Gedhun Choekyi Nyima
|Gedhun Choekyi Nyima|
|11th Panchen Lama (disputed)|
|Reign||14 May 1995–present|
(CTA interpretation, disputed by Chinese government proxy Gyaincain Norbu)
|Predecessor||Choekyi Gyaltsen 10th Panchen Lama|
|Born||25 April 1989|
Lhari County, Tibet Autonomous Region, China
|Disappeared||May 17, 1995 (aged 6)|
Lhari County, Tibet Autonomous Region, China
|Status||Missing for 26 years, 4 months and 10 days|
|Gedhun Choekyi Nyima|
Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, (born 25 April 1989) is the 11th Panchen Lama belonging to the Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism, as recognized and announced by the 14th Dalai Lama on 14 May 1995. Three days later on 17 May, the 6-year-old Panchen Lama was kidnapped by the Chinese government, after the State Council of the People's Republic of China failed in its efforts to install a substitute. A Chinese substitute is seen as a political tool to undermine the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama, which traditionally is recognized by the Panchen Lama. Gedhun Choekyi Nyima remains forcibly detained by the Chinese government, along with his family, in an undisclosed location since 1995. His khenpo, Chadrel Rinpoche, and another Gelugpa monk, Jampa Chungla, were also arrested. The United Nations, with the support of numerous states, organizations, and private individuals continue to call for the 11th Panchen Lama's release.
The Panchen Lama was born in Lhari County, Tibet Autonomous Region, from where he was kidnapped under the authority of the People's Republic of China. He has been called the world's youngest political prisoner. Since his recognition as the 11th Panchen Lama, he continues to be forcibly detained, along with his family, by the Chinese government, and has not been seen in public since 17 May 1995.
In a response to growing international pressure from the United Nations, governments of various states, and in 2020 from 159 independent organizations from 18 countries working with the United Nations, on 19 May 2020, the Chinese government alleged that the Panchen Lama is "now a college graduate with a stable job", but has not provided supporting evidence.
The Chinese government continues to refuse the Panchen Lama's and his family's release, or allow them to meet with observers.
Selection of the 11th Panchen Lama
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Four days before his death, the 10th Panchen Lama made his own will publicly to follow the tradition. On 24 January, following the opening ceremony of the Ling Pagoda, with religious figures in Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces and autonomous regions, the 10th Panchen Lama held a special talk on the reincarnation of the Living Buddha, proposing that "the three candidate boys should be identified first and then investigated one by one" and "I would like to take the lead by drawing lots of Golden Urn before the image of Sakyamuni."
Following the death of the 10th Panchen Lama in 1989, the search for an individual to be recognised as his reincarnation by Tibetan Buddhists quickly became mired in mystery and controversy, as Tibet had been under the occupation and control of the anti-religious government of the People's Republic of China since 1959.
Three days after the death of the 10th Panchen Lama, the Premier of the State Council published its decision on how the 11th Panchen Lama was to be selected, claiming to have taken advice from the committee of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery and monks.
Armed with Beijing's approval, the head of the Panchen Lama search committee, Chadrel Rinpoche, maintained private communication with the Dalai Lama in order to arrive at a mutually acceptable candidate for both the Dalai Lama and Beijing authorities concerning the Panchen Lama's reincarnation. After the Dalai Lama named Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as the 11th incarnation of the Panchen Lama on 14 May 1995, Chinese authorities had Chadrel Rinpoche arrested and charged with treason. According to the Tibetan Government in Exile, he was replaced by Sengchen Lobsang Gyaltsen, so chosen because he was more likely to agree with the party line. Sengchen had been a political opponent of both the Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama. Because of the history of rivalry between different sects of Tibetan Buddhism, many Tibetans and scholars believe that this was a tactical move by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to create more unrest and disunity between the typically unified Tibetan peoples.
The new search committee ignored the Dalai Lama's 14 May announcement and instead chose from a list of finalists which excluded Gedhun Choekyi Nyima. In selecting a name, lottery numbers were drawn from a Golden Urn, a procedure used in Tibet by the Chinese (Manchu) emperor in 1793. The 14th Dalai Lama stated that the Tibetan method involves using possessions of the former Lama to identify his reincarnation, as the new child incarnate will reportedly recognize his past items amid miscellaneous ones.
The BBC reported that the CCP's choice of Gyancain Norbu was rejected by most Tibetans. Alexander Norman wrote, "Today, the Panchen Lamas are famous for having two claimants to the see of Tashilhunpo: one recognised by the present Dalai Lama and taken into house arrest by the Chinese, the other recognised by China but by no one else."
Since his kidnapping, the whereabouts of Gedhun Choekyi Nyima have been unknown. Chinese officials state that his whereabouts are kept undisclosed to protect him. Human rights organizations termed him the "youngest political prisoner in the world". No foreign party has been allowed to visit him.
The United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child requested to be told of Nyima's whereabouts on 28 May 1996. Xinhua declined, responding that Gedhun Choyki Nyima was at risk of being "kidnapped by separatists" and that "his security had been threatened". The Committee requested a visit with Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, supported by a campaign of more than 400 celebrities and associations petitioning for the visit, including six Nobel Prize winners. According to statements by the Chinese government from 1998, he was then leading a normal life.
In May 2007, Asma Jahangir, Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief of the UN Human Rights Council, asked the Chinese authorities what measures they had taken to implement the recommendation of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, that the government should allow an independent expert to visit and confirm the well-being of Gedhun Choekyi Nyima while respecting his right to privacy, and that of his parents. In a response dated 17 July 2007, the Chinese authorities said: "Gedhun Choekyi Nyima is a perfectly ordinary Tibetan boy, in an excellent state of health, leading a normal, happy life and receiving a good education and cultural upbringing. He is currently in upper secondary school, he measures 165 cm [5 ft 5 in] in height and is easy-going by nature. He studies hard and his school results are very good. He likes Chinese traditional culture and has recently taken up calligraphy. His parents are both State employees, and his brothers and sisters are either already working or at university. The allegation that he disappeared together with his parents and that his whereabouts remain unknown is simply not true." This response did not answer the question about a visit or confirmation.
In 2015, on the twentieth anniversary of Gendun Choekyi Nyima's disappearance, Chinese officials announced "The reincarnated child Panchen Lama you mentioned is being educated, living a normal life, growing up healthily and does not wish to be disturbed."
In April 2018, the Dalai Lama declared that he knew from a "reliable source" that the Panchen Lama he had recognized, Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, was alive and receiving normal education. He said he hoped that the PRC-appointed Panchen Lama (Gyaincain Norbu) studied well under the guidance of a good teacher. Within Tibetan Buddhist traditions, there were instances of a reincarnated lama taking more than one manifestation. Each of those manifestations must also be recognized. As of 2020, Gedhun Choekyi Nyima has not been seen by any independent observer since his disappearance in 1995.
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- 29-Article Ordinance for the More Effective Governing of Tibet
- The Discourse of Lama
- List of people who disappeared
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- 11th Panchen Lama alive, receiving education: Dalai Lama, The Statesman, 25 April 2018: "Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama on Wednesday said 11th Panchen Lama Gedhun Choekyi Nyima "according to reliable source is alive and receiving normal education". Talking to the media at Gaggal Airport in Kangra district after returning from four-day Delhi visit, Lama hoped that the official Panchen Lama studies well under the guidance of a good teacher. "Then the Panchen Lama, which I recognised sometime back, there was no news, but then according to reliable information, he is still alive and receiving normal education. So we will see", he said. He said there are instances in Tibetan Buddhist tradition, "where a reincarnated lama took more than one manifestation"."
- Dr. Andrea Galli, Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama quarrel: The way for rapprochement with China, Modern Diplomacy, 9 May 2018.
- Dalai Lama cites ‘reliable source’ as saying Panchen Lama alive, speaks well for the Chinese appointed counter, Tibetan Review, 27 April 2018 : "Following the passing away of the 10th Panchen Lama Choekyi Gyaltsen in Jan 1989, Tibet’s exiled spiritual leader formally proclaimed six-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima born in Tibet as his undisputed reincarnation on 14 May 1995. Three days later, the Chinese government took him and his family away to be never seen or heard from again."