Lakhta Center

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Coordinates: 59°59′13.7″N 30°10′37.3″E / 59.987139°N 30.177028°E / 59.987139; 30.177028

Lakhta Center
Лахта центр
Lakhta Center 08 (cropped).jpg
Artist's impression of the tower
Former names Gazprom Tower, Okhta Center
General information
Status Under construction
Location Lakhta, Saint Petersburg
Country Russia
Construction started 2012
Completed 2018 (planned)
Height 462 m (1,516 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 88
Design and construction
Architecture firm Tony Kettle (formerly RMJM and currently Kettle Collective), Samsung C&T (General Designer), and Russian Architecture firm Gorproekt CJSC
Main contractor Environmental Systems Design Inc. AECOM Samsung C&T Corporation Renaissance Construction Company

Lakhta Center (Russian: Ла́хта це́нтр) is a large mixed-use non-residential construction project in Saint Petersburg, Russia designed by British company RMJM (original masterplan of 2011) and further developed by Russian design company GORPROJECT. When the project was still planned for its original site on Okhta closer to the historical centre of St. Petersburg, it was first called Gazprom City (Russian: Газпро́м си́ти) and later Okhta Center (Russian: О́хта це́нтр). In 2010 the project was suspended at its Okhta site due to official objections of UNESCO World Heritage Committee, and in the beginning of 2011 it was relocated to Lakhta area in the outskirts (9 km from historical centre)

External video
(Russian) "From Okhta to Lakhta". Animation film about the reasons why the Center was moved from Okhta to Lakhta, Flash Video

The Lakhta Center, a scientific and educational complex, with sports and leisure facilities, and an outdoor amphitheater is planned to include the first supertall skyscraper in the city .[1] The 462-metre[2] skyscraper of the Lakhta Center, upon its planned completion in 2018,[3] is expected to be the tallest building in Russia and Europe and the second tallest structure in Europe after the 540,1-metre high Ostankino Tower.[4]

The concrete pouring of the bottom slab of the box-shaped foundation ended March 1, 2015, was registered by Guinness World Records as the largest continuous concrete pour. 19,624 cubic metres of concrete was used which is approximately 3,000 cubic meters more than in the previous similar record registered at Wilshire Grand Tower.[5]

Facilities[edit]

Lakhta Center will contain offices, a co-working centre, a sports centre, a children's science centre, the conference centre. Lakhta Center's project include 1500 square meters of indoor exhibition space. Along with this, some part of the open area will be left for the demonstrations of objects of art, installations and sculpture.[6] On the top of the skyscraper at the height of 357m there will be a free public observation deck.[7][8]

Construction[edit]

In June 2015 Lakhta Center fulfilled the requirements of pre-certification under LEED for Core & Shell Development level Gold as an ecologically effective construction.[9]

The design of the main tower of Lakhta Center project inherited the design of the main tower of the project Okhta Center, which was succeeded by the project Lakhta Center upon the decision of Gazprom and the city of Saint Petersburg to relocate the project of Gazprom's new headquarters in December 2010. The architectural concept (2011-2013\0 and design development (2012-2015) of Lakhta Center was undertaken by Russian architectural and engineering company GORPROJECT under the leadership of the project chief architect Philip Nikandrov, who was project chief architect since 2006 (while on Okhta site and later on Lakhta) . The interior design of the most objects of the Lakhta Center will be made by international Exclusiva Design Srl Bureau in futuristic style.[10]

In 2008, Arabtec, the construction company involved in the construction of the world's tallest building in Dubai, won a contract to build this complex.[11]

Approximately 3000 people will be employed in the construction, mostly from professions relating to design and construction. After construction a few thousand workers of different occupations are expected to be employed in the complex.[12]

External video
Presentation of the project "Lakhta Center", Flash Video

Geodesic, ecologic and soil investigations and design documentation for the project are prepared by Gorproekt CJSC (Russia), NIIOSP (Russia),Petrochim-technologiya LLC (Russia) and Trest GRII JSC (Russia). In planning and executing works at the underground cycle, piling and producing construction materials such companies as Arabtec (UAE), Bauer Group (Germany), Geostroy CJSC (Russia), Inforsproekt CJSC (Russia) and Renaissance Construction (Turkey) take part. Verification calculations, working documentation development, optimisation of processes and technical supervision are performed by Arup Group Limited (Great Britain), Samsung C&T (Korea) and Lend Lease Project Management & Construction (Great Britain). Project management is being done by AECOM (USA).[13] Exclusiva Design (Italy) is key contractor for the interior design of public spaces.[14][15] German company Josef Gartner is in charge for the glazing of the skyscraper.[16]

Features of Design[edit]

Interior of Lakhta Center

The twisting tower proposed by RMJM is inspired by a Swedish fortress named Landskrona, which occupied the original Okhta site in the early 14th century, and another fortress Nyenschantz on the site until the 18th century in the form of a five-sided star to maximize views for defensive purposes.[17] The inspiration for the design also comes from energy in water, with the building form deriving its shape from the changing nature of water and ever changing light. It gives a new interpretation to the historical fortresses with modern aesthetics and technology – transparency and democracy, internal and external interactions. It also features a unique environmental strategy, which acts as a low energy double-layered skin of the tower allowing maximum daylight and minimum heat loss in the extreme climate of the city.[18]

  • The main entrance in Lakhta Center is designed as an arch. The height of the arch is almost 24m while its length is 98m.
  • There will be 34 elevators in the tower, but not all of them will go to the top floor. The mixed-use building will contain 62 elevators. Besides these elevators there will be special firefighters lifts constructed to be used in case of emergency. The total capacity of all elevators is up to 1280 people.[19]
  • Lakhta Center's foundation is going to be concreted continuously in round-the-clock mode. Constructors plan to pour 24 thousand cubic metres in 48 hours. The volume of concrete to be poured under the mixed-use building near the tower is 48 thousand cubic metres. This volume is large enough to claim to be included in the Guinness Book of Records.[20]
  • Around 400,000 cu.m. of concrete will be used for Lakhta Center's construction. During the first stage of foundation concreting 8,500 cu.m. of concrete will be used.[21]
  • The area of glazing of the Tower totals 77 thousand square meters as the area of the glazing for the complex in the whole makes up 130 thousand square meters.[22]
  • Lakhta Center is designed to a high safety standard which allows the construction stand still on one core even if all ten supportive columns collapsed. The core structure is up to the highest fire rating. The building is designed to be able to stand a four-hour fire without any structural damage.[23]

Innovations[edit]

In order to provide more effective fire-fighting, a water mist suppression system will be used. When the temperature exceeds 57 °C, sprinklers creating a water mist will start working automatically. Along with the sprinklers, there will be drenchers which could be switched on manually or by the means of remote control in order to create a water curtain in an emergency.[24] Lakhta Center is also set to be the first skyscraper in St. Petersburg where an ice formation control system will be used. Heating of the glass at high floors will prevent ice accumulation and help maintain good visibility. The spire of the Tower will be made from metal gauze to prevent a layer of ice forming in winter.[25] Level of consumption of material and energetic resources is going to be decreased due to conversion of kinetic energy of the Center workers and visitors' steps to electric energy.[26] In periods of birds' migration special illumination will be used to light the tower.[27]

"Green" and Energy-saving Technologies[edit]

While designing Lakhta Center several "green" and energy-saving technologies were planned for further application. They are

  • Double facade. Usage of double glazing will help to increase the level of thermal insulation, which allows to reduce costs for heating and conditioning.
  • Usage of the excess heat generated by working technical equipment for the heating of premises.
  • Usage of equipment with reduced noise level along with noise suppressors, sound-proof curtain walls and floating floors.
  • Usage of economical infrared radiators.
  • Usage of contactless sensors or motion detectors for economizing electric energy and water.
  • Mounting of the systems supporting the optimal level of temperature and humidity inside the building.
  • Smart waste disposal system which improves hygiene and reduces CO2 emissions. Also wastes are sorted, which is one of the essential principles of green construction. Waste disposal is required by 20 times less frequent than in a conventional system.[28]
  • Constructing of the ice storages which will accumulate up to 1000 tons of ice at night for air conditioning during the daytime. It will help to reduce the differences in the usage of electricity during the night and day periods. It also allows to shorten expenditures on electric power on the account of the differences in tariffs for day and night usage of electricity. As the cooling of the building is to be made using accumulative ice generators it will be possible to save on electricity expenditures up to 13 thousand rubles a day.
  • In support to the World Wide Fund for Nature and FLAP's (Fatal Light Awareness Program) "Bird - Friendly Building Program", Lakhta Center's illumination will be designed so to make the building bird-safe especially in the periods of migration of birds (autumn, winter). The system of the illumination intensity and color change is under development at the moment.[29]
  • Due to the peculiarities of the highly humid and windy climate in the North Western region of Russia the possibility of icing up of buildings is relatively high. In order to prevent complete icing up of the spire of the Lakhta Center's tower engineers changed glassing to the metal gauze.[30]
  • In order to provide Lakhta Center and adjoining areas with electricity without making any extra burden on existing infrastructure a new standalone power substation "Nevskaya guba" will be constructed.[31]

All in all, while constructing Lakhta Center approximately 100 innovations are to be used. It lets increase the indexes of energy saving by 40% compared to the buildings where standard technologies are in use.[32] Okhta Center project entered to a list of "10 most ecological skyscrapers in the world" made up by the Consumer Energy Report. Experts say that the same status may be assigned to Lakhta Center because it will provide even better power efficiency.[33][34]

In experts' opinion, period of recoupment of using green and energy-saving technologies in Lakhta Center may be at about 20 years though Lakhta Center's Projection department's specialists think that this figure is a bit overestimated.[35]

Background[edit]

On November 15, 2005, Gazprom CEO Alexei Miller and Saint Petersburg governor at that time Valentina Matviyenko announced the intention of Sibneft to build the Gazprom City Business center. The plans included a 300-metre-high skyscraper with its headquarters on the right bank of the Neva River 59°56′37.6″N 30°24′27.1″E / 59.943778°N 30.407528°E / 59.943778; 30.407528 (original site), across from the Smolny Cathedral, despite the fact that current regulations forbid construction of a building of more than 42 (48 with expert approval) metres high there. The plans were later revised to increase the height of the skyscraper to more than 400 metres.

On December 1, 2006, Gazprom and the city authorities announced, live on television, that British architectural firm Robert Matthew Johnson Marshall Ltd., had been chosen to build the Center by a committee consisting of four foreign architects, four representatives of the St. Petersburg City Administration, including Matviyenko herself, and representatives of Gazprom: Alexei Miller, Valery Golubev (Deputy CEO Gazprom, Head of the Department for Construction and Investment of Gazprom, former Head of the Vasileostrovsky Administrative District of St. Petersburg) and Alexander Ryazanov (President of Gazprom Neft, fired on November 17 during the competition). In fact, three of the four architects, namely Norman Foster, Rafael Viñoly and Kisho Kurokawa, retired from the jury before it convened, opposing all of the shortlisted designs because of their height.[36] The construction of the entire Gazprom City was supposed to be completed by 2016.

In March 2007 the project was renamed from Gazprom City to Okhta Center (after the river of Okhta). It was also decided that Gazprom Neft would allocate 51% of funds for the construction project, while city budget would account for only 49%.[37]

In late 2008, St. Petersburg Governor Valentina Matviyenko introduced an amendment into the city budget, delaying investment in the Okhta Center for the first half of 2009. The reason was due to the current financial crisis.[38]

In December 2010, Governor Matviyenko announced that the project plan on the Okhta site was abandoned and will be built in the suburbs.[39] The new planned site was farther from the historic center of St. Petersburg, on the northern shore of the Neva Bay (Gulf of Finland). This site was on the Primorskoye Highway (Приморское Шоссе), in the Lakhta area of the Primorsky District, northwest of Vasilyevsky Island.[40]

Construction of the project at the Lakhta site was supposed to resolve the conflicts that previously existed with the city's laws concerning cultural preservation.[41]

Planning and Construction[edit]

10 March 2011 Gazprom bought a site of 140 thousand square metres for the construction of the business center at Lakhtinsky prospect, 2.[42][43] 18 March 2011 press office of Business and Public-service Center "Okhta" CJSC informed that it received from The Committee of State Control, Usage and Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments in Saint Petersburg the document stating that there were no any historical or cultural restrictions on the territory of the site in Lakhta.[44]

In April, 2011 it was declared that the architectural concept of Lakhta Center was to be created on the basis of the Okhta Center's project.[45] Along with this it became known that Lakhta's soils were appropriate for constructing a building of 500 metres high which let engineers significantly decrease costs of foundation construction.[46]

24 June 2011 public hearing on the Lakhta Center project was held. Public hearing participants were mostly interested in knowing how the construction would influence vehicular traffic, ecology and historical appearance of Saint Petersburg.[47] Center's investors highlighted that project involved many ecologic innovations and it was planned to try-out to construct the first energy efficient district on the territory of the site of Lakhta Center.[48] Despite all Commersant newspaper stated that most of the public was against the construction and there were many rejections and reprimands submitted for the public hearing protocol.[49]

External video
Laktha Center's presentation at the public hearing 24 June, 2011. Animation film demonstrating the impact of Lakhta Center on Saint Petersburg's historical views.

5 October 2011 Gorproekt CJSC (Russia) was announced as the contractor for working out project's design documentation. According to the plan presented by Gorproekt CJSC skyscraper and auxiliary buildings were to be designed in spring, 2012 and stylobate part was to be engineered in summer, 2012.[50]

26 January 2012 it became known that Gazprom was planning to build a new harbour for yachts near Lakhta Center and Krestovsky Island. A new company for managing these sea assets was to be created.[51]

16 March 2012 it was announced that a new metro station was to be constructed near Lakhta Center. This metro station's building was included in the City development plan of Leningrad in 1980 but only with Lakhta Center construction it again entered the agenda. The plan of the metro station's construction was to be finalized by the end of 2012.[52]

18 July 2012 companies chosen for geodesic and ecologic investigations on the site were announced. They were Trest GRII JSC (Russia) for geodesic and Petrochim-Technologiya, LLC (Russia) for ecologic investigations.[53]

External video
"Lakhta Center. Architectural Concept.". Animation film about architecture of Lakhta Center"

17 August 2012 the permit for construction of the first stage of Lakhta Center, which included skyscraper and stylobate was obtained.[54] 31 August 2012 the public hearing on the topic of the layout and surveying of the site of the Lakhta Center was held in the administration of the Primorsky district of Saint Petersburg. Objects planned for placing in the area of construction, scheme of communications and transportation infrastructure were presented to the public. Besides, representatives of the Business and Public-service Center "Okhta" CJSC answered the questions of people.[55]

12 September 2012 "Okhta" CJSC signed a contract with Dubai company Arabtec Holding for carrying out some of the underground cycle works. The company is supposed to construct a diaphragm wall and pile footing for the tower. Contractual time is 28 months, its value is 95 million euro.[56]

External video
"Lakhta Center. Zero Cycle. Pit Disk System". Animation film explaining the zero cycle works"

In October, 2012 the zero cycle works has been started. Zero cycle consists of the pit excavation, installation of the disk system, piling under the tower, multifunctional building and stylobate and construction of the foundation itself.[57]

22 April 2014 the main potential general contractor for the construction of Lakhta Center was selected. It was Turkish Renaissance Construction company.[58] 22 May 2014 the contract for the construction of the foundation of one of the buildings in Lakhta Center was finally signed. Construction is to be completed in 7 months.[59]

8 September 2014 the final cost of the design and construction of the zero cycle of Lakhta Center was announced. The cost made up 2 billion dollars.[60]

Chronology of Construction[edit]

Lakhta Center Construction Time Schedule
  • March 2013 – zero cycle works are in process. Piles are being installed. According to the schedule of construction diaphragm wall is to be completed by the end of April while piling works will continue up to 15 August 2013.[61]
  • July 2013 – mounting of the 264 piles under the box-type foundation has been finished. Excavation of foundation pit is in the process.[62]
  • September 2013 – total area of the site is announced to be increased from 330 to 400 thousand square meters due to the extension of the size of the parking by 700 parking places.[63]
  • October 2013 – construction of box-type foundation has been started. According to the plan this part of the work is to be finished in 2014.[64]
  • December 2013 – mounting of the concrete disks to the diaphragm wall has started. Disks are to provide the diaphragm wall with more resistance to outside ground pressure.[65]
  • April 2014 – construction of foundation pit for the skyscraper is over.[66]
  • June 2014 – piling is totally completed. 264 piles were mounted for the tower of Lakhta Center, 848 piles were mounted for the mixed-use building and entrance arch and 968 piles were mounted for the stylobate (undergroung parking). All in all 2080 piles were dug in.[67]
  • September 2014 – excavation of the foundation pit for the mixed-use building has been finished. Foundation concreting has started.
  • February and March 2015 – the pouring of the bottom slab of the box shaped foundation of Center's high-rise building is over. 19,624 cubic meters of concrete were cast in the foundation.[68]
  • June 2015 – construction of the underground floors under the Tower has been finished.
  • September 2015 – pouring of the 2m thick upper box foundation slab has been completed so all the works related to Lakhta Center construction below zero elevation are completed.
  • September 2015 – the construction of the first floors of the tower core is underway.[69]
  • January 2016 – construction of the succeeding ten floors of the tower; works on stylobate complex.
  • April 2016 – construction of the tower core at the level of the 22-26 floors. Installation of the metal farm in the 18-22d floors of the tower.
  • May 2016 – glazing of the facade of the Tower has started.
  • September 2016 – construction of the tower core at the level of the 46-50 floors.[70]
  • December 2016 – installation of facade of the tower at the level of the 16-18 floors; construction of the tower core at the level of the 57-61 floors.
  • February 2017 – Lahkta Center's tower reached the point of 260 metres; 61-64 floors are under construction.

Transportation Development in Lakhta District[edit]

Lakhta Center's construction raises a problem of transportation development because of the expected growth of the traffic flow in the region. Two traffic circles are to be built near Lakhta Center. These will be one of the stages of the construction of the future М32А highway. The design of two traffic circles is pending approval of GlavGosExpertisa of Russia and the construction is expected to be started as early as this year.[71] A light rail service from Finland Railway Station and a new tram line from Primorskaya underground station will be built to serve Lakhta Center. Plans are ongoing to build a new underground station with the working title of "Lakhta".[72] Bicycle lanes near Lakhta Center with 90 parking places for bicycles are also planned.[73][74]

Public Attitude[edit]

Alexei Miller claimed that he is "positive that St. Petersburg’s citizens will be proud of these new architectural masterpieces."[75] However, the Director of the Hermitage Museum, Mikhail Piotrovsky, along with numerous civil groups, has spoken out against the plan of Okhta Center. The Ministry of Culture of Russian Federation has also been reported to object to the tower's plan.[76] The Saint Petersburg Union of Architects also voiced opposition to it in July 2006, as did many other citizens.[77] In October 2009, about 3,000 people protested against the tower in St. Petersburg, arguing that it would spoil the city's historic skyline.[76]

As the historical centre of St. Petersburg has become a World Heritage Site since 1990; The World Heritage Committee opposed the construction of the 400-metre tower of Okhta Center as it will affect the cityscape of historic Saint Petersburg.[78] In December 2006 UNESCO World Heritage Centre Director Francesco Bandarin reminded Russia about its obligations to preserve it and expressed concern over the project.[79] In 2007, the World Monuments Fund placed the historic skyline of St. Petersburg on its 2008 Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites due to the potential construction of the building, and in 2009 reported that the tower "would damage the image of Russia."[80] During the 36 session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO held in Saint Petersburg in 2012 it was stated that a large area of Saint-Petersburg falls within preservation and buffer zones provided for UNESCO World Heritage Sites. That is why it is good for the city that the Okhta Center, which had been planned by Gazprom in front of Smolny Cathedral was moved to Lakhta.[81] Eleonora Mitrofanova, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to UNESCO noticed that the approved construction project for Lakhta Center is located far from the buffer zone and the historical center, so in theory Gazprom is not even obliged to ask UNESCO. However, the government authorities will definitely have consultations for the project with UNESCO. Now we are working to clarify the boundaries of the World Heritage zone and the boundaries of the buffer zone.[82]

The project being moved to Lakhta didn't stop the discussions. On April 11, 2012, ex-governor of St. Petersburg and now Federation Council chairwoman Valentina Matvienko said to journalists that the "Lakhta center could become a new symbol of the city and attract the businessmen from all over the world to St. Petersburg."[83]

During his visit to Russia in 2011 the Chairman of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Professor Sang-Dae Kim was treated to a presentation of a project of Lakhta Center. Professor Kim commented on the “modern shape” of the proposed Lakhta Centre, which according to him had “nothing in common with ordinary boxes”.[84] He also stated that something new ought to be created, which can be shown to new generations in 200–300 years as for them what is created nowadays will be the same history as the architecture of the 18-19th centuries for us today. Professor also noticed that the project reminds him of an oriental concept Yin Yang: on the one hand, the historic part of the city with horizontal buildings and water, and on the other hand, a vertical which will add additional charm to the city. Lakhta Center combines an interesting form and modern technologies, so up to Mr. Kim, with the lapse of time the Center can become a new symbol of Saint Petersburg.[85]

On May 16, 2012, St. Petersburg governor Georgiy Poltavchenko emphasised in his annual report for House of Assembly the necessity of building a new "city" in St. Petersburg. According to Mr Poltavchenko, there are three appropriate districts for that: Lakhta center, Pulkovo and aggradated territories near Waterfront.[86]

Visualization[edit]

Construction Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lakhta Center Website, Концепция проекта". Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  2. ^ "Federal Air Transport Agency Authorization" (PDF). 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  3. ^ "Lakhta Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, '100 Future tallest buildings in the world'". Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  5. ^ Largest Continuous Concrete Pour
  6. ^ Лахта-центр. Инфографика
  7. ^ Lakhta Center.Observation deck
  8. ^ Смотровую площадку Лахта-центра оборудуют цифровыми интерактивными телескопами
  9. ^ (Russian)Moscow, St.Petersburg and Sochi are leaders in "green" construction in Russia
  10. ^ (Russian) Интерьеры для "Лахта-центра" разработают итальянцы Exclusiva Design Srl
  11. ^ "Okhta Center Tender Closed | The St. Petersburg Times | The leading English-language newspaper in St. Petersburg". Sptimes.ru. 2008-04-29. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  12. ^ Строительство "Лахта-центра" откроет новые возможности для петербургских профессионалов
  13. ^ "Key Contractors". Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  14. ^ Exclusiva Design
  15. ^ Lakhta Center: Exclusiva wins the Bid to Design the Public Spaces
  16. ^ Немецкая Gartner откроет в Петербурге производство для остекления "Лахта центра"
  17. ^ Birch, Amanda (2008-08-08). "RMJM’s Russian odyssey | Technical | Building Design". Bdonline.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  18. ^ "Okhta Centre, Russia". RMJM. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  19. ^ Небоскрёбы меняют сознание социума
  20. ^ (Russian)Construction director of Lakhta Center Elena Morozova: "We will become record-holders due to the volume of concrete poured"
  21. ^ В середине декабря начнется заливка фундамента первого здания "Лахта Центра"
  22. ^ Лахта-Центр. 462 метра над уровнем моря
  23. ^ Как строится "Лахта-центр" в Санкт-Петербурге
  24. ^ (Russian)МО Лахта-Ольгино Об инновациях в "Лахта центре"
  25. ^ (Russian)МО Лахта-Ольгино. Лахта-центр: лед под контролем
  26. ^ (Russian)"Зеленое строительство" в Петербурге: энергия шагов осветит "Лахта-центр"
  27. ^ (Russian)Lakhta Center Skyscraper Continues to Surprise with its Technologies
  28. ^ (Russian)Lakhta Center: 462 meters above the sea level
  29. ^ (Russian)Lakhta Center is eager to make friends with birds
  30. ^ Специальные ледовые генераторы позволят "Лахта центру" экономить до 13 тыс. руб. в сутки на электроэнергии
  31. ^ (Russian)"Nevskaya guba" power substation will be built in Lakhta
  32. ^ Lakhta Center. Power efficiency
  33. ^ Доработкой проекта "Лахта-центра" займется английская компания RMJM
  34. ^ Концепцию проекта "Охта центра" адаптируют под Лахту
  35. ^ (Russian)Интервью Юлии Гуляк
  36. ^ Gazprom jury walk-out by Ellen Bennett, Building Design, the Architects' Website, December 8, 2006
  37. ^ ""Газпром-Сити" переименовали". Realty.lenta.ru. 2007-03-16. Retrieved 2017-04-27. 
  38. ^ "Crisis Puts Gazprom Skyscraper In Doubt | News | The Moscow Times". Moscowtimes.ru. 2008-11-05. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  39. ^ 4/08/2012+29°C (2010-07-22). "Gazprom tower to be moved from central St. Petersburg | RUSSIA". The Moscow News. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  40. ^ "The Site at Primorskoye Highway". Ohta-center.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  41. ^ Shiryaevskaya, Anna (August 5, 2011). "Gazprom Neft Awarded Approval to Build St. Petersburg Skyscraper". Bloomberg. 
  42. ^ "Газпрому" разрешили построить "Лахта центр"
  43. ^ ОДЦ "Охта": Параметры нового проекта пока не определены
  44. ^ КГИОП разрешил "Газпрому" строить "Охта-центр" в Лахте
  45. ^ (Russian)В основу "Лахта-центра" ляжет проект с Охты
  46. ^ (Russian)Новая территория для общественно-делового центра имеет более прочные грунты, что может облегчить возведение высотной доминанты и удешевить строительство
  47. ^ (Russian)В администрации Приморского района состоялись общественные слушания по проекту "Лахта-центра"
  48. ^ (Russian)Петербурге обсудили высоту "Лахта-центра"
  49. ^ (Russian)Ростом вышел. Власти Петербурга согласовали 500-метровую высоту офиса "Газпрома"
  50. ^ (Russian)Проектировать "Лахта-центр" будет "Горпроект"
  51. ^ Газпром сделает из "Ленэкспо" территорию стартапов и яхт
  52. ^ Выход из станции метро "Лахта" будет расположен у старого поста ГИБДД 16.03.2012 13:26
  53. ^ "Лахта-центр" растёт на политике
  54. ^ (Russian)"Лахта-центру" выдано разрешение на строительство
  55. ^ На слушаниях "Лахта-центра" состоялся конструктивный диалог
  56. ^ Первым строителем небоскреба "Газпрома" будет дубайская Arabtec
  57. ^ "Lakhta Center. Project status". Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  58. ^ Potential general constructor selected
  59. ^ Renaissance Construction entered into a contract for the construction of the foundation of one of Lakhta Center buildings
  60. ^ (Russian)15 лет в Санкт-Петербурге: "Газпром-девелопмент"
  61. ^ (Russian)Исполнительный директор ОДЦ "Охта" А.Бобков: "В „Лахта-центре“ деловая функция будет дополняться культурно-развивающей"
  62. ^ (Russian)Новости о Лахта центре
  63. ^ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО НУЛЕВОГО ЦИКЛА "ЛАХТА ЦЕНТРА" ОЦЕНИЛИ В $100 МЛН
  64. ^ Работы нулевого цикла на стройплощадке "Лахта центра".
  65. ^ Небоскреб у Финского залива.
  66. ^ Готов котлован для строительства небоскреба "Лахта-центра"
  67. ^ All 2080 Piles in Lakhta Center Foundation
  68. ^ (Russian)Alexey Miller: First floors of the skyscraper in Lakhta will appear this year
  69. ^ Pouring of the Upper Slab of the Lakhta Center Tower Foundation
  70. ^ Liebherr tower cranes in action erecting the highest building in Europe
  71. ^ [1]
  72. ^ Transport Infrastructure Development
  73. ^ В проекте развязки трассы М-32 и Приморского шоссе предусмотрели велодорожку
  74. ^ Общественные слушания
  75. ^ Experts Slam Giant Gazprom Tower Plan by Evgenia Ivanova, The St. Petersburg Times #1188 (54), July 21, 2006.
  76. ^ a b "Protest over St. Petersburg tower". BBC News. 2009-10-10. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 
  77. ^ Hermitage director joins outcry over city-centre skyscraper plan by Tom Parfitt, The Guardian, November 10, 2006.
  78. ^ UNESCO welcomes backing by President of Russian Federation for the preservation of St Petersburg
  79. ^ UNESCO is worried by Elena Ragozina, Vedomosti #229 (1756), December 5, 2006 (in Russian).
  80. ^ "Russian tower plans cause alarm". BBC News. 2009-09-23. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 
  81. ^ 36th session of the Committee of the World Heritage Committee
  82. ^ Высотка "Лахта-центра" украсит панораму Петербурга со стороны Финского залива — постпред РФ в ЮНЕСКО
  83. ^ ""In the light circle", the interview with Ms.Matvienko at "Echo Moskvy"". Echo.msk.ru. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  84. ^ CTBUH Meeting: Russia
  85. ^ Without skyscrapers Russia is the Kremlin and the Red Army
  86. ^ "Poltavchenko: Petersburg needs a new business center and town-planning dictation". Fontanka.ru. 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 

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