Gegharkunik Province

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Gegharkunik
Գեղարքունիք
Province
Coat of arms of Gegharkunik
Coat of arms
Location of Gegharkunik within Armenia
Location of Gegharkunik within Armenia
Coordinates: 40°25′N 45°12′E / 40.417°N 45.200°E / 40.417; 45.200Coordinates: 40°25′N 45°12′E / 40.417°N 45.200°E / 40.417; 45.200
Country Armenia
Capital
and largest city
Gavar
Government
 • Governor Nver Poghosian
Area
 • Total 5,349 km2 (2,065 sq mi)
Area rank 1st
Population (2011[1])
 • Total 235,075
 • Rank 7th
 • Density 44/km2 (110/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+04
Postal code 1201–1626
ISO 3166 code AM.GR
FIPS 10-4 AM04
Website official website

Gegharkunik (Armenian: Գեղարքունիք, Armenian pronunciation: [ɡɛʁɑɾkʰuˈnikʰ]), is a province (marz) of Armenia. Its capital and largest city is the town of Gavar.

Gegharkunik Province is located at the eastern part of Armenia, bordering Azerbaijan and the Shahumyan Region of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. With an area of 5,348 km², Gegharkunik is the largest province in Armenia. However, approximately 1,278 km² of its territory is covered by Lake Sevan, the largest lake in the Caucasus and a major tourist attraction of the region.

The village of Artsvashen province has an exclave inside Azerbaijan is also a part of the province. However, it was attacked and forcefully occupied by Azerbaijan during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.

The Yerevan-Sevan-Dilijan republican highway runs through the province.

Etymology[edit]

The name of Gegharkunik is derived from Gegham, a 5th-generation Haykazuni King and one of the descendants of the legendary patriarch and founder of the Armenian nation Hayk. Gegham was the father of Sisak (founder of the Siunia dynasty), and Harma (grandfather of Ara the Beautiful). Gegham mountains and the Lake of Gegham (currently known as Lake Sevan) were also named after Gegham.

Geography[edit]

Mount Azhdahak

Gegharkunik Province occupies the east of the central part of modern-day Armenia. With an area of 5,349 km² (18% of total area of Armenia), it is ranked first among the provinces of Armenia in terms of the total area.

Historically, the current territory of the province mainly occupies the Gegharkunik and Sotk cantons of Syunik province of Ancient Armenia, along with parts of Mazaz and Varazhnunik cantons of Ayrarat province.

Gegharkunik Province is situated at the east of modern-day Armenia, surrounding the Lake Sevan. Within the Republic of Armenia, it has borders with Tavush Province, Kotayk and Ararat provinces from the west and Vayots Dzor Province from the south. The Dashkasan and Gadabay districts of Azerbaijan, and the Shahumyan Region of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic form the eastern border of the province.

The Artsvashen Armenian exclave of Gegharkunik Province is currently occupied and controlled by Azerbaijan.

Mount Sevkar (3063 m.) of the Vardenis range

Gegharkunik has a mountainous landscape. The territory is dominated by the Gegham mountains from the west, the mountains of Vardenis from the south, Sevan mountains from the east, Miapor mountains from the northeast and the Kenats mountains from the north. The height of the mountains ranges between 2500 and 3500 meters.

The highest point of the province is mount Azhdahak of the Gegham mountains with a height of 3597 meters. Lake Sevan occupies the central part of the province, lying at a height of 1900 meteres above sea level and covering an area of 1260 km².[2] (around 23.5% of the area of Gegharkunik).

The climate of Gegharkunik is cold and snowy in winter, while the summer is characterized with warm and humid climate. The annual precipitation level ranges between 500 and 600 mm at below 2000 meters, while it may reach up to 1000 mm in the mountainous areas.[3]

Lake Sevan is the largest body of sweet water in Armenia and Southern Cucasus. With a volume of around 32.92 billion m³ of water, Sevan is of a major environmental importance for the entire region.

Getik, Gavaraget and Masrik are the main rivers of the province.

History[edit]

From 1930 until 1995, modern-day Aragatsotn was divided into 5 raions within the Armenian SSR: Sevan raion, Kamo raion, Krasnoselsk raion, Kamo raion and Vardenis raion. With the territorial administration reform of 1995, the 5 raions were merged to form the Gegharkunik Province.

Demographics[edit]

Cathedral of the Holy Mother of God in Gavar, the seat of the Diocese of Gegharkunik of the Armenian Church

According to the 2011 official census, Gegharkunik has a population of 235,075 (119,180 men and 115,895 women), forming around 7.8% of the entire population of Armenia. The urban population is 71,423 (30.4%) and the rural is 163,652 (69.6%). The province has 5 urban and 87 rural communities. The largest urban community is the provincial centre of Gavar, with a population of 20,765. The other urban centres of are Sevan, Martuni, Vardenis and Chambarak.

With a population of 9,880, the village of Vardenik is the largest rural municipality of Gegharkunik. Vardenik is also the largest rural community in Armenia.

Ethnic groups and religion[edit]

Gegharkunik Province is almost entirely populated by ethnic Armenians who belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church. The regulating body of the church is the Diocese of Gegharkunik, headed by Bishop Markos Hovhannisyan. The Holy Mother of God Cathedral in Gavar is the seat of the diocese.

In 1992 the Artsvashen exclave was occupied by Azerbaijan and resettled by Azerbaijanis.

The villages of Chkalovka (formerly Aleksandrovka) and Semyonovka were founded by Russian Molokans during the 1st half of the 19th century. Currently, very few Molokans are still residing in the 2 villages.

The regions of Vardenis and Chambarak used to have a significant minority of Azerbaijani population. However, after the break-out of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1988, the Azerbaijanis were expelled and replaced by Armenian refugees who were displaced from several regions of Azerbaijan.

Economy[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

Cattle-breeding near Sevan

The economy of Gegharkunik Province has a predominantly agricultural orientation, including farming and cattle-breeding. It has a share of 18% in the annual total agricultural product of Armenia. Around 65% (3,487 km²) of the total area of the province are arable lands, out of which 27.3% (951.5 km²) are ploughed.[4] Around 60,000 farms in Gegharkunik are operated by the private sector. The main crops are potato and grains.

Fishing and fish farming is also dominant in the province. Recently, beekeeping has significantly developed.

Industry[edit]

In general, the province has a poor industrial index with a small number of operating firms. Currently, the province has a contribution of only 2% in the annual total industrial product of Armenia.

The town of Sevan is home to the beer manufacturers "Lihnitis Sevan Brewerey" company with a variety of lager beer under the brand "Kellers". It is also home to the Sevan Bakery Factory and the Sevan Sugar Plant.

The Sotk gold mine near Vardenis has one of the largest gold deposits in Armenia. It is owned and operated by the "Geopromining Gold" company.

Many small dairy and bakery enterprises are still operating in Gegharkunik since the Soviet times.

Tourism[edit]

The water park in Sevan

Tourism services in Gegharkunik are seasonal. The towns of Sevan, Chambarak and Martuni along with their surrounding beaches are a major summer destination for locals and foreigners with many hotels and resorts. The cultural heritage and the natural monuments of the region attract the tourists too.

During the last decade, many new hotels and spa resorts were opened along the coast of Lake Sevan, including the Harsnaqar Sevan hotel and water park, the Akhtamar Sevan hotel, the Tufenkian Avan Marag hotel of Tsapatagh, the Kaputak Sevan rest house near Chambarak, the Maria Resort of Sevan, the Best Western Bohemian Resort Sevan, and the Lavanda City cottages.

Many forests of the province are listed among the protected areas of Armenia, including the Sevan National Park, the Getik Sanctuary, the Juniper Woodlands Sanctuary of the mountains of Sevan. There is also a botanical garden in Sevan.

Education[edit]

As of the 2015-16 educational year, Gegharkunik Province has 126 schools.[5]

Three major educational institutions currently operating in Gegharkunik are:

  • The Gavar State University was opened in 1993 after the independence of Armenia. With its five faculties the university is a major educational centre for the entire province of Gegharkunik. It provides degrees in Philology, Natural Sciences, Humanities, Economics and Education. Nowadays, more than 2,400 students are attending the university.
  • The Gavar Special School is the only school for mentally and physically handicapped children in the region. It is currently carrying out steps towards improvement and development with the assistance of its partners and sponsors on its way to become a leading institution among the special schools in Armenia.
  • The Vaskenian Theological Academy on the Sevan peninsula is a leading institution of theological studies, Armenian literature, history, art, liturgy and traditions of the Armenian Church.

Sport[edit]

Windsurfing in Sevan

During the brief summer of the region, Sevan and the nearby beaches tun into a popular beach resort. Many professionals and amateurs visit the region to practice their favourite types of sports including beach soccer, beach volleyball and windsurfing.

The defunct football teams of FC Akhtamar Sevan and Lernagorts Vardenis FC represented the province at the domestic competitions during the 1990s. Alashkert FC represented town of Martuni between 1990 and 2000 before being relocated to Yerevan.

There are football stadiums in Martuni, Vardenis and the village of Lchashen.

Attractions[edit]

Fortresses and archaeological sites[edit]

Berdkunk Fortress
  • Berdkunk Fortress of the 1st millennium BC,
  • Teyseba archaeological site of the Urartian period, 8th century BC,
  • Odzaberd fortress, 8th century BC,
  • Noratus cemetery of the 10th century.

Churches and monasteries[edit]

Other[edit]

  • Lake Sevan and Gegham mountains,
  • Sevan National Park: founded in 1978 to protect the nature and the wildlife in and around the Lake Sevan. It occupies the territories of the Lake Sevan comprising the bed of intermontane concavity of Sevan and those freed from its bed. The area comprises 1501 square kilometers, of which 24.9 thousand hectares are lakeside land. It is surrounded with the slopes of mountain chains of Areguni, Geghama, Vardenis, Pambak and Sevan. Some 1600 plant and 330 animal species are found here. The park is divided into 3 zones: a reserve, a recreation zone, and a zone for economic use,
  • Getik Sanctuary: founded in 1971,
  • Juniper Woodlands Sanctuary: founded in 1958. Main protected object is relict juniper, as well as other numerous species,
  • Sevan Botanical Garden.

Communities[edit]

The province of Gegharkunik consists of the following 92 communities (hamaynkner), of which 5 are considered urban and 87 are considered rural.[6]

Towns or urban communities[edit]

Image City (town) Province Founded Land area (km2) Population (2011 census)
Chambarak landscape.jpg Chambarak Gegharkunik 1830s 6 5,850
Gavar landscape.jpg Gavar Gegharkunik 1830 16 20,765
Martuni Armenia, Gegharkunik.jpg Martuni Gegharkunik ? 10 12,894
Sevan beach.jpg Sevan Gegharkunik 1842 8.5 19,229
Vardenis 012.jpg Vardenis Gegharkunik 1830 10 12,685

Villages or rural communities[edit]

Non-community villages[edit]

Former villages[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gegharkunik population, 2011 census
  2. ^ Gegharkunik agroweb
  3. ^ Lake Sevan
  4. ^ Armstat, Gegharkunik Province
  5. ^ Gegharkunik Province schools
  6. ^ "RA Gegharkunik Marz" (PDF). Marzes of the Republic of Armenia in Figures, 2002–2006. National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia. 2007. 

External links[edit]