GeGeGe no Kitarō

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GeGeGe no Kitarō
GeGeGe no Kitarō manga 1985 edition.png
First tankōbon volume cover (1985 edition)
Written byShigeru Mizuki
Published byKodansha
MagazineWeekly Shōnen Magazine
Original run19601969
Anime television series
1st series
Written byMasaki Tsuji
Music byTaku Izumi
StudioToei Animation
Original networkFNS (Fuji TV)
Original run January 3, 1968 March 30, 1969
Episodes65 (List of episodes)
Anime television series
2nd series
Written byMasaki Tsuji
Music byTaku Izumi
StudioToei Animation
Original networkFNS (Fuji TV)
Original run October 7, 1971 September 28, 1972
Episodes45 (List of episodes)
Anime television series
3rd series
Directed by
  • Osamu Kasai (#1–108)
  • Hiroki Shibata (#109–115)[5]
Written byJunki Takegami
Music byMasahiro Kawasaki
StudioToei Animation
Original networkFNS (Fuji TV)
English network
Original run October 12, 1985 March 21, 1988
Episodes115 (List of episodes)
Anime television series
4th series
Directed byDaisuke Nishio[6]
Written byShun'ichi Yukimuro
Music byKaoru Wada
StudioToei Animation
Original networkFNS (Fuji TV)
English network
Original run January 7, 1996 March 29, 1998
Episodes114 (List of episodes)
Anime television series
5th series
Directed byYukio Kaizawa[7]
Written by
Music byKatsumi Horii
StudioToei Animation
Original networkFNS (Fuji TV)
English network
Animax Asia
Original run April 1, 2007 March 29, 2009
Episodes100 (List of episodes)
Anime television series
Hakaba Kitaro
Directed byKimitoshi Chioki[8]
Written byYoshimi Narita
Music byKaoru Wada
StudioToei Animation
Licensed by
Original networkFuji TV (Noitamina)
Original run January 10, 2008 March 20, 2008
Episodes11 (List of episodes)
Live-action film
Directed byKatsuhide Motoki
Produced byChihiro Kameyama
Written by
  • Katsuhide Motoki
  • Daisuke Habara
Music byYūta Nakano
ReleasedApril 28, 2007 (2007-04-28)
Runtime105 minutes
Live-action film
Kitaro and the Millennium Curse
Directed byKatsuhide Motoki
Written byMitsuhiko Sawamura
ReleasedJuly 12, 2008 (2008-07-12)
Runtime115 minutes
Anime film
GeGeGe no Kitarō: Explosive Japan!!
Directed byGō Koga[10]
Written byRiku Sanjo
Music bySeiji Yokoyama
StudioToei Animation
ReleasedDecember 13, 2008
Runtime85 minutes
Anime television series
6th series
Directed byKōji Ogawa
Written byHiroshi Ōnogi
Music by
StudioToei Animation
Licensed byCrunchyroll
Original networkFNS (Fuji TV)
English network
Animax Asia
Original run April 1, 2018 March 29, 2020
Episodes97 (List of episodes)
Anime film
Kitarō Tanjō: Gegege no Nazo
Directed byGō Koga
Written byHiroyuki Yoshino
StudioToei Animation
ReleasedQ4 2023

GeGeGe no Kitarō (ゲゲゲの鬼太郎), originally known as Hakaba Kitarō (墓場鬼太郎, "Kitarō of the Graveyard"), is a Japanese manga series created in 1960 by Shigeru Mizuki. It is best known for its popularization of the folklore creatures known as yōkai, a class of spirit-monster which all of the main characters belong to. This story was an early 20th-century Japanese folk tale performed on kamishibai. It has been adapted for the screen several times, as anime, live action, and video games. The word GeGeGe (ゲゲゲ) in the title is Japanese sound symbolism for a cackling noise.

Selections of the manga and the theatrical live-action films have been published in English as simply Kitaro. The 2018 anime series is streamed with English subtitles as GeGeGe no Kitaro.


GeGeGe no Kitarō focuses on the young Kitarō—the last survivor of the Ghost Tribe—and his adventures with other ghouls and strange creatures of Japanese mythology. Along with: the remains of his father, Medama-Oyaji (a mummified Ghost tribesman reincarnated to inhabit his old eyeball); Nezumi-Otoko (the rat-man); Neko-Musume (the cat-girl) and a host of other folkloric creatures, Kitarō strives to unite the worlds of humans and Yōkai.

Many storylines involve Kitarō facing off with myriad monsters from other countries, such as the Chinese vampire Yasha, the Transylvanian Dracula IV, and other such non-Japanese creations. In addition to this, Kitarō also locks horns with various malevolent yōkai who threaten the balance between the Japanese creatures and humans.[12]

Some storylines make overt reference to traditional Japanese tales, most notably the folk tale of Momotarō, in which the young hero defends a Japanese territory from demons with the help of the native animals. The Kitarō series "The Great Yōkai War" (妖怪大戦争, Yōkai Daisensō) draws a great deal of influence from this story, with Kitarō and his yōkai friends driving a group of Western ghouls away from an island.[13][14]

While the character of Kitarō in GeGeGe no Kitarō is a friendly boy who genuinely wants the best outcome for humans and yōkai alike, his earlier incarnation in Hakaba Kitarō portrays him as a much more darkly mischievous character. His apparent lack of empathy for humans combined with his general greed and desire for material wealth drives him to act in an unbecoming manner towards the human characters—often deceptively leading them into nightmarish situations or even to hell itself.[15]


Kitarō and his yōkai friends
Kitarō (鬼太郎)
Voiced by: Masako Nozawa (1968–1971 series, Hakaba Kitarō), Keiko Toda (1985 series), Yōko Matsuoka (1996 series), Minami Takayama (2007 series), Eiji Wentz (2008 film), Miyuki Sawashiro (2018 series), Rica Matsumoto (2003 video games)
Kitarō is a yōkai boy born in a cemetery and, aside from his mostly decayed father, the last living member of the Ghost Tribe (幽霊族, Yūreizoku). His name, rendered with the character for oni () (a kind of ogre-like yōkai) can be translated as "Demon Boy"—a name which references both his human and yōkai heritage.[16] He is missing his left eye, but his hair usually covers the empty socket. He fights for peace between humans and yōkai, which generally involves protecting the former from the wiles of the latter. When questioned in the 2007 movie, Kitarō responds that he is three hundred and fifty years old. As a member of the Ghost Tribe, Kitarō has an assortment of powers and weapons.
While his powers are featured prominently in the GeGeGe no Kitarō series, Hakaba Kitarō plays down Kitarō's supernatural abilities. Beyond having the power to travel through hell unharmed with the help of his Chanchanko, as well as the ability to regenerate from almost any injury (as evidenced when his body is recoverable after being dissolved by Johnny in the Fog[17]), his powers are more of deception than of fighting prowess: something much more in line with traditional yōkai characters.
Medama-oyaji (目玉のおやじ, or 目玉親父, literally "Eyeball Father")
Voiced by: Isamu Tanonaka (1968, 1971, 1985, 1996, 2007 series, Hakaba Kitaro), Masako Nozawa (2018 series), Kazuo Kumakura (2003 video games)
Medama-oyaji is Kitarō's father. Once a fully-formed adult ghost, he perished from a disease, only to be reborn out of his decayed body as an anthropomorphic version of his own eyeball. He looks small and fragile, but has a strong spirit and a great love for his son. He is also extremely knowledgeable about ghosts and monsters. He enjoys staying clean, and is often seen bathing in a small bowl. He has a great love for sake.
In the 2002 Kodansha International Bilingual Comics edition and in Crunchyroll's subtitled version of the 2018 anime, he is referred to as Daddy Eyeball.
Nezumi Otoko (ねずみ男, "Rat Man")
Voiced by: Chikao Ohtsuka (1968–1971 series, Hakaba Kiaro), Kei Tomiyama (1985 series), Shigeru Chiba (1996 series), Wataru Takagi (2007 series), Toshio Furukawa (2018 series), Nachi Nozawa (2003 video games)
Nezumi Otoko is a rodent-like yōkai–human half-breed. He has been alive for three hundred and sixty years, and in that time has almost never taken a bath, rendering him filthy, foul-smelling, and covered in welts and sores. While he is usually Kitarō's friend, Nezumi Otoko will waste no time cooking up vile schemes or betraying his companions if he thinks there's money to be had or a powerful enemy to side with. He claims to be a college graduate of the University of the Bizarre (怪奇大学, Kaiki Daigaku). He can immobilize even the strongest yōkai that accost him with a pungent flatulence attack. And, akin to cats and mice, he and Nekomusume cannot stand being around each other.
Nezumi Otoko first appears in the story "The Lodging House" (rental manga version) as Dracula IV's minion.
In the 2002 Kodansha International Bilingual Comics edition and in Crunchyroll's subtitled version of the 2018 anime, he is referred to as Ratman.
Neko Musume (猫娘 or ねこ娘, "Cat Girl")
Voiced by: Nana Yamaguchi (1968 series), Yōko Ogushi (1971 series), Yūko Mita (1985 series), Chinami Nishimura (1996 series), Hiromi Konno (2007 series), Umeka Shōji (2018 series), Yūko Miyamura (2003 video games)
A normally quiet yōkai girl, who shapeshifts into a frightening catlike monster with fangs and feline eyes when she is angry or hungry for fish. Predictably, she does not get along well with Nezumi-Otoko. She seems to harbor a slight crush on Kitarō, who sees her only as a friend. In recent iterations (possibly due to the recent anime phenomenon of fanservice), she is very fond of human fashion and is seen in different outfits and uniforms. She bears some resemblance to the bakeneko of Japanese folklore.
Neko Musume first appears in the story "Neko-Musume and Nezumi-Otoko" (Weekly Shōnen Magazine version); however, another cat-girl named simply Neko () appears in the earlier stories "The Vampire Tree and the Neko-Musume" and "A Walk to Hell" (rental version).
In the 2002 Kodansha International Bilingual Comics edition and in Crunchyroll's subtitled version of the 2018 anime, she is referred to as Catchick.
Sunakake Babaa (砂かけ婆, "Sand-throwing hag")
Voiced by: Yōko Ogushi (1968 series), Keiko Yamamoto (1971 series, 1996–2007 series), Hiroko Emori (1985 series), Mayumi Tanaka (2018 series), Junko Hori (2003 video games) (Japanese)
Sunakake Babaa is an old yōkai woman who carries sand which she throws into the eyes of enemies to blind them. She serves as an advisor to Kitarō and his companions, and manages a yōkai apartment building. The original sunakake-baba is an invisible sand-throwing spirit from the folklore of Nara Prefecture.
Sunakake babaa first appears in a cameo as one of many yōkai attending a sukiyaki party in the story "A Walk to Hell" (rental version) before making a more prominent appearance in "The Great Yōkai War" (Shōnen Magazine version).
In the 2002 Kodansha International Bilingual Comics edition and in Crunchyroll's subtitled version of the 2018 anime, she is referred to as the Sand Witch.
Konaki Jijii (子泣き爺, "Child-crying Old Man")
Voiced by: Ichirō Nagai (1968–1971 series), Kōji Yada (1985 series), Kōzō Shioya (1996 series), Naoki Tatsuta (2007 series), Bin Shimada (2018 series), Takanobu Hozumi (2003 video games) (Japanese)
Konaki Jijii is a comic, absent-minded old yōkai man who attacks enemies by clinging to them and turning himself to stone, increasing his weight and mass immensely and pinning them down. He and Sunakake Babaa often work as a team. The original konaki jijii is a ghost which is said to appear in the woods of Tokushima Prefecture in the form of a crying infant. When it is picked up by some hapless traveller, it increases its weight until it crushes him.
Konaki Jijii first appears in a cameo as one of many yōkai attending a sukiyaki party in the story "A Walk to Hell" (rental version) before making a more prominent appearance in "The Great Yōkai War" (Shōnen Magazine version).
In the 2002 Kodansha International Bilingual Comics edition and in Crunchyroll's subtitled version of the 2018 anime, he is referred to as Old Man Crybaby.
Ittan Momen (一反木綿, "Roll of Cotton")
Voiced by: Kōsei Tomita (1968 series), Keaton Yamada (1971 series), Jōji Yanami (1985 series, 2007 series), Naoki Tatsuta (1996 series), Kappei Yamaguchi (2018 series), Kenichi Ogata (2003 video games)
Ittan Momen is a flying yōkai resembling a strip of white cloth. Kitarō and friends often ride on him when traveling. The original ittan-momen is a spirit from Kagoshima Prefecture myth which wraps itself around the faces of humans in an attempt to smother them.
Ittan Momen first appears in the story "The Great Yōkai War" (Shōnen Magazine version).
In the 2002 Kodansha International Bilingual Comics edition and in Crunchyroll's subtitled version of the 2018 anime, he is referred to as Rollo Cloth.
Nurikabe (ぬりかべ, "Plastered Wall")
Voiced by: Yonehiko Kitagawa, Kenji Utsumi (1968 series), Kōsei Tomita (1968 series, 2003 video games), Keaton Yamada (1971 series), Yusaku Yara (1985 series), Naoki Tatsuta (1996–2007 series), Bin Shimada (2018 series)
Nurikabe is a large, sleepy-eyed, wall-shaped yōkai, who uses his massive size to protect Kitarō and his friends. The original nurikabe is a spirit which blocks the passage of people walking at night.
Nurikabe first appears in a cameo as one of many yōkai attending a sukiyaki party in the story "A Walk to Hell" (rental version) before making a more prominent appearance in "The Great Yōkai War" (Shōnen Magazine version).
In the 2002 Kodansha International Bilingual Comics edition and in Crunchyroll's subtitled version of the 2018 anime, he is referred to as Wally Wall.
Nurarihyon (ぬらりひょん)
Voiced by: Ryūji Saikachi (1968 series), Takeshi Aono (1985 series, 2007 series), Tomomichi Nishimura (1996 series) , Akio Ōtsuka (2018 anime), Junpei Takiguchi (2003 video games)
Kitarō's old rival, he is depicted as an old man who comes at other people's houses and drinks their tea. He is also a member of the Gazu Hyakki Yagyō, and Nurarihyon has a member he always uses named Shu no Bon.
Back Beard (バックベアード, Bakku Beādo)
Voiced by: Kōsei Tomita (1968 series), Hidekatsu Shibata (1985 series, 2007 series), Masaharu Satō (1996 series), Hideyuki Tanaka (2018 series), Kiyoshi Kobayashi (2003 video games)
Back Beard is the boss of the Western yōkai and Kitarō's second greatest foe after Nurarihyon. He is loosely based on the bugbear. He is a giant, round shadow with a single large eye in the center and several tentacles extending from his body. He appeared most prominently in the story "The Great Yōkai War", where he rallied all the Western yōkai into a war against the Japanese yōkai. He used his hypnotic powers to make Nezumi Otoko betray Kitarō and later hypnotized Kitarō himself. He has since appeared semi-regularly throughout the franchise.


An illustration from the original Hakaba no Kitarō kamishibai, printed in Kōji Kada's Kamishibai Shōwashi (紙芝居昭和史, "Kamishibai Showa History").[18] This picture depicts the Kitarō character as significantly more frightening and threatening than Mizuki's version of the character.


The front cover of the 2013 translated compilation published by Drawn & Quarterly.

The Kitarō story began life as a kamishibai in 1933, written by Masami Itō (伊藤正美) and illustrated by Keiyō Tatsumi (辰巳恵洋). Itō's version was called Hakaba Kitarō (墓場奇太郎 (ハカバキタロー), "Kitarō of the Graveyard"); the title is generally written in katakana to distinguish it from Mizuki's version of the tale.

According to Itō, her Kitarō was based on local legends describing the same or similar stories.[19] It is also said to be a loose reinterpretation of the similar Japanese folktale called the Kosodate Yūrei (子育て幽霊) or Amekai Yūrei (飴買い幽霊, "The Candy-Buying Ghost"), which were inspired by Chinese folklore from 12th to 13th centuries.[20][21]

In 1954, Mizuki was asked to continue the series by his publisher, Katsumaru Suzuki.[22]


Kitarō of the Graveyard was published as a rental manga in 1960, but it was considered too scary for children. In 1965, renamed to Hakaba no Kitarō, it appeared in Shōnen Magazine (after one of the editors came across the kashibon and offered Mizuki a contract)[23] and ran through 1970. The series was renamed GeGeGe no Kitarō in 1967 and continued on Weekly Shōnen Sunday (1971),[24] Shōnen Action, Shukan Jitsuwa and many other magazines.

In 2002, GeGeGe no Kitarō was translated by Ralph F. McCarthy and compiled by Natsuhiko Kyogoku for Kodansha Bilingual Comics.[25] Three bilingual (Japanese–English) volumes were released in 2002.[26]

Since 2013, compilation volumes of selected manga chapters from the 1960s have been published by Drawn & Quarterly, with English translations by Zack Davisson[27] and an introduction by Matt Alt in the first compilation volume.[28][29]


Seven anime adaptations were made from Mizuki's manga series. They were broadcast on Fuji Television and animated by Toei Animation.

The opening theme to all six series is "Gegege no Kitarō", written by Mizuki himself. It has been sung by Kazuo Kumakura (1st, 2nd), Ikuzo Yoshi (3rd), Yūkadan (4th), Shigeru Izumiya (5th), the 50 Kaitenz (6th) and Kiyoshi Hikawa (7th). The song was also used in the live-action films starring Eiji Wentz. In the first film, it was performed by Wentz' WaT partner Teppei Koike.

In January 2008, the sixth anime series (also produced by Toei) premiered on Fuji TV during the late night hours in the Noitamina block. This anime uses the original manga title, Hakaba Kitaro (墓場奇太郎, Hakaba Kitarō),[9] and unlike the usual anime versions, it is closer to Mizuki's manga and is not part of the existing remake canon. It also features a completely different opening theme song ("Mononoke Dance" by Denki Groove) and ending theme song ("Snow Tears" by Shoko Nakagawa).

A seventh series, directed by Kōji Ogawa and written by Hiroshi Ohnogi started airing on Fuji TV on April 1, 2018, to celebrate the anime's 50th anniversary. The series concluded on March 29, 2020, as it entered its final arc, the "Nurarihyon Arc", on October 6, 2019.[30] It streamed on Crunchyroll, making it the first Kitarō anime to be available in North America.[31]

An English dub aired as Spooky Kitaro on Animax Asia. The 2008 anime was released with English subtitles on DVD in Australia.[9]

No. Run Episodes Series direction
1 January 3, 1968 –March 30, 1969 65 Masaki Tsuji
2 October 7, 1971 –September 28, 1972 45 Masaki Tsuji
3 October 12, 1985 –March 21, 1988 115 Osamu Kasai, Hiroki Shibata
4 January 7, 1996 –March 29, 1998 114 Daisuke Nishio
5 April 1, 2007 – March 29, 2009 100 Yukio Kaizawa
6 January 10, 2008 – March 20, 2008 11 Kimitoshi Chioki
7 April 1, 2018 – March 29, 2020 97 Kōji Ogawa
Total 1968 – 2020 547 -


1968 series
  • GeGeGe no Kitarō (July 21, 1968) (edited version of eps. 5 & 6)
1971 series
  • GeGeGe no Kitarō: The Divining Eye (July 12, 1980) (edited version of ep. 37)
1985 series
  • GeGeGe no Kitarō: The Yokai Army (December 21, 1985)
  • GeGeGe no Kitarō: The Great Yokai War (March 15, 1986)
  • GeGeGe no Kitarō: The Strongest Yokai Army!! Disembark for Japan! (July 12, 1986)
  • GeGeGe no Kitarō: Clash!! The Great Rebellion of the Dimensional Yokai (December 20, 1986)
1996 series
  • GeGeGe no Kitarō: The Great Sea Beast (July 6, 1996)
  • GeGeGe no Kitarō: Obake Nighter (March 8, 1997)
  • GeGeGe no Kitarō: Yokai Express! The Phantom Train (July 12, 1997)
2007 series
  • GeGeGe no Kitarō: Japan Explodes!! (December 20, 2008)
Yo-kai Watch series
2018 series
  • Kitarō Tanjō: Gegege no Nazo (2023)[32]

Live-action movies[edit]

In recent years, the franchise has seen the release of two live-action films. The first of these was released in 2007, simply titled Kitaro for its international release (the film retained the title of ゲゲゲの鬼太郎 in Japan), and is based on stories depicted in the original Kitarō manga. It stars Eiji Wentz as Kitarō and Yo Oizumi as Nezumi Otoko.

The film follows Kitarō as he tries to save a young high school girl, Mika Miura, while also trying to stop the powerful "spectre stone" from falling into the wrong hands. While previous media in the franchise depicted its characters and stories mostly through hand-drawn animation and illustration, the live-action film makes extensive use of practical costumes and CG characters to depict the cast of yōkai.

The second film, Kitaro and the Millennium Curse, was released in 2008 and sees Wentz returning to the role of Kitarō. It follows Kitarō and his friends as they try to solve a 1000-year-old curse that threatens the life of his human companion Kaede Hiramoto.

Video games[edit]


  1. ^ "Kitaro Meets Nurarihyon by Shigeru Mizuki". Drawn & Quarterly. Archived from the original on January 23, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2021. These seven stories date from the golden age of Gegege no Kitaro, when Mizuki had perfected the balance of folklore, comedy, and horror that made Kitaro one of Japan’s most beloved characters.
  2. ^ Ashcraft, Brian (April 5, 2018). "Your Autumn 2018 Anime Guide". Kotaku. Archived from the original on June 23, 2021. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  3. ^ Silverman, Rebecca (January 14, 2018). "The Great Tanuki War GN". Anime News Network. Retrieved January 20, 2018. Shigeru Mizuki's Kitaro stories remain some of the most influential works of horror and folkloric dark fantasy in the manga world
  4. ^ Loo, Egan (June 3, 2015). "Drawn & Quarterly Offers 7 More Volumes of Shigeru Mizuki's Kitaro Manga". Anime News Network. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  5. ^ ゲゲゲの鬼太郎 (in Japanese). Toei Animation. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  6. ^ "Ge-Ge-Ge No Kitaro 4" (in Japanese). Toei Animation. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  7. ^ "Ge-Ge-Ge No Kitaro 5" (in Japanese). Toei Animation. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  8. ^ 墓場鬼太郎 (in Japanese). Toei Animation. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  9. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-24. Retrieved 2017-08-13.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "劇場版 ゲゲゲの鬼太郎 日本爆裂!!". Toei Video Co.,LTD. 30 March 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  11. ^ Pineda, Rafael Antonio (February 16, 2018). "New Gegege no Kitarō Anime's Visual Unveiled". Anime News Network. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  12. ^ Papp 2009, p. 225.
  13. ^ Mizuki 1995.
  14. ^ Papp 2009, p. 227.
  15. ^ Mizuki 2006a.
  16. ^ Foster 2009, p. 166.
  17. ^ Mizuki 2006b, p. 204–273.
  18. ^ Kada 2004.
  19. ^ 蛸島 直, もう一人の鬼太郎とその原像 ──伊藤正美作「墓場奇太郎」をめぐって──, 愛知学院大学学術紀要データベース
  20. ^ 加藤徹著『怪力乱神』ISBN 978-4-12-003857-0 pp.228-231
  21. ^ 青空文庫・中国怪奇小説集(10) で、岡本綺堂による「餅を買う女」の訳を読める。
  22. ^ Kure 2010, p. 66.
  23. ^ Brubaker, Charles (June 11, 2014). ""Kitaro" (1968)". Cartoon Research. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
  24. ^ 週刊少年サンデー ゲゲゲの鬼太郎(水木しげる / 水木プロ) (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved March 14, 2019.[permanent dead link]
  25. ^ Mizuki 2002.
  26. ^ ゲゲゲの鬼太郎. 2002. ISBN 4770028296.
  27. ^ Davisson 2015.
  28. ^ Drawn & Quarterly 2013.
  29. ^ "The Birth of Kitaro". Drawn & Quarterly. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
  30. ^ "Current GeGeGe no Kitaro Anime Ends in March After 2 Years". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
  31. ^ Hodgkins, Crystalyn (March 31, 2018). "Crunchyroll Adds New GeGeGe no Kitarō Anime". Anime News Network. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  32. ^ "Kitarō Tanjō: Gegege no Nazo Film Reveals New Visual, Fall 2023 Debut". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2022-03-06.

Further reading[edit]

  • Davisson, Zack (2015). "About Me". Hyaku Monogatari. Retrieved 2015-12-12.
  • Drawn & Quarterly (2013-08-20). "Kitaro". Drawn & Quarterly. Retrieved 2015-12-12.
  • Foster, Michael Dylan (2009). Pandemonium and Parade: Japanese Demonology and the Culture of Yōkai. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520253629.
  • Kada, Koji (2004). 紙芝居昭和史. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 4006030967.
  • Kure, Tomohiro (2010-10-01). "Shigeru Mura, Before Shigeru Mizuki". Geijitsu Shincho Magazine.
  • Mizuki, Shigeru (1995). 妖怪大戦争:ゲゲゲの鬼太郎3 (5. satsu. ed.). Tōkyō: Chikuma Shobō. ISBN 4-480-02883-8.
  • Mizuki, Shigeru (2002). GeGeGe-no-Kitaro Vol.1. Translated by Zack Davisson. New York: Kodansha International. ISBN 477002827X.
  • Mizuki, Shigeru (2006a). Hakaba Kitarō: 1. Tōkyō: Kadokawa Shoten. ISBN 978-4-04-192913-1.
  • Mizuki, Shigeru (2006b). Hakaba Kitarō: 4. Tōkyō: Kadokawa Shoten. ISBN 978-4-04-192916-2.
  • Papp, Zilia (2009-11-11). "Monsters at War: The Great Yōkai Wars, 1968-2005". Mechademia. 4 (War/Time): 225–239. doi:10.1353/mec.0.0073. JSTOR 41510938. S2CID 52229518.

External links[edit]