॒वस्य॑ धीमहि।
      धियो॒ यो नः॑ प्रचो॒दया॑त्।
      ओमापो॒ ज्योती॒ रसो॒ऽमृतं॒ ब्रह्म॒ भूर्भुव॒स्सुव॒रोम्।

Usage[edit]

Main usage[edit]

Imparting the Gayatri mantra to young Hindu men is an important part of the traditional upanayana ceremony, which marks the beginning of study of the Vedas. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan described this as the essence of the ceremony,[18] which is sometimes called "Gayatri diksha", i.e. initiation into the Gayatri mantra.[33] However, traditionally, the stanza RV.3.62.10 is imparted only to Brahmin boys. Other Gayatri verses are used in the upanayana ceremony for non-Brahmins: RV.1.35.2, in the tristubh meter, for a kshatriya and either RV.1.35.9 or RV.4.40.5 in the jagati meter for a Vaishya.[34]

Other usages[edit]

In addition to the Sandhyavandanam-use, Gayatri japa is used as a method of prāyaścitta, instrument of Tantric practice, etc.

It is believed by practitioners that reciting the mantra bestows wisdom and enlightenment, through the vehicle of the Sun (Savitr), who represents the source and inspiration of the universe.[18]

Praise by the Buddha[edit]

In Samyutta Nikaya 111, Majjhima Nikaya 92 and Vinaya i 246 of the Pali Canon, the Buddha praises the Agnihotra as the foremost sacrifice and the Gayatri mantra as the foremost meter:

aggihuttamukhā yaññā sāvittī chandaso mukham.

Sacrifices have the agnihotra as foremost; of meter the foremost is the Sāvitrī.[35]

Modern reception outside of the Brahmin caste[edit]

Brahmoism[edit]

In 1827 Ram Mohan Roy published a dissertation on the Gayatri mantra[36] that analysed it in the context of various Upanishads. Roy prescribed a Brahmin to always pronounce om at the beginning and end of the Gayatri mantra.[37] From 1830, the Gayatri mantra was used for private devotion of Brahmos. In 1843, the First Covenant of Brahmo Samaj required Gayatri mantra for Divine Worship. From 1848-1850 with the rejection of Vedas, the Adi Dharm Brahmins use the Gayatri mantra in their private devotions.[38]

Hindu revivalism[edit]

In the later 19th century, Hindu reform movements extended the chanting of the Gayatri mantra beyond caste and gender limitations. In 1898, Swami Vivekananda began initiating non-Brahmins with upanayana and the Gayatri mantra. He based this on the interpretations of the Vedas and Bhagavad Gita that Brahmin status is earned and not hereditary.[39] The Arya Samaj notably spread the teaching that recitation of the mantra was not limited to males, but that women could rightfully be taught both the Vedas and the Gayatri mantra.[40][41] In his writings, S. Radhakrishnan encouraged the teaching of Gayatri mantra to men and women of all castes.[42] Various Gayatri yajñas organised by All World Gayatri Pariwar at small and large scales in late twentieth century also helped spread Gayatri mantra to the mass.[43]

Popular culture[edit]

A version of the Gayatri mantra is featured in the opening theme song of the TV series Battlestar Galactica (2004).[44] A variation on the William Quan Judge translation is also used as the introduction to Kate Bush's song "Lily" on her 1993 album, The Red Shoes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Staal, Frits (June 1986). "The sound of religion". Numen 33 (Fasc. 1): 33–64. doi:10.1163/156852786X00084. JSTOR 3270126. 
  2. ^ a b Bloomfield 1906, p. 392b.
  3. ^ Rahman 2005, p. 300.
  4. ^ Radhakrishnan 1994, p. 266.
  5. ^ Vedas 2003, p. 15–16.
  6. ^ Dutt 2006, p. 51.
  7. ^ Rinehart 2004, p. 127.
  8. ^ Lipner 1994, p. 53.
  9. ^ a b Carpenter, David Bailey; Whicher, Ian (2003). Yoga: the Indian tradition. London: Routledge. p. 31. ISBN 0-7007-1288-7. 
  10. ^ Guy L. Beck (2006). Sacred Sound: Experiencing Music in World Religions. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-88920-421-8. 
  11. ^ B. van Nooten and G. Holland, Rig Veda. A metrically restored text. Cambridge: Harvard Oriental Series (1994).[1]
  12. ^ Monier Monier-Williams (1882). The Place which the Ṛig-veda Occupies in the Sandhyâ, and Other Daily Religious Services of the Hindus. Berlin: A. Asher & Company. p. 164. 
  13. ^ Forrest Morgan, ed. (1904). The Bibliophile Library of Literature, Art and Rare Manuscripts 1. et al. New York: The International Bibliophile Society. p. 14. 
  14. ^ Jones, William (1807). The works of Sir William Jones 13. J. Stockdale and J. Walker. p. 367. 
  15. ^ Judge Quan, William (January 1893). "A COMMENTARY ON THE GAYATRI". The Path. 
  16. ^ The word Savitr in the original Sanskrit may be interpreted in two ways, first as the sun, secondly as the "originator or creator". Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Maharshi Debendranath Tagore used that word in the second sense. Interpreted in their way the whole formula may be thus rendered. Appendix "C", Sivanath Sastri "History of the Brahmo Samaj" 1911/1912 1st edn. page XVI, publ. Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, 211 Cornwallis St. Calcutta
  17. ^ Vivekananda, Swami (1915). The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. Advaita Ashram. p. 211. 
  18. ^ a b c Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli (1947). Religion and Society. p. 135. 
  19. ^ S. Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanishads, (1953), p. 299
  20. ^ Sama Veda: 2.812; Vajasenayi Samhita (M): 3.35, 22.9, 30.2, 36.3; Taittiriya Samhita: 1.5.6.4, 1.5.8.4, 4.1.11.1; Maitrayani Samhita: 4.10.3; Taittiriya Aranyaka: 1.11.2
  21. ^ Aitareya Brahmana: 4.32.2, 5.5.6, 5.13.8, 5.19.8; Kausitaki Brahmana: 23.3, 26.10; Asvalayana Srautasutra: 7.6.6, 8.1.18; Shankhayana Srautasutra: 2.10.2, 2.12.7, 5.5.2, 10.6.17, 10.9.16; Apastambha Srautasutra: 6.18.1
  22. ^ VSM.36.3
  23. ^ Dravida recension: 27.1; Andhra recension: 35.1; Atharva recension: 15.2
  24. ^ Shankhayana grhyasutra: 2.5.12, 2.7.19; Khadira grhyasutra: 2.4.21; Apastambha grhyasutra: 4.10.9-12; Varaha grhyasutra: 5.26
  25. ^ 6.3.6 in the well-known Kanva recension, numbered 6.3.11-13 in the Madhyamdina recension.
  26. ^ 4.18
  27. ^ 6.7, 6.34, albeit in a section known to be of late origin.
  28. ^ 4.28.1
  29. ^ Ravi Varma(1956), p.460f, Gonda(1963) p.292
  30. ^ Keith, Vol I. p.lxxxi
  31. ^ Maitrayani Samhita: 2.9.1; Kathaka Samhita: 17.11
  32. ^ Taittiriya Aranyaka: 10.1.5-7
  33. ^ Wayman, Alex (1965). "Climactic Times in Indian Mythology and Religion". History of Religions (The University of Chicago Press) 4 (2): 295–318. doi:10.1086/462508. JSTOR 1061961. 
  34. ^ This is on the authority of the Shankhayana Grhyasutra, 2.5.4-7 and 2.7.10. J. Gonda, "The Indian mantra", Oriens, Vol. 16, (Dec. 31, 1963), p. 285
  35. ^ Shults, Brett (May 2014). "On the Buddha’s Use of Some Brahmanical Motifs in Pali Texts". Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies 6: 119. 
  36. ^ Title of the text was Prescript for offering supreme worship by means of the Gayutree, the most sacred of the Veds. Roy, Rammohun (1832). Translation of Several Principal Books, Passages and Texts of the Veds, and of Some Controversial Works on Brahmunical Theology: and of some controversial works on Brahmunical theology. Parbury, Allen, & co. 
  37. ^ Roy, Ram Mohan (1901). Prescript for offering supreme worship by means of the Gayutree, the most sacred of the Veds. Kuntaline press. So, at the end of the Gayutree, the utterance of the letter Om is commanded by the sacred passage cited by Goonu-Vishnoo 'A Brahman shall in every instance pronounce Om, at the beginning and at the end; for unless the letter Om precede, the desirable consequence will fail; and unless it follow, it will not be long retained.' 
  38. ^ Sivanath Sastri "History of the Brahmo Samaj" 1911/1912 1st edn. publ. Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, 211 Cornwallis St. Calcutta
  39. ^ Mitra, S. S. (2001). Bengal's Renaissance. Academic Publishers. p. 71. ISBN 978-81-87504-18-4. 
  40. ^ Pruthi, Raj (2004). Arya Samaj and Indian civilization. Discovery Publishing House. p. 36. ISBN 978-81-7141-780-3. 
  41. ^ Bakhle, Janaki (2005). Two men and music: nationalism in the making of an Indian classical tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-19-516610-1. 
  42. ^ Radhakrishnan 1994, p. 137
  43. ^ Pandya, Dr. Pranav (2001). Reviving the Vedic Culture of Yagya. Vedmata Gayatri Trust. pp. 25–28. 
  44. ^ Battlestar Galactica's Cylon Dream Kit

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • L.A. Ravi Varma, "Rituals of worship", The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. 4, The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Calcutta, 1956, pp. 445–463
  • Jan Gonda, "The Indian mantra", Oriens, Vol. 16, (Dec. 31, 1963), pp. 244–297
  • A.B. Keith, The Veda of the Black Yajus School entitled Taittiriya Sanhita, Harvard Oriental Series Vols 18-19, Harvard, 1914