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Gekokujō (下克上, also 下剋上) is a Japanese term for "overthrowing or surpassing one's superiors".[1] It is variously translated as "the lower rules the higher" or "the low overcomes the high".[2]


In the context of Confucian tradition, Gekokujō is a kind of "government from below" that is condoned; and a "government of men" is contrasted with a "government of laws."[3]

Gekokujō became prevalent during the Sengoku period, starting with the Ōnin War when the power of the Muromachi shogunate ended in factional strife and the burning of Kyoto. Without the imprimatur of the shogunate, provincial daimyōs were vulnerable to being overthrown by forces both from without and within their domains. During this period vassals betrayed their lords and in their turn were in danger of overthrow from below. Clerics and peasants sometimes formed ikkō-ikki in rebellion against the daimyo and succeeded, for a time, in establishing independent realms.

Later centuries used the concept of gekokujō as justification for junior and mid-level military officers engaging in principled disobedience if they were motivated by moral principles. This happened in Manchuria and Tokyo several times during the 1930s. Army officers engaged in provocative attacks in Manchuria in attempts to create justification for seizing territory from China. In Japan, ultranationalist military officers led waves of assassinations against political and business leaders to "purify" Japanese society of the corporate and political party influences that they believed were preventing Japan from attaining its rightful place among nations through Asian expansion.

The most spectacular episodes were the May 15 Incident (1932) in which junior navy officers and army cadets assassinated Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi and the February 26 Incident (1936) involving 1500 Tokyo troops in a failed coup. Despite criminal prosecutions, in many of the incidents, the defendants' testimony declaring their motives led to widespread public support and most often resulted in comparatively light punishment. While the leaders of the February 26 Incident were subjected to quick secret trials and executions, the episode is widely seen as the last and most serious event leading to the breakdown of party politics and the dominance of the military in Japanese government affairs until the end of World War II.[citation needed]

In art[edit]

  • The February 26 Incident is prominently portrayed as a modern example of gekokujō in Yukio Mishima's Modernist short story "Patriotism", and serves as the backdrop for the events of the narrative.[4]
  • Elements of gekokujō can commonly be seen in kyōgen plays, primarily those starring the character Tarō Kaja.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


Further reading[edit]

  • Battle From Ancient Greece to Modern America by John A. Lynn
  • Sources of Japanese Tradition Volume 2 compiled by William T. de Bary, Carol Gluck and Arthur E. Tiedemann