Gazel is a form of Turkish music that has almost died out. While in other parts of the Central Asian world, gazel is synonymous with ghazal, in Turkey it denotes an improvised form of solo singing that is sometimes accompanied by the ney, ud, or tanbur. It is the vocal equivalent to the Turkish taqsim, an improvised instrumental composition.
- Broughton, Simon; Ellingham, Mark (1999). World Music: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. p. 403. ISBN 1-85828-635-2.
- Bozdoğan, Sibel; Kasaba, Reşat (1997). Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey. University of Washington Press. p. 230. ISBN 0-295-97597-0.
- Garland Encyclopedia of Music, vol. 6, pp. 114–121
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