GeForce 600 series

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GeForce 600 Series
Release dateMarch 22, 2012; 7 years ago (March 22, 2012)
CodenameGK10x
ArchitectureKepler
ModelsGeForce Series
  • GeForce GT Series
  • GeForce GTX Series
Transistors292M 40 nm (GF119)
  • 585M 40 nm (GF108)
  • 1.170B 40 nm (GF116)
  • 1.950B 40 nm (GF114)
  • 1.270B 28 nm (GK107)
  • 1.270B 28 nm (GK208)
  • 2.540B 28 nm (GK106)
  • 3.540B 28 nm (GK104)
Cards
Entry-level
  • GT 610
  • GT 620
  • GT 630
  • GT 640
Mid-range
  • GTX 650
  • GTX 650 Ti
  • GTX 650 Ti Boost
  • GTX 660
High-end
  • GTX 660 Ti
  • GTX 670
Enthusiast
  • GTX 680
  • GTX 690
API support
Direct3DDirect3D 12.0 (feature level 11_0)[1]
OpenCLOpenCL 1.2[2]
OpenGLOpenGL 4.6
VulkanVulkan 1.1 [3]
SPIR-V
History
PredecessorGeForce 500 series
SuccessorGeForce 700 series

Serving as the introduction of Kepler architecture, the GeForce 600 Series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, first released in 2012.

Overview[edit]

Where the goal of the previous architecture, Fermi, was to increase raw performance (particularly for compute and tessellation), Nvidia's goal with the Kepler architecture was to increase performance per watt, while still striving for overall performance increases.[4] The primary way Nvidia achieved this goal was through the use of a unified clock. By abandoning the shader clock found in their previous GPU designs, efficiency is increased, even though it requires more cores to achieve similar levels of performance. This is not only because the cores are more power efficient (two Kepler cores using about 90% of the power of one Fermi core, according to Nvidia's numbers), but also because the reduction in clock speed delivers a 50% reduction in power consumption in that area.[5]

Kepler also introduced a new form of texture handling known as bindless textures. Previously, textures needed to be bound by the CPU to a particular slot in a fixed-size table before the GPU could reference them. This led to two limitations: one was that because the table was fixed in size, there could only be as many textures in use at one time as could fit in this table (128). The second was that the CPU was doing unnecessary work: it had to load each texture, and also bind each texture loaded in memory to a slot in the binding table.[4] With bindless textures, both limitations are removed. The GPU can access any texture loaded into memory, increasing the number of available textures and removing the performance penalty of binding.

Finally, with Kepler, Nvidia was able to increase the memory clock to 6 GHz. To accomplish this, Nvidia needed to design an entirely new memory controller and bus. While still shy of the theoretical 7 GHz limitation of GDDR5, this is well above the 4 GHz speed of the memory controller for Fermi.[5]

Kepler is named after the German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer Johannes Kepler.

Architecture[edit]

Asus Nvidia GeForce GTX 650 Ti, a PCI Express 3.0 ×16 graphics card

The GeForce 600 Series contains products from both the older Fermi and newer Kepler generations of Nvidia GPUs. Kepler based members of the 600 series add the following standard features to the GeForce family:

  • PCI Express 3.0 interface
  • DisplayPort 1.2
  • HDMI 1.4a 4K x 2K video output
  • Purevideo VP5 hardware video acceleration (up to 4K x 2K H.264 decode)
  • Hardware H.264 encoding acceleration block (NVENC)
  • Support for up to 4 independent 2D displays, or 3 stereoscopic/3D displays (NV Surround)
  • Next Generation Streaming Multiprocessor (SMX)
  • A New Instruction Scheduler
  • Bindless Textures
  • CUDA Compute Capability 3.0
  • GPU Boost
  • TXAA
  • Manufactured by TSMC on a 28 nm process
  • Nvidia GPU Boost

Streaming Multiprocessor Architecture (SMX)[edit]

The Kepler architecture employs a new Streaming Multiprocessor Architecture called SMX. The SMX are the key method for Kepler's power efficiency as the whole GPU uses a single "Core Clock" rather than the double-pump "Shader Clock".[5] The SMX usage of a single unified clock increases the GPU power efficiency due to the fact that two Kepler CUDA Cores consume 90% power of one Fermi CUDA Core. Consequently, the SMX needs additional processing units to execute a whole warp per cycle. Kepler also needed to increase raw GPU performance as to remain competitive. As a result, it doubled the CUDA Cores from 16 to 32 per CUDA array, 3 CUDA Cores Array to 6 CUDA Cores Array, 1 load/store and 1 SFU group to 2 load/store and 2 SFU group. The GPU processing resources are also double. From 2 warp schedulers to 4 warp schedulers, 4 dispatch unit became 8 and the register file doubled to 64K entries as to increase performance. With the doubling of GPU processing units and resources increasing the usage of die spaces, The capability of the PolyMorph Engine aren't double but enhanced, making it capable of spurring out a polygon in 2 cycles instead of 4.[6] With Kepler, Nvidia not only worked on power efficiency but also on area efficiency. Therefore, Nvidia opted to use eight dedicated FP64 CUDA cores in a SMX as to save die space, while still offering FP64 capabilities since all Kepler CUDA cores are not FP64 capable. With the improvement Nvidia made on Kepler, the results include an increase in GPU graphic performance while downplaying FP64 performance.

A new instruction scheduler[edit]

Additional die areas are acquired by replacing the complex hardware scheduler with a simple software scheduler. With software scheduling, warps scheduling was moved to Nvidia's compiler and as the GPU math pipeline now has a fixed latency, it now include the utilization of instruction-level parallelism and superscalar execution in addition to thread-level parallelism. As instructions are statically scheduled, scheduling inside a warp becomes redundant since the latency of the math pipeline is already known. This resulted an increase in die area space and power efficiency.[5][7][4]

GPU Boost[edit]

GPU Boost is a new feature which is roughly analogous to turbo boosting of a CPU. The GPU is always guaranteed to run at a minimum clock speed, referred to as the "base clock". This clock speed is set to the level which will ensure that the GPU stays within TDP specifications, even at maximum loads.[4] When loads are lower, however, there is room for the clock speed to be increased without exceeding the TDP. In these scenarios, GPU Boost will gradually increase the clock speed in steps, until the GPU reaches a predefined power target (which is 170W by default).[5] By taking this approach, the GPU will ramp its clock up or down dynamically, so that it is providing the maximum amount of speed possible while remaining within TDP specifications.

The power target, as well as the size of the clock increase steps that the GPU will take, are both adjustable via third-party utilities and provide a means of overclocking Kepler-based cards.[4]

Microsoft DirectX support[edit]

Both Fermi and Kepler based cards support Direct3D 11, both also support Direct3D 12, though not all features provided by the API.[8][9]

TXAA[edit]

Exclusive to Kepler GPUs, TXAA is a new anti-aliasing method from Nvidia that is designed for direct implementation into game engines. TXAA is based on the MSAA technique and custom resolve filters. Its design addresses a key problem in games known as shimmering or temporal aliasing; TXAA resolves that by smoothing out the scene in motion, making sure that any in-game scene is being cleared of any aliasing and shimmering.[10]

NVENC[edit]

NVENC is Nvidia's SIP block that performs video encoding, in a way similar to Intel's Quick Sync Video and AMD's VCE. NVENC is a power-efficient fixed-function pipeline that is able to take codecs, decode, preprocess, and encode H.264-based content. NVENC specification input formats are limited to H.264 output. But still, NVENC, through its limited format, can perform encoding in resolutions up to 4096×4096.[11]

Like Intel’s Quick Sync, NVENC is currently exposed through a proprietary API, though Nvidia does have plans to provide NVENC usage through CUDA.[11]

New driver features[edit]

In the R300 drivers, released alongside the GTX 680, Nvidia introduced a new feature called Adaptive VSync. This feature is intended to combat the limitation of v-sync that, when the framerate drops below 60 FPS, there is stuttering as the v-sync rate is reduced to 30 FPS, then down to further factors of 60 if needed. However, when the framerate is below 60 FPS, there is no need for v-sync as the monitor will be able to display the frames as they are ready. To address this issue (while still maintaining the advantages of v-sync with respect to screen tearing), Adaptive VSync can be turned on in the driver control panel. It will enable VSync if the framerate is at or above 60 FPS, while disabling it if the framerate lowers. Nvidia claims that this will result in a smoother overall display.[4]

While the feature debuted alongside the GTX 680, this feature is available to users of older Nvidia cards who install the updated drivers.[4]

Dynamic Super Resolution (DSR) was added to Fermi and Kepler GPUs with an October 2014 release of Nvidia drivers. This feature aims at increasing the quality of displayed picture, by rendering the scenery at a higher and more detailed resolution (upscaling), and scaling it down to match the monitor's native resolution (downsampling).[12]

History[edit]

In September 2010, Nvidia first announced Kepler.[13]

In early 2012, details of the first members of the 600 series parts emerged. These initial members were entry-level laptop GPUs sourced from the older Fermi architecture.

On March 22, 2012, Nvidia unveiled the 600 series GPU: the GTX 680 for desktop PCs and the GeForce GT 640M, GT 650M, and GTX 660M for notebook/laptop PCs.[14][15]

On April 29, 2012, the GTX 690 was announced as the first dual-GPU Kepler product.[16]

On May 10, 2012, GTX 670 was officially announced.[17]

On June 4, 2012, GTX 680M was officially announced.[18]

On August 16, 2012, GTX 660 Ti was officially announced.[19]

On September 13, 2012, GTX 660 and GTX 650 was officially announced.[20]

On October 9, 2012, GTX 650 Ti was officially announced.[21]

On March 26, 2013, GTX 650 Ti BOOST was officially announced.[22]

Products[edit]

GeForce 600 (6xx) series[edit]

EVGA GeForce GTX 650 Ti
  • 1 SPs – Shader Processors – Unified Shaders : Texture mapping units : Render output units
  • 2 The GeForce 605 (OEM) card is a rebranded GeForce 510.
  • 3 The GeForce GT 610 card is a rebranded GeForce GT 520.
  • 4 The GeForce GT 620 (OEM) card is a rebranded GeForce GT 520.
  • 5 The GeForce GT 620 card is a rebranded GeForce GT 530.
  • 6 This revision of GeForce GT 630 (DDR3) card is a rebranded GeForce GT 440 (DDR3).
  • 7 The GeForce GT 630 (GDDR5) card is a rebranded GeForce GT 440 (GDDR5).
  • 8 The GeForce GT 640 (OEM) card is a rebranded GeForce GT 545 (DDR3).
  • 9 The GeForce GT 645 (OEM) card is a rebranded GeForce GTX 560 SE.
Model Launch Code Name Fab (nm) Transistors (Million) Die size (mm2) Bus interface SM Count Core Configuration1 Clock Rate Fillrate Memory Configuration API Support (version) GFLOPS (FMA) TDP (Watts) Launch Price (USD)
Core (MHz) Average Boost (MHz) Max. Boost (MHz) Shader (MHz) Memory (MHz) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) DRAM Type Bus Width (bit) DirectX OpenGL OpenCL Vulkan
GeForce 6052 April 3, 2012 GF119 40 292 79 PCIe 2.0 x16 1 48:8:4 523 N/A N/A 1046 1798 2.1 4.3 512 1024 14.4 DDR3 64 12.0 (11_0) 4.6 1.1 N/A 100.4 25 OEM
GeForce GT 6103 May 15, 2012 GF119-300-A1 810 1620 1800 3.24 6.5 1024 155.5 29 Retail
GeForce GT 6204 April 3, 2012 GF119 292 1798 512 1024 30 OEM
GeForce GT 6205 May 15, 2012 GF108-100-KB-A1 585 116 2 96:16:4 700 1400 1800 2.8 11.2 1024 268.8 49 Retail
GeForce GT 625 February 19, 2013 GF119 292 79 1 48:8:4 810 1620 1798 3.24 6.5 512 1024 155.5 30 OEM
GeForce GT 630 April 24, 2012 GK107 28 1300 118 PCIe 3.0 x16 192:16:16 875 875 1782 7 14 1024
2048
28.5 128 1.2 ? 336 50
GeForce GT 630 (DDR3)6 May 15, 2012 GF108-400-A1 40 585 116 PCIe 2.0 x16, PCI 2 96:16:4 810 1620 1800 3.2 13 1024
2048
4096
28.8 1.1 N/A 311 65 Retail
GeForce GT 630 (Rev. 2) May 29, 2013 GK208-301-A1 28 1270 79 PCIe 2.0 x8 384:16:8 902 902 7.22 14.4 1024
2048
14.4 64 1.2 ? 692.7 25
GeForce GT 630 (GDDR5)7 May 15, 2012 GF108 40 585 116 PCIe 2.0 x16 96:16:4 810 1620 3200 3.2 13 1024 51.2 GDDR5 128 1.1 N/A 311 65 Retail
GeForce GT 635 February 19, 2013 GK208 28 79 PCIe 3.0 x16 1 192:16:16 875 875 1782 7 14 1024
2048
28.5 DDR3 1.2 1.1 336 50 OEM
GeForce GT 6408 April 24, 2012 GF116-150-A1 40 1170 238 PCIe 2.0 x16 3 144:24:24 720 1440 17.3 17.3 1536
3072
42.8 192 1.1 N/A 414.7 75
GeForce GT 640 (DDR3) April 24, 2012 GK107-301-A2 28 1300 118 PCIe 3.0 x16 2 384:32:16 797 797 12.8 25.5 1024
2048
28.5 128 1.2 ? 612.1 50
GeForce GT 640 (DDR3) June 5, 2012 GK107-300-A2 118 900 900 14.4 28.8 1024[23]
2048
691.2 65 $100
GeForce GT 640 (GDDR5) April 24, 2012 GK107 118 950 950 5000 15.2 30.4 1024
2048
80 GDDR5 729.6 75 OEM
GeForce GT 640 Rev. 2 May 29, 2013 GK208-400-A1 1270 79 PCIe 2.0 x8 384:16:8 1046 1046 5010 8.37 16.7 1024 40.1 64 803.3 49
GeForce GT 6459 April 24, 2012 GF114-400-A1 40 1950 332 PCIe 2.0 x16 6 288:48:24 776 1552 3828 18.6 37.3 91.9 192 1.1 N/A 894 140 OEM
GeForce GTX 645 April 22, 2013 GK106 28 2540 221 PCIe 3.0 x16 3 576:48:16 823.5 888.5 823 4000 9.88 39.5 64 128 1.2 ? 948.1 64
GeForce GTX 650 September 13, 2012 GK107-450-A2 1300 118 2 384:32:16 1058 N/A 1058 5000 16.9 33.8 1024
2048
80 1.1 812.5 64 $110
GeForce GTX 650 Ti October 9, 2012 GK106-220-A1 2540 221 4 768:64:16 928 928 5400 14.8 59.2 86.4 1420.8 110 $150
GeForce GTX 650 Ti Boost March 26, 2013 GK106-240-A1 221 768:64:24 980 1033 980 6002 23.5 62.7 1024
2048
144.2 192 1505.28 134 $170
GeForce GTX 660[24] September 13, 2012 GK106-400-A1 221 5 960:80:24 1084 6000 78.5 2048
3072
1881.6 140 $230
GeForce GTX 660 (OEM[25]) August 22, 2012 GK104-200-KD-A2 3540 294 6 1152:96:24
1152:96:32
823 888 Unknown 823 5800 19.8 79 1536
2048
134 192
256
2108.6 130 OEM
GeForce GTX 660 Ti August 16, 2012 GK104-300-KD-A2 294 7 1344:112:24 915 980 1058 915 6008 22.0 102.5 2048
3072
144.2 192 2460 150 $300
GeForce GTX 670 May 10, 2012 GK104-325-A2 294 1344:112:32 1084 29.3 2048
4096
192.256 256 170 $400
GeForce GTX 680 March 22, 2012 GK104-400-A2 294 8 1536:128:32 1006[4] 1058 1110 1006 32.2 128.8 3090.4 195 $500
GeForce GTX 690 April 29, 2012 2× GK104-355-A2 2× 3540 2× 294 2× 8 2× 1536:128:32 915 1019 1058[26] 915 2× 29.28 2× 117.12 2× 2048 2× 192.256 2× 256 2× 2810.88 300 $1000
Model Launch Code Name Fab (nm) Transistors (Million) Die size (mm2) Bus interface SM Count Core Configuration 1 Clock Rate Fillrate Memory Configuration API Support (version) GFLOPS (FMA) TDP (Watts) Launch Price (USD)
Core (MHz) Average Boost (MHz) Max. Boost (MHz) Shader (MHz) Memory (MHz) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) DRAM Type Bus Width (bit) DirectX OpenGL OpenCL Vulkan

GeForce 600M (6xxM) series[edit]

The GeForce 600M series for notebooks architecture. The processing power is obtained by multiplying shader clock speed, the number of cores and how many instructions the cores are capable of performing per cycle.

Model Launch Code Name Fab (nm) Bus interface Core Configuration1 Clock Speed Fillrate Memory API Support (version) Processing Power2
(GFLOPS)
TDP (Watts) Notes
Core (MHz) Shader (MHz) Memory (MT/s) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) DRAM Type Bus Width (bit) DirectX OpenGL OpenCL Vulkan
GeForce 610M [27] Dec 2011 GF119 (N13M-GE) 40 PCIe 2.0 x16 48:8:4 450 900 1800 3.6 7.2 1024
2048
14.4 DDR3 64 12.0 (11_0) 4.6 1.1 N/A 142.08 12 OEM. Rebadged GT 520MX
GeForce GT 620M [28] Apr 2012 GF117 (N13M-GS) 28 96:16:4 625 1250 1800 2.5 10 14.4
28.8
64
128
240 15 OEM. Die-Shrink GF108
GeForce GT 625M October 2012 GF117 (N13M-GS) 14.4 64
GeForce GT 630M[28][29][30] Apr 2012 GF108 (N13P-GL)
GF117
40
28
660
800
1320
1600
1800
4000
2.6
3.2
10.7
12.8
28.8
32.0
DDR3
GDDR5
128
64
258.0
307.2
33 GF108: OEM. Rebadged GT 540M
GF117: OEM Die-Shrink GF108
GeForce GT 635M[28][31][32] Apr 2012 GF106 (N12E-GE2)
GF116
40 144:24:24 675 1350 1800 16.2 16.2 2048
1536
28.8
43.2
DDR3 128
192
289.2
388.8
35 GF106: OEM. Rebadged GT 555M
GF116: 144 Unified Shaders
GeForce GT 640M LE[28] March 22, 2012 GF108
GK107 (N13P-LP)
40
28
PCIe 2.0 x16
PCIe 3.0 x16
96:16:4
384:32:16
762
500
1524
500
3130
1800
3
8
12.2
16
1024
2048
50.2
28.8
GDDR5
DDR3
128 1.1
1.2
N/A
?
292.6
384
32
20
GF108: Fermi
GK107: Kepler architecture
GeForce GT 640M[28][33] March 22, 2012 GK107 (N13P-GS) 28 PCIe 3.0 x16 384:32:16 625 625 1800
4000
10 20 28.8
64.0
DDR3
GDDR5
1.2 1.1 480 32 Kepler architecture
GeForce GT 645M October 2012 GK107 (N13P-GS) 710 710 1800
4000
11.36 22.72 545
GeForce GT 650M[28][34][35] March 22, 2012 GK107 (N13P-GT) 835
745
900*
835
745
900*
1800
4000
5000*
13.4
11.9
14.4*
26.7
23.8
28.8*
28.8
64.0
80.0*
641.3
572.2
691.2*
45 Kepler architecture
*
GeForce GTX 660M[28][35][36][37] March 22, 2012 GK107 (N13E-GE) 835 835 5000 13.4 26.7 2048 80.0 GDDR5 641.3 50 Kepler architecture
GeForce GTX 670M[28] April 2012 GF114 (N13E-GS1-LP) 40 PCIe 2.0 x16 336:56:24 598 1196 3000 14.35 33.5 1536
3072
72.0 192 1.1 N/A 803.6 75 OEM. Rebadged GTX 570M
GeForce GTX 670MX October 2012 GK106 (N13E-GR) 28 PCIe 3.0 x16 960:80:24 600 600 2800 14.4 48.0 67.2 1.2 1.1 1152 Kepler architecture
GeForce GTX 675M[28] April 2012 GF114 (N13E-GS1) 40 PCIe 2.0 x16 384:64:32 620 1240 3000 19.8 39.7 2048 96.0 256 1.1 ? 952.3 100 OEM. Rebadged GTX 580M
GeForce GTX 675MX October 2012 GK106 (N13E-GSR) 28 PCIe 3.0 x16 960:80:32 600 600 3600 19.2 48.0 4096 115.2 1.2 1.1 1152 Kepler architecture
GeForce GTX 680M June 4, 2012 GK104 (N13E-GTX) 1344:112:32 720 720 3600 23 80.6 1935.4
GeForce GTX 680MX October 23, 2012 GK104 1536:128:32 5000 92.2 160 2234.3 100+
Model Launch Code Name Fab (nm) Bus interface Core Configuration1 Clock Speed Fillrate Memory API Support (version) Processing Power2
(GFLOPS)
TDP (Watts) Notes
Core (MHz) Shader (MHz) Memory (MT/s) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) DRAM Type Bus Width (bit) DirectX OpenGL OpenCL Vulkan

Chipset table[edit]

Discontinued support[edit]

Nvidia announced that after Release 390 drivers, Nvidia will no longer release 32-bit drivers for 32-bit operating systems.[38]

Nvidia announced that Kepler notebook GPUs will transition to legacy support from April 2019 onwards and supported until April 2020.[39] All notebook 6xxM family GPU's are affected by this change.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://developer.nvidia.com/dx12-dos-and-donts#Features
  2. ^ "NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680 performance in CompuBench - performance benchmark for various compute APIs (OpenCL, RenderScript)".
  3. ^ "Vulkan Driver Support". Nvidia. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680 Whitepaper.pdf" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 17, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) ( 1405KB), page 6 of 29
  5. ^ a b c d e Smith, Ryan (March 22, 2012). "NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680 Review: Retaking The Performance Crown". AnandTech. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
  6. ^ "GK104: The Chip And Architecture GK104: The Chip And Architecture". Tom;s Hardware. March 22, 2012.
  7. ^ "NVIDIA Kepler GK110 Architecture Whitepaper" (PDF).
  8. ^ Moreton, Henry (March 20, 2014). "DirectX 12: A Major Stride for Gaming". Blogs.nvidia.com. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
  9. ^ Kowaliski, Cyril (March 21, 2014). "DirectX 12 will also add new features for next-gen GPUs". The Tech Report. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
  10. ^ "Introducing The GeForce GTX 680 GPU". Nvidia. March 22, 2012.
  11. ^ a b "Benchmark Results: NVEnc And MediaEspresso 6.5". Tom’s Hardware. March 22, 2012.
  12. ^ "GeForce Game Ready Driver For Civilization: Beyond Earth & Lords Of The Fallen Available Now". Retrieved October 24, 2014.
  13. ^ Yam, Marcus (September 22, 2010). "Nvidia roadmap". Tom's Hardware US.
  14. ^ "Introducing The GeForce GTX 680 GPU". NVIDIA. March 22, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  15. ^ "GeForce 600M Notebooks: Powerful and Efficient". NVIDIA. March 21, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  16. ^ "Performance Perfected: Introducing the GeForce GTX 690". GeForce. April 1, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
  17. ^ "Introducing The GeForce GTX 670 GPU". GeForce. March 19, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
  18. ^ "Introducing The GeForce GTX 680M Mobile GPU". June 4, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  19. ^ "Meet Your New Weapon: The GeForce GTX 660 Ti. Borderlands 2 Included". GeForce. August 15, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
  20. ^ "Kepler For Every Gamer: Meet The New GeForce GTX 660 & 650". GeForce. September 12, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
  21. ^ "Kepler Family Complete : Introducing the GeForce GTX 650 Ti". GeForce. October 9, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
  22. ^ "GTX 650 Ti BOOST: Tuned For Sweet Spot Gaming". GeForce. March 26, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
  23. ^ "Graphics Cards - GT640-1GD3-L - ASUS Global". asus.com. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  24. ^ "Test: NVIDIA GeForce GTX 660". Hardwareluxx.com. September 13, 2012. Archived from the original on September 22, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  25. ^ "GeForce GTX 660 (OEM)". GeForce.com. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  26. ^ "NVIDIA GeForce GTX 690 Review: Ultra Expensive, Ultra Rare, Ultra Fast". AnandTech. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  27. ^ "GeForce 610M Graphics Card with Optimus technology | NVIDIA". Nvidia.in. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i "NVIDIA's GeForce 600M Series: Mobile Kepler and Fermi Die Shrinks". AnandTech. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  29. ^ "GeForce GT 630M Graphics Card with Optimus technology | NVIDIA". Nvidia.in. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  30. ^ "GT 630M GPU with NVIDIA Optimus Technology". GeForce. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  31. ^ "GeForce GT 635M GPU with NVIDIA Optimus technology | NVIDIA". Nvidia.in. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  32. ^ "GT 635M GPU with NVIDIA Optimus Technology". GeForce. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  33. ^ "Acer Aspire TimelineU M3: Life on the Kepler Verge". AnandTech. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  34. ^ "HP Lists New Ivy Bridge 2012 Mosaic Design Laptops, Available April 8th". Laptopreviews.com. March 18, 2012. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved May 7, 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  35. ^ a b "Help Me Choose | Dell". Content.dell.com. April 13, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  36. ^ Wollman, Dana (January 8, 2012). "Lenovo unveils six mainstream consumer laptops (and one desktop replacement)". Engadget.com. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  37. ^ "660m power draw tested in Asus G75VW". Retrieved October 24, 2014.
  38. ^ http://nvidia.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/4604/
  39. ^ https://nvidia.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/4779

External links[edit]